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Modelling and Simulation of a DC Chopper Using Single Phase Matrix Converter Topology

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**Modelling and Simulation of a DC Chopper Using Single Phase Matrix Converter Topology
**

Siti Zaliha Mohammad Noor Faculty of Electrical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Mara 40450 Shah Alam,Malaysia ctzaliha.mn @ yahoo.com

Faculty of Electrical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Mara 40450 Shah Alam, Malaysia mustafar@ salam.uitm.edu.my

Mustafar Kamal Hamzah

**Ahmad Farid Abidin Faculty of Electrical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Mara
**

40450 Shah Alam, Malaysia

Abstract - Choppers are widely used for traction motor control in electric automobiles and other electric transportation system. In those applications, control of dc motor's speed is required where the supply is dc or an ac voltage that has been rectified. This paper presents work on development of four quadrant DC chopper based on the SPMC topology, an advanced topology that hypothetically could perform many different converter functions.

by Hossieni [8], Abdollah Khoei [9] and Saiful [10]. To date, the authors have only found those four published works on SPMC but none has proposed the use of the SPMC topology

**appos. inDC chopperapplications.
**

Al

SPMC chone

Prior to hardware implementation a computer simulation model was developed using the Power System Block Set (PSB) within the MATLAB/Simulink (MLS) environment, to study the behaviour of the proposed converter. Successful results presented are mainly due to the use of resistive load to reduce complexities. Results from PSB simulation are compared with those obtained from PSpice to ascertain its validity. The output is being synthesized using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique. It is shown that the same SPMC topology could be used as a DC chopper extending the versatility of the topology a desirable feature in the future as increases in costs for skilled manpower could be tradedoff with versatile technology.

Sa

lSb

I

S2a

L

S2b

Cr

i

I&

S3b

s4a

I

S4b

Figure 1: AC-AC single-phase matrix converter topology

Power System Block Set (PSB), Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), Single-Phase Matrix Converter (SPMC), DC Chopper

in direct AC-AC converter application. Main focus will be the operational dc chopper functions in the first and third

In this work, DC chopper also known as dc-to-dc converters were presented to operate as a variable dc voltage from a fix dc voltage using SPMC topology that has been used

I.

INTRODUCTION

quadrant, nevertheless the operation of the second and fourth quadrant are also described. To ascertain its feasibility

simulation models were developed using MATLAB/Simulink and PSpice to study the behaviour of the proposed technique. Successful results presented are mainly due to the use of resistive load without the introduction of inductances to reduce complexities. The DC Chopper is based on fourquadrant operation with the output being synthesized using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique. The result of this work has indicated that the same SPMC topology [7, 9, 10] The Matrix Converter (MC) is an advanced circuit topology that offers many advantages such as the ability to maybe used as a DC chopper. This versatility is a desirable in the future as increases in costs for skilled manpower enrgbcktothuilt,insodfeature utility, sinusoidal Input and regenerate energy back to theregenerate maybe overcame by having a versatile technology. output current and controllable input current displacement factor [2]. MC has the potential of affording an "all silicon" Results of loads with inductance are also included with a solution for AC-AC conversion, removing the need for brief description of problems encountered in the absence of reactive energy storage components used in conventional suitable commutation strategies that results with voltage rectifier-inverter based system. Its topology was first proposed spikes that needs to be avoided. The commutation strategy by Gyugyi [3] in 1976. Obviously all published studies dealt used in this work has to a certain extent reduced the spikes with mainly the three-phase circuit topologies [4-6]. that has been resulted but still requires further investigations in to solve the problems, a common phenomenon in an efor effort tosletepolm,acmoXhnmnni ZXI was an matrix converter denoted as SPMC The Single-phase *'arorveanalQ matrix converter topologies. first realised by Zuckerberger [7]. Other works includes those

Choppers are widely used for traction motor control in electric automobiles and other electric transportation system. In those applications, control of dc motor's speed is required where the supply is dc or an ac voltage that has been rectified. Other applications of dc chopper also include high-current DC applications in industries [1] which have many operational benefits over conventional diode or thyristor rectifiers.

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0-7803-9296-5105/$20.00 ©2005 IEEE

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Apart from those applications it can also be used in regenerative braking of dc motors. [8] DC choppers may be classified according to the number of quadrants of the Vd-Id diagram as shown in fig.~ ~ D3b D4b Slb S2b S2B Sib S2b R L t1 > X t Ed'k L m T 17S3a D3b S4a m S4b { 4 4 P . if the load is a separately excited motor of constant field. It requires the use of bidirectional switches capable of blocking voltage and conducting current in both directions. Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) The output of the dc chopper maybe controlled using the (PWM). +ve -ye III IV Figure 5a: Four quadrant operation - ~~~~~~~~(b) IV. A. dc voltage regulators and also used in conjunction with an inductor. 16]. 14] and hence the use of common emitter anti-parallel IGBT. Unfortunately there is no discrete semiconductor device currently that could fulfil the needs [13. Diodes arranged in series to provide the reverse voltage blocking capability [17]. Sla Figure 3 :Conventional dc chopper Figure 4: DC chopper using SPMC in fig. diode pair as shown in Fig. blocking forward and reverse voltages [10] Using carefully designed switching sequences the following step-up and stepdown frequency AC-AC conversion could be realised [11. Practical realization of matrix converters requires the use of four-quadrant switch of bi-directional with In capable of fig. then the positive voltage and positive current in the first quadrant. It is conlsidered a dc equivalent of an AC transformer with a continuously variable turn's ratio.4. L and E load. 828 . The SPMC requires 4 bi-directional switches as showni in Figl.5a and the polarities as in fig. The input voltage of matrix converter operated at Figure 3 is: (1) EdC=R. Sb in which they are capable of operating. especially for current source inverter applications [16]. By referring to the combination shown in fig Sb. give rise to a "forward drive". This is as illustrated in fig. Figure 5b: The polarities DC CHOPPER BASED ON SPMC A tDb Slal 2 mia0r2b .3 [10]. 12] as shown in fig. In this circuit configuration. it has comparison 4 bi-directional conventional dc chopperoperation switches as opposed to the use of 4 switch and 4 diodes in conventional dc within chopper. each capable of conducting current in both directions. 2. the direction of energy flow is reversed and the motor operates as a generator braking rather dd Vd Forward Forward Reverso de Braking I -"SI IV V -+ve V Reverse Drive Z VL -ve 1L-ve V+ve Id L. the difference being the input dc voltage. This arrangement was chosen of it allows because each control switch independent the current in both direction. The IGBT were used due to its popularity amongst researchers that could lead to high-power applications with reasonably fast switching frequency for fine than driving.i+L-+E dt for passive R. This algorithm is required to provide a stream of PWM train to turn on and off the switches that will synthesize the required dc to dc conversion.4. It has similar structure with those of the SPMC as shown in fig. reference [15. A conventional dc chopper is as illustrated anud Proposed DC chopper is as shown in fig. Detailed treatment of the theory could be obtained from CONVENTIONAL DC CHOPPER III.' Slal Dlb Ed. This back-to-back bi-directional arrangement of the matrix convertef also has lower conduction losses than a diode bridge switch arrangement during commutation of the load current [14]. SINGLE PHASE MATRIX CONVERTER control. It can be used to step down or step up a dc voltage source [15]. Changing the polarity of both the armature voltage and the armature current result in a "reverse" drive (quadrant III) while in quadrants II and IV. generated by comparing a triangle wave signal with an adjustable dc reference and hence the duty cycle of the switching pulse could be varied. The polarity of the output voltage and the direction of the energy flow cannot be change.II. 1. the IGBTs were used because of its high switching frequency and high current handling capabilities. A dc chopper converts directly from dc to dc also known as a dc to dc converter. to generate a dc current source. 3.

The loads current flows out of the load. Switching Strategies The implementation of the SPMC as a dc chopper requires different bi-directional switching arrangements depending on the desired operational requirements of the four quadrants defined. Switch S3a and S4b will operate while Slb will be continuously turned-on. In SPMC this does not exist. It is the reverse of first quadrant. The switching sequences are designed to follow Table 1.' results with possible reversal current if inductive loads are used. To achieve this condition. Sla Modulate Off Off Off Quadrant_ Quadrant Continuously On Off Off Off |Quadrant Off Off Modulate Quadrant Off Off Continuously On Sib S2a Off In conventional dc chopper. where the load current flows from the supply to the load through a different route. The dotted line flow of current AiS3a\ zSb \ S4b SL S3af\FS3b L S S 2S4b Figure 8: First Quadrant Figure 9: Second quadrant 3) Third Quadrant (Q3) The load voltage and load current are negative as shown in fig. To achieve this 2) Second Quadrant (Q2) The load voltage is positive with negative load current as shown in fig 9. To 829 . unfortunately impossible for practical realization due to the turn-off IGBT characteristic. the free-wheeling diode is used to this purpose. In this study. The magnitude of the output voltage of the converter is controlled by PWM variations in duty cycle. switches S3b and Saaemitie scniuul Ndrn hscce 4 co unction ction andactsts returN and theloopz l f cunti to c pe the in con current return for ~~~~~~~~~~to comptlete w S turned OFF. Commutation Problem The use of Pulse Width Modulation as in fig.8 to 11 illustrates the four quadrant operation of dc chopper using SPMC topology. Figs. S2b S3a Off Continuously S3b On S3b ~ Continuously S4a On Off Switching Off Continuously On Off Off Off Continuously On Switching Off 54b Sia Continuously Continuously On On Off Off Sib 1R S2a E S4ai L S2b t 5 K islb R S2a E Sa \ C. Outut PWM pulsetrin [1 . Both will destroy the switches in use due to stress. DODE ei Cuntw DIODE IGBT in the diagram represents the safe commutation switch during each particular state that is continuously turned-on as in Table 1. the voltage E will drives current through the load and when both switch S3a and S4b are turn off.6 as the switching algorithm in this .converter. SI a and S4a are B. hence a switching sequence needs to be developed to allow forced on controlled free-wheeling. Theoretically the switching sequence in the SPMC must be instantaneous and simultaneous. A change in current due to PWM switching will result in current and voltage spikes being generated resulting in the occurrence of a dual situation. The dark arrow on the switch indicates that the switch is turned-on and behaves as the power switches performing the required converter operation. during switch turnoff. A systematic switching sequence is required that allows for the energy flowing in the IGBT's to decay in a free-wheel manner. load dissipates energy through S lb to the supply. 8. This problem occurs synthesizing the output dependent on the control algorithm being developed. In conventional converter this is normally implemented in the form of free-wheeling diodes in inverter systems arranged in anti-parallel with power switching devices.Vg Trangularwavesignal Rebrece sgnal /c8r~ers~na~ 4 (a/ustab1e) 7B T CuFbnw . This is to protect the converter from being damaged as a result of voltage and current spikes as described.r r r f E r r | rThe load current are current flows from the _ i | ! _ T Figure 7: Bi-directional switch 1) First Quadrant (QJ) Figure 6: PWM waveform condition. The load supply to the load. tured-on and act as a power switch performing the required converter operation positive as shown in fig. we will focus our attention to switching spikes and assume that there is no-change in the direction of current so as to minimise the complexities. 10. where the tailing-off of the collector current will create a short circuit with the next switch turn-on. During turn-off of Sla. Detailed treatment on safe-commutation problem can be obtained in reference [18] restated here briefly for completeness. First current spikes will be generated in the short-circuit path and secondly voltage spikes will be induced as a result of change in current direction across the inductance. TABLE 1: Switching pattern for four-quadrant dc-to-dc matrix converter Switches when inductive loads are used.

44-t .. To achieve this condition. Switch S3a and S4b will operate while Slb will be continuously turnedon.75 R =50 Q) Resistance L = 0. Power System Block Set (PSB) in MLS and PSpice are used to model and simulate the circuit. with no commutation during switch turned-off and with safe commutation switching arrangements. the voltage E will drives current through the load and when both switch S3a and S4b are turn off. A a. Sdb L SS3a b S4a S4b Figure 12: Top level main model of SPMC in MLS LCConn e iGBT I Term Figure 10: Third Quadrant Figure 11: Fourth Quadrant E L Terminator DIode2 4) Fourth quadrant (Q4) In the fourth quadrant. The "constant2" block represents the maximum magnitude of the pulse generated the "Repeating Sequence" Block act as triangular wave and "constant2" i represents the modulation index of the PWM. 10. In PSB. 14. the load voltage is negative but the load current is positive as shown in fig. During turn-off of S2a.\.Conn2 I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.3 Z5. 15 is the Pspice implemented circuit model for comparison. T7 Sia Sib practical results are presented to verify some of the results.. duo -ua i- 1 D31X. 4Cj3 52 4' N386 T ~ 81(856F2L t7!-8-4000 *.. | RrVER lll Cnn Con ! RE + _Ar--nA T Source l _ Il _ Cnn Conn2 - ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~DRrVERI 1n2 1 W?~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ C R~~~~~~~~~~~~ DC Sa Sia Sib S2874 S2b DC n4' DC~~~ I. V. cIt 0 o4 7 SIN 3 T .. oioeI IGBT2 l F C an C conal sit O O 1T posite ov1 SIMULATION IMPLEMENTATION Se*q uencel Reptin In this simulation implementation. the comparison of these two different signals is done by using the "Relational Operator" Block. Input Source (DC) Sample Modulation Index (mi) 0.VVV~~~~~~~~~~~~~~rW1 ~~~~~~~~~~Subsystemt E I L. VI. S2a and S3a are turned-on and act as a power switch performing the required converter operation synthesizing the output dependent on the control algorithm being developed. Parameters used are as shown in table 2.. The loads current flows out of the load.. S3a to complete the loop for current return and acts in conjunction with S4b to provide free-wheel operation whenever S2a is turned OFF. Fig.004H Inductance 830 .. Figure 14: PWM model circuit in PSB 4- 851(0554u 3 5o-- 0(1(3 b5 I 80085 .7 4b Ef. Simulations are carried out with MATLAB and Pspice to study the behaviour. A constant representing a straight line or reference signal is compared with the triangular wave as a carrier signal to produce the required respective PWM output.. 23 S4. 12 and 13 show the MLS model circuit used to implement the simulation. the load takes the form of a pure resistive 50 Q2 with battery E representing a back emf of a dc motor. load dissipates energy through Slb to the supply. switches S3a and S4b are maintained as continuously ON during this cycle. The PWM model is as shown in fig. Some TABLE 2: Parameter for simulation model in MATLAB and Pspice 30 V. 44b 0G738001 _______ 8(5-0( d 50 i! xTABLE 1': j1ev3 0!03 Figure 15: Model circuit in RESULTS PSpice Simulation results are presented in this section arranged in accordance to the followings.achieve this condition. The DC Chopper was supplied by 30V DC voltage source.rJ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Subsystemti Connl *n2 Connl Conn2 C S ..00 'U8.* 00 LJF BUKOO 5.J EL.. neglecting inductance. whilst fig.

Voltage .23 1 -0. a cause for concern.01 Current -5 0. VoltV.4 -0.14 1-0. Figure 26: Output voltage and current for Ql PSB with commutation.01 -0.5 0. - Figure 21: Output voltage and current for Q3 with PSpice. All the results are as expected in theory. goK f[ Figure 24: Output voltage and current for Q I PSB without commutation Figure 18: Output voltage and current waveform for Q2 with PSB. . Safe-commutation results with the following figs.o r>. Current Figure 17: Output voltage and current waveform for Ql with PSpice. Without commutation results are as in fig.17 -140 -15.24 to 25.007 ] -0. Figure 27: Output voltage and current for Q3 PSB with commutation. 16 to 23. 3 4 3.03 16 179 5.012 831 . 26 & 27.9 Vmin -196 Spike (A) Imax Imnin 0. Voltage -Current Voltage- Figure 23: Output voltage and current for Q4 with PSpice._. RL Load (with safe-commutation) Figure 19: Output voltage and current waveforrn for Q2 with PSpice. Neglecting Inductance B. Voltage Current Current Figure 25: Output voltage and current for Q3 PSB without commutation C. where spikes are reduced. Severe voltage are noticeable. Current Voltage . *v! W "Eurrent Curr nt Inductance is introduced to represent windings in machines. RL Load (with no-commutation) To simplify inductance is neglected with results in fig. TABLE 3: Simulation result for RL load with no commutation Operation Quadrant 1 Voltage (V) Voltagq Current .5 -26.-.2 -3. the voltage spikespikes is in the region of +176 to -196.qrei. For an input of 30V. Ij 11 Figure 20: Output voltage and current waveform for Q3 with PSB. with spikes generated tabulated in Table 3.154 0.44 Current (A) Vmax 176 Voltage Spike (V) 2 Figure 22: Output voltage and current waveform for Q4 with PSB. Voltage Current I . Figure 16: Output voltage and current for Ql operation with PSB.A. .51 0. 27 0._____ __'_.' *.03 -0. * =.

E. Kuala Lumpur. Simulation models in MATLAB/Simulink and PSpice are used to study the behaviour of the proposed technique and has shown good agreement with those obtained experimentally. Koga..". 1976 [4] Oyama. No.R. J. Jul Fig 28b: Output current(scale Y: 1997 pp. "A New Sine Wave in Sine Wave Out." Modelling and simulation of a singleAw | Si l | [10] phase AC-AC matrix converter using SPWM." IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics. Wheeler. B. Volume: 145. 497-502. "Soft-switched Matrix Converter for High Frequency direct AC-to-AC Power Conversion.. 235-240 200mA/Div X:Sms/Div) Hosseini. Alexandrovitz A. [6] Cho. IEEE Industry applications Magazine.H. Weinstock. -r [5] Conversion with a Matrix Converter. [11] Fi 29b Ouput tirint scal Y:"Modelling & Simulation of a new Single-phase to Single-phase Cycloconverter based on Single-phase Matrix Converter Topology 200mAJDiv X:5ms/Div) Pulse Width Modulation Using Sinusoidal with [3] Powercon 7. Vol(2) 2001 pp1071-1076 Abdollah Koei & Subbaraya Yuvarajan. 9. L. and Cho. July 1998 Pages: 295-300..L and Pelly. Theory. The commutation strategy used in this work has to a certain extent reduced the spikes that has been resulted but still requires further investigations in an effort to solve the problems. This versatility is a desirable feature in the future as increases in costs for skilled manpower maybe overcame by having a versatile technology. Wheeler. Empringham.. Conf. Empringham. . D[9 The SPMC topology has been presented capable of being operated as dc chopper to operate in the four quadrants similar to the conventional dc chopper." IEEE Power Electron. Inductance was not used to reduce of suitable switching complexities in the absence p . ISLE 2001.. Vol. REFERENCES [1] [2] Industry". Third Quadrant Li Li tj .. Malaysia (to be presented) Zahiruddin Idris. April 2002.-H. D. and Lipo. Mustafar Kamal Hamzah & Ahmad Maliki Omar MATLAB/Simulink"..K.C. [12] 2005. 1980. arrangements that could eliminate those spikes as a result of PWM switching sequences.H. Rec. 23 May 1997 Page(s): 1/1 .E3_1-E3_15. The result of this work has indicated that the same SPMC topology [7.. Fig. 72..-H. L. 832 . Kerris. T. T. 669-680... pp. (4).. 35. pp.. Rodriguez. Zahiruddin ldris. "New Control Strategies for Matrix Converter.. IEE Dr. -J [7] Zuckerberger.1992. pp.W. "Power Electronis"." Int. B. LEE Colloquium Update on New Power Electronic Techniques. Mustafar Kamal Hamzah & Ngah Ramzi Hamzah. Kim." IEEE Industry Applications Magazine. 59 -65.." Industrial Electronics." John Wiley & Son Ic. 276 . T.G. T. Yamada.. Publisher: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited 1998 Muhammad H. Hamzah.. Spec. Devices and Third Edition 2004 Prentice Hall.W. IEEE Sixth International Conference PEDS [13] [14] [15] [17] poc[171 [16] Vol. "Matrix converters. P. J. Performance and Application. First quadrant ACKNOWLEDGMENT Financial support from University Technology Mara for carrying out this work is gratefully acknowledged. IEEE Sixth International Conference PEDS 2005. Weinstein. Patrick W. Proc. Babaei. August 1988 pp442-443 Firdaus. April2002.VII. Conversion !. Higuchi. 1989.. Student Conference on Research and Development 16-17 July 2002. SCOReD2002. 360-367. Clare.. CONCLUSION Gyugyi. J. "Numerical Study of Control Strategies for Frequency Sobczyk. Warsaw. Clare. in an effort to use the SPMC topology as a dc chopper. M.. : pp286-289. Khanchandani. EXPERIMENTAL RESULT A simple laboratory test-rig was developed to ascertain the validity of some of the results.. A. Rashid. E. a common phenomenon in matrix converter topologies. J. Vol. M. Electric Power App. 10 (1).. 2001. "A new generalized direct matrix [8] converter... ___________ . B. Electric Power Application. G. (scle Y Fig 9a: utpt votag 5V/Div X:5ms/Div) VIII. pp.B. Singh and K. J. A.3. pp 26Technique Which Eliminates Reactive Elements.. "Matrix converters: a technology review." IEE Proc. E = 5V and operated at modulation index = 0. Poland.. D.28 M. P...1/5 Kwon." IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. "Single-Phase AC-AC Converter Using Power Masfet's. "Single-phase .-D. J.G.75." Proceedings of Conference on Power Electronics and Motion Control. S. 49 (2). Malaysia (to be presented) Wheeler. "Novel Commutation Technique of AC-AC Converters". Vol._________ Fig 28a: Output voltage(scale Y: 5V/Div X:5ms/Div) B. Issue: 4. "Static Power Chargers. [18] Proceedings-..144(4). Bland. Matrix Converter. Further investigations are however in order to eliminate the switching transients caused by PWM particularly when applications involved the use of inductances. Electron. Kuala Lumpur.C. "Power Electronic Circuit. pp. Results presented are in good agreement those simulated. "The Matrix Converter-future possibilities". K. 10] maybe used as a DC chopper. J. 1994. "High-current DC choppers in the Metal Venturini M. S." Proceedings Vince Scaini & Tom MA.. Min. The MC was supplied with 30V DC and loaded with R = 50 Q and back emf. "Implementation of Single-Phase Matrix Converter as a Direct ACAC Converter Synthesized Using Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation with Passive Load Condition". 28 to 29 shows measurement from oscilloscope for first and third quadrant respectively. Jan-Feb2004. pp. A.. Application".

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