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4G mobile communications

(The future technology of mobiles)

4G is a short for fourth generation cellular communication systems. It is a network that operates on Internet technology, combines it with other applications and technologies such as Wi-Fi and WiMAX, and runs at speeds ranging from 100 Mbps in cell-phone

networks! to 1 Gbps in local Wi-Fi networks!. "he key concept is integrating the #$ capabilities with all of the e%isting mobile technologies through ad&anced technologies. "he key technologies like OFDM, Multiantenna systems, SDR are useful in making #$ a reality. "he transmission of multimedia applications at faster rates is

in outdoor and indoor environments with end-to-end QoS and high security. anywhere...Fe!tures . Evolution 3.3 #o$t%!re de$ined r!dio 4. "he #$ is successfully implemented in (apan and soon )outh *orea will follow it. "he killer application of #$ is not clear. consumer electronics. Objectives 4.1 OFDM 4. Key 4G technologies 4. though the impro&ed bandwidths and data throughput offered by #$ networks should provide opportunities for and pre&iously impossible products IND ! 1. &over!ge *.achie&ed speed by data Cache and Pico-cell increased methods. Anytime anywhere. --lic!tions 1. at affordable cost and one billing.4 &!ching !nd 'ico cells (. communication technology. +ne of the terms used to describe #$ is M G!C Mobile multimedia.ustomi-ed personal "# INTR$D%CTI$N The 4G will be a fully IP-based integrated system o" systems and net#o$% o" net#o$%s achieved after the convergence of wired and wireless networks as well as computer. ser&ice. Integrated wireless solution. The ireless # operates on orld !esearch "orum !"$ defines 4G as a network that %nternet technology. and several other convergences that will be capable of providing 100 Mbps and 1Gbps. "he factors like low cost. /e$erences ser&ices to be released. Drivers +. high transfer' microprocessor performance has mo&ed the #$ forward. Introduction 2.! and . ccess sche"es ).2 Multi ntenn! syste"s 4. . $lobal mobility support. respectively. offering any kind of services anytime. &onclusion 11.

and runs at speeds ranging from 100 Mbps #in cell&phone networks$ to 1 Gbps #in local i&"i networks$. . . The future 4G infrastructures will consist of a set of 3econd generation #2&( mobile systems were also primarily designed to offer speech with a limited capability to offer data at low rates in 11405s but based on digital technology including digital signal processing techni/ues. the competitive rush to design various networks using %.these systems operate nationwide or internationally and are today5s mainstream systems although the data rates in these systems are limited. The official designation from the %*** for 4G is beyond +G #. and implement digital systems led again to a variety of different and incompatible standards such as &S*#Global 3ystem Mobile$.EV !"#I $ The first generation #%&$ mobile systems were designed in 1120 to offer a single service i. 2.ased on the developing trends of mobile communication. This new generation of wireless is intended to complement and replace the +G systems. and so on.combines it with other applications and technologies such as i&"i and iM'(.*-#7ode 8ivision Multiple 'ccess$. 4G is not )ust one defined technology or standard. The key concept is integrating the 4G capabilities with all of the e0isting mobile technologies through advanced technologies. These 6G systems provided circuit&switched data communication services at a 'ower s)eed. These are implemented on ana'og techno'ogy and basic cellular technology of mobile communications.+G$. to 'ccessing&information anywhere. data. pictures. but rather a collection of technologies and protocols to enable the highest throughput. and smoother and /uicker handoff and will focus on ensuring seamless service across a multitude of wireless systems and networks. and receiving a large volume of information.+. #%nternet protocol$ as a common protocol so that users are in control because they will be able to choose every application and environment. anytime. 4G will have broader bandwidth. video. with a seamless connection a wide range of information and services. perhaps in to 10 years. speech.e. higher data rate. lowest cost wireless network possible. are the keys of the 4G infrastructures.

%n addition. This all&encompassing integrated perspective shows the broad range of systems that the fourth generation intends to integrate. • :imitation of spectrum and its allocation. The fourth generation will encompass all systems from various networks. • To introduce a better system with reduced cost.&9 • • 8ifficulty of 78M' to provide higher data rates "or high speed data rates and band width to meet multimedia re/uirements. ith 4G.&based wireless %nternet. operator&driven broadband networks to personal areas. from satellite broadband to high altitude platform to cellular +G and +G systems to :: #wireless local loop$ and " ' different services. public to private. :'< #wireless local area network$ and .'< #personal area network$. This led to the research and evolution of fourth generation #4G$. The 4G systems will interoperate with 6G and +G systems. as well as with digital #broadband$ broadcasting systems. !imitations of . .& mobile systems are e0pected to offer high&/uality multimedia services and operate in different environments. %t was designed in 11105s for higher /uality voice channels and broadband data capabilities upto 6Mbps. all with %. and ad hoc networks. 4G systems will be fully %. • To provide a seamless transport end&to&end mechanism. as the integrating mechanism. • %nability to roam between -'' the above limitations and demand for higher access speed multimedia communication in today5s society which greatly depends upon computer communication in digital format seems unlimited.. #fi0ed wireless access$ to a range of new services and models will be available .

>igh definition T= content. video chat. /0E+#IVES applications like wireless broadband access. and minimal service like voice and data at anytime and anywhere. mobile T=.To cater the /uality of service and rate re/uirements set by the forthcoming . Multimedia Messaging 3ervice.. 8=. the 4G working groups have defined the following as the ob)ectives of the 4G wireless communication standard • 3pectrally efficient system #in bits?s?>@ and bit?s?>@?site$ABC >igh network capacityA2C <ominal data rate of 100 Mbps at high speeds and 1 Gbps at • • .

high speed data. system.*"re/uency 8ivision Erthogonal multiple 3eamless connectivity and global roaming networksA1C across • >igh /uality of service for ne0t generation multimedia support #real time audio. packet switched networkA1C 8ata rate of at least 100 Mbps between any two points in the worldA1C • • 3mooth handoff across heterogeneous networkA4C • 1. 2E3 1& #E+4$ ! &IES 3ome of the key technologies re/uired for 4G are briefly described below9 1. but also a frame work for improving layer 6 performance by proposing freedom 5. 5.%.* an additional degree of . etc$A1C Multiple0ing#E"8M$ not only provides clear advantages for physical layer performance.stationary conditions as defined by the %TD&!A1C • • %nteroperable with the e0isting wireless standardsA10C 'll %. >8T= video content. mobile T=.

it is possible to e0ploit the time domain.. E"8M also provides a fre/uency diversity gain.Dsing E8"M. improving the physical layer performance. %t ensures very robust transmission in multi&path environments with reduced receiver comple0ity. on each of which the signal is FnarrowbandG #a few k>@$ and therefore immune to multi&path effects. *u'ti-antenna Systems %n the early 10s. rate were needs of data Ene communication. %ndependent streams can be transmitted simultaneously from all the antennas. gained importance for its bandwidth conservation and power efficiency. %t is also compatible with other enhancement technologies.E"8M modulation can also be employed technology as a multiple access #Erthogonal "re/uency Summary of advantages • • • • • • • 7an easily adapt to severe channel conditions without comple0 e/uali@ation !obust against narrow&band co& channel interference !obust against %ntersymbol interference #%3%$ and fading caused by multipath propagation >igh spectral efficiency *fficient implementation using ""T :ow sensitivity to time synchroni@ation errors Tuned sub&channel receiver filters are not re/uired #unlike conventional "8M$ 1. . to cater the growing data schemes technology. the signal is split into orthogonal sub carriers. E"8M'$. such as smart antennas and M%ME. spatial multiple0ing. the fre/uency 8omain and even the code domain to optimi@e radio channel usage.2. provided a guard interval is inserted between each E"8M symbol. 3patial multiple0ing involves deploying multiple antennas at the transmitter and at the receiver. This increases the data rate into multiple folds with the number e/ual to minimum of the 8ivision Multiple 'ccess. 's shown in Figure . each E"8M symbol can transmit information to?from several users using a different set of sub carriers #sub channels$. many transmission proposed. the space domain. %n this case. but also enables cross&layer optimi@ation of radio link usage. This not only provides additional fle0ibility for resource allocation #increasing the capacity$.

Software . multi&standard base stations and terminals.6( 3oftware 8efined !adio #38!$ benefits from today5s high processing power to develop multi&band. This is called transmit or recei&e di&ersity. the reliability in transmitting high speed data in the fading channel can be improved by using more antennas at the transmitter or at the receiver. 38! will become an enabler for the aggregation of multi& standard pico?micro cells. 'part from this.. %n the conte0t of 4G systems.I$& 5 6 *I* S3S#E*S adding several modems at a given . 'lthough in future the terminals will adapt the air interface to the available radio access technology. This is called as Multiple&input multiple& output communications #M%ME$. "or a '8='<T'G*39  %ncreases antennas data rates due to multiple transmit and receive ..number of transmit and receive antennas. an operator will reconfigure its network base station&to&user 5I&"6E7SP-+E #I*E + .ase Transceiver 3tation #. 38! makes this reconfiguration easy.T3$. at present this is done by the infrastructure. to increase network capacity at a specific time #e.g. during sports event$. "or e0ample.efined 6adio 8S. 3everal infrastructure gains are e0pected from 38!.  7ombats fading  H%ncreases capacity  H7ost is scalable with performance 1.

. content is sent to the terminal cache at the high data rate and read at the service rate. high data rate #non&real&time$ services can be delivered even when reception?transmission is interrupted for a few seconds. as it facilitates the delivery of real&time services.multi&band . the coverage is not used most of the time. . 'n e0ample is shown. high scalability #from -0 to-00 bit?s?>@$. This e0tends the capabilities of the M'7 scheduler. it simply asks for the line of cache following the last received. hen a terminal enters an area in which a transfer is possible. %n cellular systems. is high spectrum efficiency. robust and reliable protocol is used between the terminal and the cache for every service delivered in this type of coverage.The advantage of coverage.etween these areas. %n pico cellular coverage. this can be a powerful aid to providing multi&standard. 't the entrance of the access network. 8ata delivery is preferred in places where the bit rate is a ma0imum. 7onse/uently. +aching and Pico +e''s Memory in the network and terminals facilitates service delivery.etween the terminal and the cache.1. These methods can double the capacity of a classical cellular system. . creating an apparent discontinuity. %n these areas. lines of cache at the destination of a terminal are built and stored. !esources can be assigned to data only when the radio conditions are favorable.manufacturer. e/uipment with reduced simultaneous multi&channel processing 1. ' simple. 7overages are FdiscontinuousG. ' specific architecture is needed to introduce cache memory in the network. especially when designed with caching technology. the coverage @one within which data can be received?transmitted can be designed with no constraints other than limiting interference. high capacity and lower cost.

service ada)tation and robust transmission .ESI&$ *u'timedia service de'ivery.PI+ +E!! $E#9 62 .

g. 's soon as the terminal enters . >owever. etc$ use of spectrum. the terminal will have three caches. the parent coverage establishes the service dialog and service start&up#with the base layer$. %n a streaming situation. in transmission with a reasonable increase in comple0ity. a video flow can be split into three "lows which can be transported independently9 one base layer #+0 kbit?s$. 78M' and combinations of these to multiple0 multiple mobile stations #handsets.vB also enables a number of applications with better multi& :. T8&78M'. -++ESS S+4E*ES The e0isting wireless standards use T8M'. multimedia transmission can provide a good /uality. !ecently. %n the conte0t of 4G. new access schemes like E"8M'. but offer advantages in scalability. hereas earlier used to mitigate the dwindling number of %.?10&B and a packet loss around 10& 6?10&+.1Be and 406. the terminal caches are filled. &78M'. and M7&78M' have been proposed as part of the upcoming ne0t generation DMT3.images?s$. 7oded images still contain enough redundancy for error correction. %n addition to improvements in these multiple0ing systems. "or instance. starting with the base cache. The first flow provides availability. These offer the same efficiencies as older technologies like 78M'. which is a robust flow but of limited /uality #e. %t is possible to gain about 10 d.'udio and video coding is scalable. with 78M' #%3&6000. and two enhancement flows #-0 kbit?s and 600 kbit?s$. all . 3ingle 7arrier "8M'.60 standards. %n pico cellular coverage.. and 78M' from poor spectrum fle0ibility and scalability. improved modulation techni/ues are being used. T8M' suffers from inherent inefficiencies due to the need for guard periods between frames. >owever. these technologies are limited. it is possible to allow error rates of about 10& . "8M'.ico cell coverage. the other two /uality and =ideo #and audio$ transmissions are currently transmitted without error and without packet loss. %. definition. 406.v4 addresses. T8&378M'$ dominating the +G space. Dsing the described technologies.

. with a high degree of personali@ation and synchroni@ation between various user appliances.cast. software.vB. "inally the pico cell coverage is made continuous . it is then made denser by adding discontinuous pico cells. will be another driver. 't the . low cost..arent coverage performance may vary from 1 to 60 bit?s?>@?kmI.etter processor performance?power consumption ratio  >andset display power consumption efficiency <. mode$ 7overage is achieved by adding new technologies #possibly in overlay and progressively enhancing density. 3ervice and application ubi/uity. + VE6-&E either by using M%ME or by deploying another pico cell coverage in a different fre/uency band . many innovative coding schemes can be developed for 4G devices and applications that could aid deployment of 4G networks and services. security and route optimi@ation capabilities. after which the pico cell is made denser but still discontinuously.. Take a iM'( deployment. it is probable that the radio access network will evolve from a centrali@ed architecture to a distributed one. high speed data will drive forward the fourth generation #4G$ as 3hort&range communication emerges.6IVE6S 5 1& %n the future.attery performance increase #a much slower e0ponential curve than MooreJs :aw$ #batteries are the big bottleneck$  'ir interfaces with increasingly better spectral efficiencyK  . while pico cell technology can achieve from depending 100 on to the -00bit?s?>@?kmI. #echno'ogica' drivers7  Microprocessor performance comple0ity of the terminal hardware and increase #MooreJs law$  . for e0ample9 first the parent coverage is deployed. ith the available address space and number of addressing bits in %. same time.

>. voice. but in 4G it is e0pected to restore such system$ this and 3ystem$ is a G. • 3eamless on switching. Luality of 3upport multimedia. Tele&geoprocessing9 information #Global /uerying. high capacity and low cost per bit. -PP!I+-#I $S 'lready at rates of 1-&+0 Mbps. 4G can be used in Tele&medicine and education 7risis management9 natural disasters can cause breakdown in communication systems. service portability and scalable mobile networks. "ew applications are as follows9 • =irtual presence9 4G provides user services at all times. can be downloaded within about . 't rates of 100 Mbps. the content of a 8=8. variety of services based 3ervice#Lo3$ • .=. for e0ample a movie. buildings etc .wireless video services. • =irtual navigation9 4G provides user with virtual navigation through which a user can access • • • a database of streets. 5E-#"6ES • 5 1& interactive internet.etter scheduling and call admission techni/ues • 'd hoc and multi hop networks control • • >igh speed. even if user is off site.minutes for offline access.3 by combination of G%3 #Geographical . Global mobility. 4G should be able to provide users with streaming high&definition television. %n today5s world it might take days or weeks to restore the system.ositioning which we can get location by .

with associated sharing mechanisms. but it can still be done in a progressive manner. The key enablers are9 4G seems to be a very promising generation of wireless communication that will change the people5s life in wireless world.   www. Ettosson.G  T. 7asal.4gheterogeneousnetworks. com ireless %?. M %. F' novel concept for fourth generation mobile multimedia communication.rasald. 3choute. M Multi&technology distributed architecture. FToward 4G %. ". 3ternad and '.&based wireless systems9 ' proposal for the uplink. mobility.4gfeatures. M 3ufficient spectrum. M "i0ed&mobile convergence #for indoor service$. 'hlNen. M. iM'($ for real&time delivery. +G. M <etwork selection mechanisms. . #hus we can conc'ude that using 1& conce)t the user has freedom and f'e@ibi'ity to se'ect any desired service with reasonab'e QoS and affordab'e )rice. 3vensson. %t is e0pected to be launched by 6010 and the world is looking forward for the most intelligent technology that would connect the entire world. 3ome key technologies permit the progressive introduction of such networks without )eopardi@ing e0isting investment. %%. anytime anywhere. and discontinuous pico cell for high data rate delivery. !. + $+!"SI $ The provision of megabit?s data rates to thousands of radio and mobile terminals per s/uare kilometer presents several challenges.  www.crisis issues in a few hours. 8isruptive technologies are needed to achieve high capacity at low cost. .runstrOom. '. '. and !.G -th orld !esearch "orum. M E"8M and M%ME. 6E5E6E$+ES . M 7overage with two technologies9 parent #6G. M 7aching technology in the network and terminals.

eyond +GP.aughan Fvisions of 4GG *7* )ournal.igita' Video 9ire'ess !oca' -rea . 'mbient <etworks .efined 6adio QoS7 Qua'ity of Service 9!-$7 $etwork *I* 7 *u'ti)'e In)ut *u'ti)'e ut)ut . -//6EVI-#I $S 5.  .G *vans and Q.#V7 4igh . 8ec6006.V/7 /roadcasting 4.*7 rthogona' 5reAuency .67 Software 'n *D financed research pro)ect for PMobile and ireless 3ystems .efinition #e'evision .ivision *u'ti)'e@ing S.