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11/13/2013

Roadmap
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Computer Networks

By Prof. Rajender Kumar, AP, ECED, NIT Kurukshetra
13-Nov-13

What is a Computer Network? Applications of Networking Classification of Networks Layered Architecture Network Core Delay & loss in packet-switched networks Internet Structure Transmission Media (self study) History (self study)
Computer Networks 13-Nov-13

Computer Network?
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The “nuts and bolts” view of the Internet
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“interconnected collection of autonomous computers connected by a single technology”
[Tanenbaum]

router

workstation mobile

millions of connected computing devices: hosts, end-systems
PCs workstations, servers PDAs phones, toasters

server local ISP

What is the Internet?
“network of networks” “collection of networks interconnected by routers” “a communication medium used by millions”
Email, chat, Web “surfing”, streaming media

running network apps
communication links
fiber, copper, radio, satellite Links have different bandwidth

regional ISP

Internet ≠ Web
13-Nov-13 Computer Networks

routers: forward packets Packet: a piece of messg.
Computer Networks

company network
13-Nov-13

Roadmap
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Applications (1)
end systems (hosts):
run application programs e.g. Web, email at “edge of network”

What is a Computer Network? Applications of Networking Classification of Networks Layered Architecture Network Core Delay & loss in packet-switched networks Internet Structure Transmission Media (self study) History (self study)
Computer Networks 13-Nov-13

client/server model
client host requests, receives service from always-on server e.g. Web browser/server; email client/server

Client/server model is applicable in an intranet.
Computer Networks

13-Nov-13

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WLAN ? Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 2 . KaZaA WWW Instant Messaging (Internet chat.cs. home LANs happening now LANs.html Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 A Classification of Networks 1-11 Local Area Network (LAN) 1-12 Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) Wireless LANs & WANs Home Networks company/univ local area network (LAN) connects end system to edge router Ethernet: shared or dedicated link connects end system and router 10 Mbs. Gigabit Ethernet deployment: institutions.edu/~shri/iPic.umass. Gnutella. Telnet) File Transfer Computer Networks Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 13-Nov-13 “Cool” Appliances 1-9 1-10 Roadmap What is a Computer Network? Applications of Networking Classification of Networks Layered Architecture Network Core Delay & loss in packet-switched networks Internet Structure Transmission Media (self study) History (self study) Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 IP picture frame http://www.ceiva.11/13/2013 Applications (2) 1-7 Applications (3) 1-8 peer-peer model: No fixed clients or servers Each host can act as both client & server Examples: Napster. 100Mbps. text messaging on cellular phones) Peer-to-Peer Internet Phone Video-on-demand Distributed Games Remote Login (SSH client.com/ Web-enabled toaster+weather forecaster World’s smallest web server http://www-ccs.

000 homes cable headend cable distribution network (simplified) 13-Nov13 cable headend home 13-Nov13 cable distribution network (simplified) Computer Networks home Computer Networks Cable Network Architecture: Overview 1-15 1-16 Wide Area Network (WAN) Spans a large geographic area. e.11b (WiFi): 11 Mbps wider-area wireless access provided by telco operator 3G ~ 384 kbps wireless laptops wireless access point 13-Nov-13 Will it happen?? WAP/GPRS in Europe mobile hosts 13-Nov-13 Computer Networks 3 .g.11/13/2013 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) 1-13 1-14 Cable Network Architecture: Overview A Cable TV Network is an example of a MAN Typically 500 to 5.. a country or a continent A WAN consists of several transmission lines and routers Internet is an example of a WAN server(s) cable headend cable distribution network 13-Nov13 home Computer Networks Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Wireless Networks 1-17 Home networks 1-18 shared wireless access network connects end system to router via base station aka “access point” To the wired network router base station Typical home network components: ADSL or cable modem router/firewall/NAT Ethernet wireless access point to/from cable headend cable modem router/ firewall Ethernet (switched) Computer Networks wireless LANs: 802.

Protocols. hardware.. somehow? Let’s consider a Web page request: Browser requests Web page from server Server should determine if access is privileged Reliable transfer page from server to client Physical transfer of “bits” from server to client Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Reliable delivery Communication Service Network Services Transfer “bits” Network Services Web Server Computer Networks Web Client 13-Nov-13 Motivation Continued … 1-23 1-24 Layers. applications.g. protocols. software Can we organize it. links. routers. relationship of complex system’s pieces Application logic protocol Reliable delivery protocol Transfer “bits” protocol Application Services layered reference model for discussion modularization eases maintenance. Interfaces Application Services Layer Interface Dealing with complex systems: explicit structure allows identification. change in gate procedure doesn’t affect rest of system layering considered harmful? Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Network Services Network Services Web Server Computer Networks Web Client 13-Nov-13 4 . updating of system Communication Service Layer Interface Communication Service change of implementation of layer’s service transparent to rest of system e.11/13/2013 “internetworking”? 1-19 1-20 Roadmap What is a Computer Network? Applications of Networking Classification of Networks Layered Architecture Network Core Delay & loss in packet-switched networks Internet Structure Transmission Media (self study) History (self study) Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 internetwork – interconnection of networks – also called an “internet” Subnetwork – a constituent of an internet Intermediate system – a device used to connect two networks allowing hosts of the networks to correspond with each other Bridge Routers Internet is an example of an internetwork. Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Layered Architecture: Why? 1-21 1-22 Motivation Continued … Application logic Application Services Communication Service Application Services Networks are complex with many pieces Hosts.

eventually physical medium is reached. E. These specifications enable hardware/software developers to build systems compliant with a particular architecture.11/13/2013 Layered Architecture (Review 1/2) 1-25 1-26 Review (2/2) A set of layers & protocols is called a Network Architecture. TCP/IP.. OSI Networks organized as a stack of layers? The purpose of a layer is to offer services to the layer above it using an interface (programming language analogy: libraries hide details while providing a service) Reduces design complexity Protocols: peer-to-peer layer-n conversations Data Transfer: each layer passes data & control information to the layer below.g. Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Layering: Design Issues 1-27 1-28 Reference Models Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model TCP/IP Model Identify senders/receivers? Addressing Unreliable physical communication medium? Error detection Error control Message reordering Sender can swamp the receiver? Flow control Multiplexing/Demultiplexing Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Reference Models (2) 1-29 1-30 TCP/IP Model: History Originally used in the ARPANET ARPANET required networks using leased telephone lines & radio/satellite networks to interoperate Goals of the model are: Seamless interoperability Wide-ranging applications Fault-tolerant to some extent Application Transport Internet Host-toNetwork Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 5 .

and flow control. Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Why is it needed? Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 The Application Layer 1-35 1-36 The Host-to-Network Layer Somehow.User Datagram Protocol (UDP) 13-Nov-13 Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 End systems inject datagrams in the networks A transmission path is determined for each packet (routing) A “best effort” service Datagrams might be lost Datagrams might be arrive out of order Analogy: Postal system Computer Networks TCP: Connection-oriented Service 1-33 1-34 UDP: Connectionless Service No handshaking Send whenever and however you want A “best effort” service No reliability No congestion & flow control services Handshaking between client & server programs Parameters for ensuing exchange Maintain connection-state Packet switches do not maintain any connectionstate.11/13/2013 The Internet Layer 1-31 1-32 The Transport Layer Concerned with end-to-end data transfer between end systems (hosts) Transmission unit is called segment TCP/IP networks such as the Internet provides two types of services to applications “connection-oriented” service – Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) “connectionless” service . congestion control. hence “connection-oriented” Similar to a phone conversation TCP is bundled with reliability. host has to connect to the network and be able to send IP Datagrams How? Residence of network applications and their application control logic Examples include: HTTP FTP Telnet SMTP DNS Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 6 .

STTP application transport network link physical Each layer: distributed “entities” implement layer functions at each node entities perform actions. SMTP. UDP application transport network link physical application transport network link physical network link physical network: routing of datagrams from source to destination IP. exchange messages with peers transport: host-host data transfer TCP. Ethernet physical: bits “on the wire” Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Computer Networks application transport network link physical application transport network link physical 13-Nov-13 Layering: logical communication 1-39 Layering: physical communication 1-40 take data from app generate “segment” according to transport protocol add addressing. routing protocols link: data transfer between neighboring network elements PPP. reliability check info to form “datagram” send datagram to peer wait for peer to ack receipt data application transport transport network link physical ack application transport network link physical data network link physical data application transport transport network link physical data application transport network link physical application transport network link physical network link physical data application transport network link physical application transport network link physical application transport network link physical Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Protocol layering and data 1-41 1-42 Roadmap What is a Computer Network? Applications of Networking Classification of Networks Layered Architecture Network Core Delay & loss in packet-switched networks Internet Structure Transmission Media (self study) History (self study) Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Each layer takes data from above adds header information to create new data unit passes new data unit to layer below source M Ht M Hn Ht M Hl Hn Ht M destination application Ht transport Hn Ht network link Hl Hn Ht physical M M M M message segment datagram frame application transport network link physical Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 7 .11/13/2013 Internet protocol stack 1-37 Layering: logical communication 1-38 application: supporting network applications FTP.

wait for link use Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 statistical multiplexing 1. frequency time TDMA Divide link bandwidth into “pieces”: frequency division . Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 8 . switch capacity Dedicated resources with no sharing Guaranteed transmission capacity Call setup required “Blocking” may occur 13-Nov-13 Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 mesh of interconnected routers the fundamental question: how is data transferred through net? circuit switching: dedicated circuit per call: telephone net packet-switching: data sent thru net in discrete “chunks” Computer Networks Network Core: Circuit Switching 1-45 1-46 Circuit Switching: TDMA and TDMA Example: FDMA 4 users Capacity of medium exceeds the capacity required for transmission of a single signal How can we improve “efficiency”? Let’s multiplex.FDMA time division – TDMA frequency time Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Network Core: Packet Switching 1-47 1-48 Packet Switching: Statistical Multiplexing A B 10 Mbs Ethernet “store-and-forward” transmission source breaks long messages into smaller “packets” packets share network resources each packet uses full link bandwidth resource contention aggregate resource demand can exceed amount available congestion: packets queue. In TDM each host gets same slot in revolving TDM frame.5 Mbs C queue of packets waiting for output link D E Sequence of A & B packets does not have fixed pattern statistical multiplexing.11/13/2013 The Network Core 1-43 1-44 Network Core: Circuit Switching End-to-end resources reserved for “call” Link bandwidth.

store & forward of packets) routers maintain per-call state datagram networks need per packet routing.5 Mbps delay = 15 sec Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Packet Switching: Message Segmenting 1-51 1-52 Packet-switched networks: forwarding datagram network: destination address in packet determines next hop routes may change during session (flexible?) no “per flow” state.500 bits 1 msec to transmit packet on one link pipelining: each link works in parallel Delay reduced from 15 sec to 5.002 sec virtual circuit network: each packet carries tag (virtual circuit ID). tag determines next hop fixed path determined at call setup time path is not a dedicated path as in circuit switched (i.e. hence more scalable Now break up the message into 5000 packets Each packet 1.11/13/2013 Packet switching versus circuit switching 1-49 1-50 Packet-switching: store-and-forward L R R R Is packet switching a “slam dunk winner?” Great for bursty data resource sharing Excessive congestion: packet delay and loss protocols needed for reliable data transfer. congestion control Q: How to provide circuit-like behavior? bandwidth guarantees needed for audio/video apps still an unsolved problem (chapter 6) Takes L/R seconds to transmit (push out) packet of L bits on to link or R bps Entire packet must arrive at router before it can be transmitted on next link: store and forward delay = 3L/R Example: L = 7.5 Mbits R = 1.. Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Network Taxonomy 1-53 Roadmap 1-54 Telecommunication networks Circuit-switched networks Packet-switched networks FDM TDM Networks with VCs Datagram Networks What is a Computer Network? Applications of Networking Classification of Networks Layered Architecture Network Core Delay & loss in packet-switched networks Internet Structure Transmission Media (Tutorial) History (self study) Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 13-Nov13 Computer Networks 9 .

wait for turn if queue is full. average delay infinite! Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 10 . queueing time waiting at output link for transmission depends on congestion level of router A B packets queueing (delay) free (available) buffers: arriving packets dropped (loss) if no free buffers Computer Networks A B transmission propagation nodal processing queueing 13-Nov-13 13-Nov-13 Computer Networks Delay in packet-switched networks 1-57 1-58 Nodal delay d nodal = d proc + d queue + d trans + d prop dproc = processing delay typically a few microsecs or less 3. Transmission delay: R=link bandwidth (bps) L=packet length (bits) time to send bits into link = L/R 4. 3 probes 3 probes 3 probes R=link bandwidth (bps) L=packet length (bits) a=average packet arrival rate traffic intensity = La/R La/R ~ 0: average queueing delay small La/R -> 1: delays become large La/R > 1: more “work” arriving than can be serviced. significant for low-speed links propagation dprop = propagation delay a few microsecs to hundreds of msecs nodal processing Computer Networks queueing 13-Nov-13 Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Queueing delay (revisited) 1-59 1-60 “Real” Internet delays and routes What do “real” Internet delay & loss look like? Traceroute program: provides delay measurement from source to router along end-end Internet path towards destination. arriving packets dropped (Drop-Tail) packet being transmitted (delay) 2. Propagation delay: d = length of physical link s = propagation speed in medium (~2x108 m/sec) propagation delay = d/s Note: s and R are very different quantities! dqueue = queuing delay depends on congestion A B transmission dtrans = transmission delay = L/R. For all i: sends three packets that will reach router i on path towards destination router i will return packets to sender sender times interval between transmission and reply.11/13/2013 How do loss and delay occur? 1-55 1-56 Four sources of packet delay 1. nodal processing: check bit errors determine output link packets queue in router buffers packet arrival rate to link exceeds output link capacity packets queue.

possibly other tier-2 ISPs Sprint US backbone network Tier-2 ISP pays tier-1 ISP for connectivity to rest of Internet tier-2 ISP is customer of tier-1 provider Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier 1 ISP NAP Tier-2 ISPs also peer privately with each other. UUNet.g. Sprint 1-63 1-64 Internet structure: network of networks “Tier-2” ISPs: smaller (often regional) ISPs Connect to one or more tier-1 ISPs..11/13/2013 Roadmap 1-61 1-62 Internet structure: network of networks roughly hierarchical at center: “tier-1” ISPs (e. Sprint. AT&T). BBN/Genuity.. interconnect at NAP Tier-2 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP 13-Nov13 Computer Networks Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Internet structure: network of networks 1-65 1-66 Internet structure: network of networks a packet passes through many networks! local ISP “Tier-3” ISPs and local ISPs last hop (“access”) network (closest to end systems) local ISP Local and tier3 ISPs are customers of higher tier ISPs connecting them to rest of Internet Tier 3 ISP Tier-2 ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier 3 ISP Tier-2 ISP local ISP local ISP Tier-2 ISP local ISP Tier 1 ISP NAP Tier 1 ISP NAP Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP local ISP Tier-2 ISP local ISP 13-Nov-13 Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP local local ISP ISP Computer Networks Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP local ISP Tier-2 ISP local ISP 13-Nov-13 Tier-2 ISP local local ISP ISP Computer Networks 11 . national/international coverage What is a Computer Network? Applications of Networking Classification of Networks Layered Architecture Network Core Delay & loss in packet-switched networks Internet Structure Transmission Media (Tutorial) History (self study) Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 treat each other as equals Tier-1 providers interconnect (peer) privately Tier 1 ISP NAP Tier-1 providers also interconnect at public network access points (NAPs) Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Tier-1 ISP: e.g.

“feel” of networking more depth.11/13/2013 Recap/ Summary 1-67 1-68 Computer Networks You now have: context.ac.kkr@gmail.com packet-switching versus circuit-switching Internet/ISP structure performance: loss. rkumar. core. Rajender Kumar Email: rkumar@nitkkr. delay layering and service models history (which you will be reading on your own) Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 Computer Networks 13-Nov-13 12 . overview. detail to follow! Covered a “ton” of material! Internet overview what’s a protocol? network edge. access network Thanks… Prof.in.