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Reactive Power and Unbalance Compensation with DSTATCOM

Tong XiangQian, Xi Keqing, Shen Ming, Ma Xianhong
School of Automation & Information Engineering, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, China
Abstract Load unbalance is a general phenomenon in low-voltage three-phase distribution system. As the negative sequence voltage will cause abnormal operation of electric equipments and decrease the power quality, a low-voltage distribution static synchronous compensator (DSTATCOM) is proposed to compensate both the reactive power and load unbalance caused by asymmetric loads in a threephase power system, and an asymmetric control on method based symmetrical component transformation and d-q transformation for the DSTATCOM is presented. An experiment system of a low-voltage DSTATCOM was developed, and the generation method of SPWM pulse was implemented. The results of experiments, which conducted with balanced load and unbalanced load, verify the validity of compensation algorithm, and also show that the SPWM-based DSTATCOM can compensate reactive power and load unbalance synchronously. Keywords DSTATCOM, reactive power, unbalanced load. I. INTRODUCTION Many nonlinear electrical loads will cause various power quality problems, such as violent voltage fluctuation, power loss, harmonic current, abnormal operation of electric equipments and so on. A distribution static synchronous compensator (DSTATCOM) is one of the equipments to compensate the reactive power dynamically, and can be used to improve power quality. Compared with the saturated reactor and static var compensator based on thyristor phase control, DSTATCOM has an advanced performance in distribution system [1,2]. DSTATCOM is often developed to compensate reactive power of three-phase symmetry loads. But the three-phase loads in the low-voltage system are usually unbalanced; therefore we expected that the compensator could provide different reactive power for different phase. This paper presents a novel generating method of the PWM pulses for SPWM-VSI-based DSTATCOM. Modifying the SPWM pulse width, which derived from the positive sequence load current, with the negative sequence load current, forms the final PWM pulse width. The experiment result verifies the feasibility of the proposed method.
II. PRINCIPLE OF DSTATCOM

provided that the three-phase supply voltage is balanced, the phase relationship of the supply voltage u5, inverted voltage ug, inductor voltage UL and compensation current i is shown in Fig.2 [3]. In the ideal condition that the STATCOM has no electric energy loss, if the voltage ug inverted by the voltage source inverter (VSI) is synchronous with the supply voltage u5, the current ig will purely be reactive referenced to the supply voltage [1]. But in fact, the DSTATCOM necessarily consume a bit of electric energy and this requires the existing of phase difference, named control angle 6, between the supply voltage and inverted voltage from VSI.

Fig. 1 Main circuit of SPWM-VSI-based DSTATCOM

(a) 6>0: P>O and Q>O

(b) 6>0: P>O and Q<O

(c) 6<0: P<O and Q<O

i
v

US~~U UU
UL

U

Considering a DSTATCOM used in a three-phase three-wire distribution system, as shown in Fig. 1, and
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(d) 6<0: P<O and Q>O Fig.2 Operation status of DSTATCOM

4. the active and reactive power of DSTATCOM can be expressed as [3] p UsUg sinS5 (2) wOL Us (id cos + iq sin S) (7) dt 4Cq Equations (5)-(7) describe the dynamic characteristic of the SPWM-VSI-based DSTATCOM. the d-q transformation of supply voltage and inverted voltage can be written as LUsd J3 -us 0 gd V6 i Ud C S.T/3) 1 3 Lcos(ct) cos(ct . Ugb. Applying the d-q transformation to (4) Fla 1 uga] gd Ugb~ CUsb IC*b [C] [ugqj =[ gcj uq] =iq] [CiLq] Ud Tsa] = We can get the mathematic model of DSTATCOM d Fid L- d R/L - dtLiq Where .R/L]-iqj Fidi sFd L-usq -ugq] Ugd (5) IC] 2F sin(ct) sin(ct . As the energy loss is very small. in order to compensate the unbalanced reactive current of loads with DSTATCOM and have the supply reactive current of each phase be zero. and the reactive power Q is positive if the STATCOM absorbs reactive power. In SPWM control mode for the VSI.). usa. and the lower level for the inductive power. detect the dc voltage UdC. ia. uga. CONTROL STRATEGY OF DSTATCOM From Fig. and usc are supply voltages.Note that the control angle 3 is positive if the inverted voltage lags the supply voltage. Therefore. ADJUSTMENT OF PWM PULSE WIDTH FOR UNBALANCED LOAD COMPENSATION In the condition of unbalanced loads. For the STATCOM intended to compensate unbalanced 1182 ic ic ugc Where. First. but more perfect performance is presented in experiments by double-variable control strategy shown in Fig.4. the dc circuit equation is given by Let C denotes the capacitance capacitor. consequently the reactive power exchanged between power supply and DSTATCOM will be regulated. and ugc are inverted voltage of three-phase respectively. the equivalent resistance can be negligible compared with the reactance of the inductor. Adjusting the control angle 3 can regulate the dc voltage. To get better dynamic performance.2.T/3) sin(ct . ie) and supply voltages (usa. the DSTATCOM must generated three different reactive currents owning the same magnitude and inverse polarity with the three phase load currents. IV.2. U5b. and ic are DSTATCOM currents.4. In order to represent the energy loss. an equivalent resistance (R) in series with the inductor (L) is introduced. the active power exchanged between power supply and the DSTATCOM is adjusted and hence increase or decrease the capacitor voltage in the dc side. ug 2 As the supply voltage and inverted voltage are symmetric sinusoidal. the higher level for the capacitive power. X is the PWM modulation index and 0) is the system frequency. the ac circuit equation is given by us] usc Usa 'a] R d + ug] [La] da g (4) Fig. and adjusting the SPWM modulation index X can directly regulate the magnitude and polarity of reactive power. dUdc = 6 (Ug coS u Us) - wOL (3) III. as shown in Fig. ib. By regulating the control angle. as shown in the following equation. R denotes the resistance. and calculates the reactive component of current. u5.T/3)j . 1 and considering the equivalent resistance mentioned above.T/3) cos(ct . a digital control system based on DSP controller and double-variable control strategy is employed. Where. the dc voltage is altered in two levels [4]. determines the inverted voltage. In order to obtain a desired reactive power or reactive current. 5 of dc (6) /Udcsin(wt+3) (1) according to the principle of power conservation. and L denotes the inductance. ib.4. Usb. then according the errors of actual reactive current and dc voltage with their references to regulate the control angle a and modulation index X.3 Double-variable control strategy of DSTATCOM There is no doubt that only adjusting a can control the reactive power generated by DSTATCOM. synchronously samples the three-phase currents (ia. the dc voltage UdC. Equation (1) also indicates that the PWM modulation index directly adjusts the amplitude of the inverted voltage and hence changes the reactive power.

the currents are also the load currents. the calculation of SPWM pulse width for a three-phase symmetric system is well known and already widely used. Fig. finally we obtain the pulse width T3 for the original asymmetric current by modifying the width TI with T2.5b). with the symmetrical component transformation. how to calculate the PWM pulse width and generate the pulse is the most important issue. named positive sequence component and negative sequence component. Fig.e. and the other was conducted at the case of asymmetric load intended to compensate both reactive power and (b) Transition from capacitive state to inductive state Fig. secondly we calculate the SPWM pulse width TI and T2 for the positive sequence component and negative sequence component respectively with the known method. are almost symmetric. Two experiments were conducted to verify the feasibility of double-variable control strategy and PWM pulse width adjustment. Please note that AT will be negative if the instantaneous value of the negative sequence component at this time is negative.T/2) (8) Where. After the operation of DSTATCOM. i. Fig. the amplitude of negative sequence component is zero. So we can conclude that the DSTATCOM controller based on symmetrical component transformation can compensate the reactive power and unbalance synchronously. T denotes the period of the carrying triangle wave.load. T2=T/2.5 Compensation current for symmetric load (a) Three phase supply currents before DSTATCOM operation 1183 . For the special condition that the system is symmetrical.6a shows the supply currents before the DSTATCOM operation. the three-phase supply currents. So we expect that the pulse width for the asymmetric system can be calculated with the help of existing method for the symmetric system.5 indicates that the transition takes less than 40ms from inductive steady state to capacitive steady state or vice versa. EXPERIMENTAL RESULT unbalance.5a) or form inductive state to capacitive state (Fig.4 is the illustration of pulse width modification as in equation (8). One experiment was conducted at the case of symmetric load only for the reactive power compensation.6 shows the three-phase supply currents before and after the operation of DSTATCOM for asymmetric load A low-voltage experimental system of DSTATCOM with a DSP-based controller was developed.. as show in Fig.6b. T3 = T1 + AT = T1 + (T2 . As we know. which composed of load current and compensation current. At compensation.4 Adjustment of the PWM pulse width V. Fig. Obviously the currents of phase B and phase C is much smaller than that of phase A. and therefore T3=Ti. Firstly we decompose the unbalanced three-phase currents into two three-phase symmetric components. 'I (a) Transition from inductive state to capacitive state Fig. Fig.5 shows the compensation current of DSTATCOM in steady state and transition form inductive state to capacitive state (Fig.

. . . [2] TONG Xiangqian... no. pp. Principle. P. vol. and CHEN Jianye..598-608. L.Structure.Acha.6 Supply currents before and after the operation of DSTATCOM for asymmetric load compensation 1184 .. . and the results show that the DSTATCOM is able to compensate both reactive power and unbalance use ~~~~~~~~~To VI. Control and -aApplications. .Moran. and E. Electric PWMI VSC-based Power Applications. CONCLUSION synchronously. vol.G. pp. and G. An experiment system based on DSP controller and double-variable control strategy is developed. [2] L.. 1989. "Development considerations of IEE Pro. XIE Xiaorong. Research on SPWMI-VSJ-based DSTATCOAJVL" Advanced Technology of Electrical Engineering and Energy. 2004.25. and ZHONG Yanru. .Joos. "Analysis and Design of a B [3] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~"Experimental [4] C ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~DSP-controlled Trans. 2004. 148. 7 A B C the normal SPWM pulse generation method in DSTATCOM to compensate asymmetric load. 5.". On Industry Applications. V.T. Xu.449-455. Adjusting the SPWM pulse width of positive sequence component with the negative sequence component forms the pulse width for asymmetric compensation. "Po-wer System Shunt Compensation. no. no. ..3 1-34. a novel method based on symmetrical component transformation ispooed. ..4.Agelidis.D.Ziogas.23.. WANG Chao. pp.3. vol. . 2001. (b) Three phase supply currents after DSTATCOM operation A REFERENCES [1] JIANG Qirong." Beijing: China Machine Press. STATCOAMI" (c) Transition of supply currents after DSTATCOM start Fig.