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# Reactive Power and Unbalance Compensation with DSTATCOM

Tong XiangQian, Xi Keqing, Shen Ming, Ma Xianhong
School of Automation & Information Engineering, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, China
II. PRINCIPLE OF DSTATCOM

provided that the three-phase supply voltage is balanced, the phase relationship of the supply voltage u5, inverted voltage ug, inductor voltage UL and compensation current i is shown in Fig.2 [3]. In the ideal condition that the STATCOM has no electric energy loss, if the voltage ug inverted by the voltage source inverter (VSI) is synchronous with the supply voltage u5, the current ig will purely be reactive referenced to the supply voltage [1]. But in fact, the DSTATCOM necessarily consume a bit of electric energy and this requires the existing of phase difference, named control angle 6, between the supply voltage and inverted voltage from VSI.

Fig. 1 Main circuit of SPWM-VSI-based DSTATCOM

(a) 6>0: P>O and Q>O

(b) 6>0: P>O and Q<O

(c) 6<0: P<O and Q<O

i
v

US~~U UU
UL

U

Considering a DSTATCOM used in a three-phase three-wire distribution system, as shown in Fig. 1, and
1181

(d) 6<0: P<O and Q>O Fig.2 Operation status of DSTATCOM

4. the active and reactive power of DSTATCOM can be expressed as [3] p UsUg sinS5 (2) wOL Us (id cos + iq sin S) (7) dt 4Cq Equations (5)-(7) describe the dynamic characteristic of the SPWM-VSI-based DSTATCOM. the d-q transformation of supply voltage and inverted voltage can be written as LUsd J3 -us 0 gd V6 i Ud C S.T/3) 1 3 Lcos(ct) cos(ct . Ugb. Applying the d-q transformation to (4) Fla 1 uga] gd Ugb~ CUsb IC*b [C] [ugqj =[ gcj uq] =iq] [CiLq] Ud Tsa] = We can get the mathematic model of DSTATCOM d Fid L- d R/L - dtLiq Where .R/L]-iqj Fidi sFd L-usq -ugq] Ugd (5) IC] 2F sin(ct) sin(ct . As the energy loss is very small. in order to compensate the unbalanced reactive current of loads with DSTATCOM and have the supply reactive current of each phase be zero. and the reactive power Q is positive if the STATCOM absorbs reactive power. In SPWM control mode for the VSI.). usa. and the lower level for the inductive power. detect the dc voltage UdC. ia. uga. CONTROL STRATEGY OF DSTATCOM From Fig. and usc are supply voltages.Note that the control angle 3 is positive if the inverted voltage lags the supply voltage. Therefore. ADJUSTMENT OF PWM PULSE WIDTH FOR UNBALANCED LOAD COMPENSATION In the condition of unbalanced loads. For the STATCOM intended to compensate unbalanced 1182 ic ic ugc Where. First. but more perfect performance is presented in experiments by double-variable control strategy shown in Fig.4. the dc circuit equation is given by Let C denotes the capacitance capacitor. consequently the reactive power exchanged between power supply and DSTATCOM will be regulated. and ugc are inverted voltage of three-phase respectively. the equivalent resistance can be negligible compared with the reactance of the inductor. Adjusting the control angle 3 can regulate the dc voltage. To get better dynamic performance.2.T/3) sin(ct . ie) and supply voltages (usa. the DSTATCOM must generated three different reactive currents owning the same magnitude and inverse polarity with the three phase load currents. IV.2. U5b. and ic are DSTATCOM currents.4. In order to represent the energy loss. an equivalent resistance (R) in series with the inductor (L) is introduced. the active power exchanged between power supply and the DSTATCOM is adjusted and hence increase or decrease the capacitor voltage in the dc side. ug 2 As the supply voltage and inverted voltage are symmetric sinusoidal. the higher level for the capacitive power. X is the PWM modulation index and 0) is the system frequency. the ac circuit equation is given by us] usc Usa 'a] R d + ug] [La] da g (4) Fig. and adjusting the SPWM modulation index X can directly regulate the magnitude and polarity of reactive power. dUdc = 6 (Ug coS u Us) - wOL (3) III. as shown in Fig. ib. By regulating the control angle. as shown in the following equation. R denotes the resistance. and calculates the reactive component of current. u5.T/3)j . 1 and considering the equivalent resistance mentioned above.T/3) cos(ct . a digital control system based on DSP controller and double-variable control strategy is employed. Where. the dc voltage is altered in two levels [4]. determines the inverted voltage. In order to obtain a desired reactive power or reactive current. 5 of dc (6) /Udcsin(wt+3) (1) according to the principle of power conservation. and L denotes the inductance. ib.4. Usb. then according the errors of actual reactive current and dc voltage with their references to regulate the control angle a and modulation index X.3 Double-variable control strategy of DSTATCOM There is no doubt that only adjusting a can control the reactive power generated by DSTATCOM. synchronously samples the three-phase currents (ia. the dc voltage UdC. Equation (1) also indicates that the PWM modulation index directly adjusts the amplitude of the inverted voltage and hence changes the reactive power.