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Fluid Mechanics Experiment

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No # % ' * + 0 1 2 !b"ective $earning !utcome &afety measures (aterials and )pparatus Procedure ,esults .iscussion Conclusion ,eference )ppendix Title Page # # # % % ' */ ' * * *

Objectives: To study the characteristics curves of a Pelton turbine operating at different flow rates with high head and low head. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of the experiment, student should understand the characteristics of torque, power output and efficiency of turbines at different rotational speed of turbines, at high head and low head.

to obtain the values of m and m#. .1' '. with large flow rate. %. #. !nly turn on the throttle valve partially 4one round5 because the rotor is too powerful to be measured within the force balance limit. Results: Part ) 4i5 6 7igh head. To be careful of the water that is lea3ing from the apparatus.#2##'. +x 2/' 4i5 6 .low rate measurement data.Safety Measures: . (a3e sure that the scale reading for the Pelton turbine. 8 4$5 * Table T 4min5 T# 4min5 9 4$P(5 9 4m%:s5 2. is stable before the reading is ta3en as it tend to move up and down. 10% 2.

+0+2.#-*% .+ #%+.' +1'. which is 2. m and m# is obtained from the scale.b from .b is obtained by subtraction of .*00+ . N is then converted to 7ert=.21 .b 4N5 2.-+01 0.10 .-0'0 #.0+-.<n the following table.#*+% '. to bar.b and .* .%* 2 N 47=5 %2.*1. Pb is obtained by the following formula > #ANT.b# is basically converting m and m# respectively in terms of Newton.2'#m.1+# .0#1 1. . which is .1'% *.%1 %. # #'.22+# .1' 2 Table # 4i5 6 Pelton turbine experimental data.* -''+* 0 12*. #2# *.# #%-.b and N is obtained from the previous tables.#* *+%. 2 # +. --# .2''# N 4rpm5 0+' -'' '++ -1 12# +1-.#1'% 2.'# 1.'. Ph is obtained by the following formula > ? x g x 7i x 9. .#'2' 0.2-1 .#1'% 2.+0 *. .b 4N5 2.*3gf:cm#. N and N# is obtained from the Pelton turbine.0 m:s#5 T is obtained by multiplying .# 2 N 4rpm5 0*0.b#.b# 4N5 2.b with the radius of the turbine. <n the following table.0 +1 . 7i is obtained from converting Pi from bar to metres.#-*% #. N is the average of N and N#. 9. where ? is the density of water 4 2223g:m%5 @ g is the gravitational acceleration 41.* 2 N# 4rpm5 0*% -*2 '+' 0% 120.10 #1. . m 4g5 %2 *2 -2 22 2 %2 *2 #2 #22 m# 4g5 +2 %2 %22 *#2 +12 0%2 122 1+2 2#2 . Bt 4C5 is obtained by dividing Pb with Ph and converting it to percentage.' -+ 2.%*-* 0.# *+-. '#% 0.% *+2 #%*.+010 +. P is obtained by converting the pressure exerted on the turbine.'12* 2.

%*'' %.'.2 #' 2.%* -*2.1 # ' 2 N# 4rpm5 #00 2*0 12'.% '1-.# Table % 4i5 6 Pelton turbine experimental summary.* 2.02'* 2.-+*0 .#* #1.2 1+ '.# + .'# 1.# .# T 4Nm5 2.* %-2. N and N# is obtained from the Pelton turbine.-0'0 #.'. ' .'.b# 4N5 2. . #2# *.'.++-.2%#1 2.1* %-.#%20.1+*0.b from .00#1 .0+-. # #'.*+0 2 Bt 4C5 %.+* %+-.b 4N5 2. %1# .-0 ' 2 '.2#x 2/' 4ii5 6 .# . +x 2 '.1+# #.b and .*00+ 2.' '1-.%*-* 0.1' 1.%1#' 2.0 -*2 +##. Part ) 4ii5 6 7igh head.'* +#%.2''# N 47=5 %2. '.%1 %.#%1 2. #0 .b#.21 .#1'% 2.low rate measurement data. .'' * 2. +x 2/' '.# .%1# ##.b is obtained by subtraction of .b 4N5 2.%1#' 2. '.0+%1 #. N is the average of N and N#. m and m# is obtained from the scale.* 2 N 47=5 # .#*+% #.1 -*2. m 4g5 '2 '2 '2 '* *2 *2 *2 *2 +* m# 4g5 +2 22 %2 +2 -2 #22 #%2 #'2 %#2 .#*+% '.%* '1-.'12* 2.# .b# is basically converting m and m# respectively in terms of Newton.'. 1+# 2.21'0 2.#1 +.'12* 2.'.10 #1.0% #%.# + + + + + . +x 2/' '.*2 * N 4rpm5 #1# 2*' 011.%'+ 2.' %+.*00+ 2.+ *. +x 2/' + .2# %'.%1#' 2.*+1+ . -% 2.#00' 2. N is then converted to 7ert=.*0 2 Table # 4ii5 6 Pelton turbine experimental data.#'2' 0.10 .0 %+%.%1 0.%21 2. # %. --# .'12* 2.9 4m%:s5 '.1 +#'.*'*# .+%-.+0 *.1' 2 P 4bar5 .* -.# + .'. '.-+ %'. +x +x +x +x +x 2/' 2/' 2/' 2/' 2/' /' .'12* 2.2' #.*1.'.'.'- 7i 4m5 * * * * * * * * * Ph 4D5 + . # '.++2' #2. <n the following table.b 4N5 2.0#%* +.* . '. .+010 +.#-*% . 8 4$5 * Table T 4min5 T# 4min5 9 4$P(5 9 4m%:s5 2. with small flow rate.%%-1 Pb 4D5 #.% # * 2 N 4rpm5 #12 2*+ 12#.

2#x 2 .# 1 #.%0 0. --# .b with the radius of the turbine.#1 +. 7i is obtained from converting Pi from bar to metres.2#x 2 .0*%# .0' # .##'1 %. . 1+# 2.*2 * N 47=5 # . P is obtained by converting the pressure exerted on the turbine.2#x 2 .b and N is obtained from the previous tables.220# 2.2-0% 2.2'-' 2.%1 0. Bt 4C5 is obtained by dividing Pb with Ph and converting it to percentage. 2-#. 9.'.*0 2 P 4bar5 .-+*0 .-+ % 2 Bt 4C5 -.2#x 2 /' /' /' /' /' /' /' /' /' .2-'# 2.'+ 1.<n the following table.-' 2 Table % 4ii5 6 Pelton turbine experimental summary.# #%.2#x 2 .'. #0 .'.* -.* # .+ *.2%2.2#x 2 .2+ 0 2.2# .0+%1 #. Ph is obtained by the following formula > ? x g x 7i x 9.* .2#x 2 .00#1 .'.'. which is .'.2'#m.'- 7i 4m5 * * * * * * * * * Ph 4D5 * * * * * * * * * T 4Nm5 2. to bar.2#'2. where ? is the density of water 4 2223g:m%5 @ g is the gravitational acceleration 41. 2* Pb 4D5 . .2'1' 2. 9 4m%:s5 .-% ' %.'. # %.2' #.%#'.0 m:s#5 T is obtained by multiplying .'.2#x 2 .b 4N5 2. which is 2.*00+ 2.2#x 2 .-#*0 %.'.* 2.*2*1 %.*3gf:cm#. Pb is obtained by the following formula > #ANT.

Fraph 6 T versus N 4&eries represents the large flow rate.Using the data from Table % 4i5 and Table % 4ii5. the following graphs are drawn. series # represents the small flow rate5 Fraph # 6 Pb versus N 4&eries represents the large flow rate. in which weEre using the values for high head large flow rate and high head small flow rate. series # represents the small flow rate5 .

series # represents the small flow rate5 .Fraph % 6 Bt versus N 4&eries represents the large flow rate.

-% 2 Table # 4iii5 6 Pelton turbine experimental data.* 02.01x 2/' 4iii5 6 .*00+ .** -*2.+-20 -. --# . P is obtained by converting the pressure exerted on the turbine.%' #.-0'0 2. <n the following table.0 m:s#5 T is obtained by multiplying .*1 +. .**2+ '.#1'% 2.2'#m. 7i is obtained from converting Pi from bar to metres.b 4N5 2.#1 #. . *'+ %%0 2 N# 4rpm5 *1# %-% -0 102.% *-'.1 -''. 9.# -*-. N is then converted to 7ert=.b#. with large flow rate.#* %'' 2 N 47=5 #+.%%*' *.#-*% #.* 1--.b and .'' ##. to bar.*00+ 2.+0 +. N is the average of N and N#. m and m# is obtained from the scale.Part G 4i5 6 $ow head.2## *.22% +.%' *.* %-#.#1'% . which is 3gf:cm#.#-*% %.b is obtained by subtraction of .1'+ 1.2-1 .10 . Pb is obtained by the following formula > #ANT.* %*2 2 N 4rpm5 *0+.-+01 -.-'11 0. which is 2.#+#* .#0-.0#1 N 4rpm5 *0 %-# 0% 1-'.b# is basically converting m and m# respectively in terms of Newton. <n the following table.low rate measurement data.b and N is obtained from the previous tables.b from . .0+%1 %. where ? is the density of water 4 2223g:m%5 @ g is the gravitational acceleration 41.* 1.b 4N5 2.00 1.2#*# #. Bt 4C5 is obtained by dividing Pb with Ph and converting it to percentage. Ph is obtained by the following formula > ? x g x 7i x 9. N and N# is obtained from the Pelton turbine.b with the radius of the turbine. 8 4$5 * Table T 4min5 T# 4min5 9 4$P(5 9 4m%:s5 2.*+2.b# 4N5 2.'%%* .#01* 2. . m 4g5 %2 +2 02 22 2 #2 %2 %*2 m# 4g5 +2 12 %'2 * 2 +02 0 2 1#2 #*2 .

%* T 4Nm5 2.%' *.00 1.#0-' 0.1022..#-*% #.%* #0.0#1 N 47=5 #+.-% 2 P 4bar5 2.*+0 Bt 4C5 -.%* #0.+2.%* #0.01x 2 #.01x 2 #.2 #' 2.-2** %.10 +*.1022.## Table % 4iii5 6 Pelton turbine experimental summary.#1'% .-+01 -. +01 2.9 4m%:s5 #.+0' .01x 2 /' /' /' /' /' /' /' /' .2*%+ 2.%-20 Pb 4D5 #.*1 +.+0 +.01x 2 #.102- 7i 4m5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Ph 4D5 #0.**2+ '.2## *.##-.#0'% 2.b 4N5 2.%' %2.* 1.#'%# -. .%#** 2.1022. 22.#%'1 2.0* ' .01x 2 #.-'11 0.%* #0.1022.01x 2 #.%* #0.01 0.2+ -.01x 2 #.'' ##.1022.1022.#1 #. % *0.01x 2 #.'+%0 +.1022.%* #0.%* #0. 0 '+.

which is 3gf:cm#. 9.b# is basically converting m and m# respectively in terms of Newton.b from .'12* 2.01x 2/' 4iv5 6 .Part G 4ii5 6 $ow head.b is obtained by subtraction of .#%-% %.b#.+0+2. P is obtained by converting the pressure exerted on the turbine.*00+ 2. Ph is obtained by the following formula > ? x g x 7i x 9. m and m# is obtained from the scale. <n the following table.* +01.b and N is obtained from the previous tables.2* 0 . to bar. 8 4$5 * Table T 4min5 T# 4min5 9 4$P(5 9 4m%:s5 2.*00+ .' N 4rpm5 ** 22* 0'+. . <n the following table.%*'' #. which is 2.**2+ %.low rate measurement data.'* %.10 . Bt 4C5 is obtained by dividing Pb with Ph and converting it to percentage.b with the radius of the turbine.-* %0-. *0# #.%* *'#. .++-#.#* +.2'#m.+0+2.2' N 4rpm5 -2 2 2 0'% +1*.'1 1.*00+ 2. where ? is the density of water 4 2223g:m%5 @ g is the gravitational acceleration 41.-* '. --# . 7i is obtained from converting Pi from bar to metres. m 4g5 %2 '2 *2 +2 +2 -2 -2 02 m# 4g5 +2 22 -2 ##2 #+2 % 2 %%2 %12 .' 2.# *'* %0*.-0'0 .*00+ 2.''%0 2.'%10 .1 -1.*+1+ .* %00.2% 2. .b# 4N5 2.'* N 47=5 1.%# .%1#' 2. Pb is obtained by the following formula > #ANT.* '.2* +. N is the average of N and N#.**2+ %.* *'2.#1'% 2.1* #.b 4N5 2.b and .2' %.0 m:s#5 T is obtained by multiplying . N and N# is obtained from the Pelton turbine. .0#*1 . N is then converted to 7ert=.1+# #.# Table # 4iv5 6 Pelton turbine experimental data.#1'% 2.# 0'.* N# 4rpm5 '2 222 0*2 +0%. . with small flow rate.b 4N5 2.

*' 0.1022.'1 1.01x 2 .*11* '.*00+ .## .01x 2 . .20#' 2.*' 0.2101 2.*+1+ .#1'% 2.01x 2 .1022.b 4N5 2.2% 2.-* '.2'1' 2.01x 2 .-*-+ '. #-0 Pb 4D5 .01x 2 . 22. --# .*' 0.'110 #.%*'' #.220 #.%-1+ '.9 4m%:s5 .+# #*.1022.102- 7i 4m5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Ph 4D5 0.01x 2 .2# #%.21 '.*' 0.2' N 47=5 1.2#'2.1022.*' 0.2+*1 2.1022.'* %.# P 4bar5 2.01x 2 /' /' /' /' /' /' /' /' .1022.*' T 4Nm5 2.2 #' 2.01x 2 .#* +.+0** '. .+# 2.2%1 2.1022.2* +.*' 0. +0+ Bt 4C5 0.1+# #.1 Table % 4iv5 6 Pelton turbine experimental summary.**2+ %.++ #*.*' 0.

Using the data from Table % 4iii5 and Table % 4iv5. Fraph 6 T versus N 4&eries represents the large flow rate. the following graphs are drawn. in which weEre using the values for low head large flow rate and low head small flow rate. series # represents the small flow rate5 Fraph # 6 Pb versus N 4&eries represents the large flow rate. series # represents the small flow rate5 .

series # represents the small flow rate5 .Fraph % 6 Bt versus N 4&eries represents the large flow rate.

<n the reaction turbine. The "et stri3es the buc3ets and imparts momentum. the fluid fills the blade passages. and 7available is the available pressure head on the no==le. The Pelton turbine used in this experiment is an impulse turbine. negligible head loss at the no==le and at the impact with the buc3ets 4assuming that the entire available head is converted into "et velocity5.Discussion: There are two types of turbines.igure provides the power extracted from the available head by the turbine Pavailable > 97available where 9 is the discharge of the incoming "et. )n impulse turbine first converts the water head through a no==le into a high/velocity "et. a runner and a casing. reaction and the impulse. and the "et flow past the buc3ets is essentially at constant pressure. which then stri3es the buc3ets at one position as they pass by. <mpulse turbines are ideally suited for high head and relatively low power. . the energy equation applied to the control volume shown in . and the head change or pressure drop occurs within the runner. the difference being the manner of head conversion. )ssuming that the speed of the exiting "et is =ero 4all of the 3inetic energy of the "et is expended in driving the buc3ets5. The primary feature of the impulse turbine is the power production as the "et is deflected by the moving buc3ets. The buc3ets are shaped in a manner to divide the flow in half and turn its relative velocity vector nearly 02H. The runner consists of multiple buc3ets mounted on a rotating wheel. The Pelton turbine consists of three basic components as shown in .igure 6 a stationary inlet no==le. .igure 6 &chematic of an impulse turbine. The runner passages are not fully filled.

. Fenerally used in hydroelectric plants where water level is high 4high head5. Bnergy present at inlet is only 3inetic but in radial energy at inlet is 3inetic and pressure energy %. <t is a tangential flow turbine 4water hits runner tangential at the blades5 where as in radial turbine water does not hit it. The efficiency of the turbine is defined as the ratio between the power developed by the turbine to the available water power J > P : Pavailable The following are theories related to the Pelton turbine 6 .Gy applying the angular momentum equation 4assuming negligible angular momentum for the exiting "et5 to the same control volume about the axis of the turbine shaft the absolute value of the power developed by the turbine can be written as P > IT > #ANT where I is the angular velocity of the runner. flows over the blades with high pressure and velocity. and N is the rotational speed of the runner. T is the torque acting on the turbine shaft. #.

.energybeta.com:hydropower:pelton/turbine:O L)ccessed on #'th Kune #2 #M .:lab'. .com:question:indexPqid>#2212##%2%%2% )). <t has been observed that for both high head and low head. Da"id. the curves for the larger flow rate are higher than the curves for the smaller flow rate.uiowa...obertson. K.edu:fluidslab:pdfs:*%/2. the ob"ectives of this experiment has been achieved. #221. ). #2 #.). Theory of Pelton turbine L!nlineM )vailable from 6 Nhttp6::answers.pdfO L)ccessed on #'th Kune #2 #M #. 11%. Pelton turbine experiment L!nlineM )vailable from 6 Nhttp6::www. &ince the ob"ectives of have been met. P. The Pelton turbine L!nlineM )vailable from 6 Nhttp6::www. The proof for this is the graphs drawn for torque. bra3e power and useful fluid power against the number of rotations per second.engineering. $emelson.Conclusion: <n conclusion.yahoo. References: . which is to study the characteristics curves of a Pelton turbine operating at different flow rates with high head and low head.vfb(O L)ccessed on #'th Kune #2 #M %. this experiment is proven to be successful.

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