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Retaining wall Analysis & Design, In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the

recommended values.
Project: Section

Job Ref.

GEODOMISI Ltd. - Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Consulting Company for Structural Engineering, Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Foundation Engineering & Retaining Structures.
Tel.: (+30) 210 5238127, 210 5711263 - Fax.:+30 210 5711461 - Mobile: (+30) 6936425722 & (+44) 7585939944, costas@sachpazis.info

Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
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Sheet no./rev. 1

Dr. C. Sachpazis

04/04/2014

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RETAINING WALL ANALYSIS (EN1997-1:2004)
In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the recommended values
Retaining wall details
Stem type; Stem height; Stem thickness; Slope length to front of stem; Angle to rear face of stem; Angle to front face of stem; Stem density; Toe length; Heel length; Base thickness; Base density; Height of retained soil; Angle of soil surface; Depth of cover; Height of water; Water density; Cantilever with inclined front face hstem = 4000 mm tstem = 450 mm lslf = 100 mm α = 90 deg αf = 88.6 deg γstem = 25 kN/m ltoe = 1000 mm lheel = 4000 mm tbase = 450 mm γbase = 25 kN/m hret = 3000 mm β = 15 deg dcover = 500 mm hwater = 300 mm γw = 9.8 kN/m
3 3 3

Retained soil properties
Soil type; Moist density; Saturated density; Characteristic effective shear resistance angle; Characteristic wall friction angle; Medium dense well graded sand and gravel γmr = 20 kN/m φ'r.k = 25 deg δr.k = 16 deg
3 3

γsr = 22.3 kN/m

Base soil properties
Moist density; Characteristic cohesion; Characteristic adhesion; Characteristic effective shear resistance angle; Characteristic wall friction angle; Characteristic base friction angle; γmb = 20 kN/m3 c'b.k = 5 kN/m ab.k = 5 kN/m δb.k = 20 deg δbb.k = 25 deg φ'b.k = 25 deg
2 2

Loading details
Variable surcharge load; SurchargeQ = 10 kN/m
2

Retaining wall Analysis & Design, In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the recommended values.
Project: Section

Job Ref.

GEODOMISI Ltd. - Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Consulting Company for Structural Engineering, Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Foundation Engineering & Retaining Structures.
Tel.: (+30) 210 5238127, 210 5711263 - Fax.:+30 210 5711461 - Mobile: (+30) 6936425722 & (+44) 7585939944, costas@sachpazis.info

Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
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Sheet no./rev. 1

Dr. C. Sachpazis

04/04/2014

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Calculate retaining wall geometry
Base length; Saturated soil height; Moist soil height; Length of surcharge load; lbase = ltoe + lslf + tstem + lheel = 5550 mm hsat = hwater + dcover = 800 mm hmoist = hret - hwater = 2700 mm lsur = lheel = 4000 mm

Retaining wall Analysis & Design, In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the recommended values.
Project: Section

Job Ref.

GEODOMISI Ltd. - Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Consulting Company for Structural Engineering, Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Foundation Engineering & Retaining Structures.
Tel.: (+30) 210 5238127, 210 5711263 - Fax.:+30 210 5711461 - Mobile: (+30) 6936425722 & (+44) 7585939944, costas@sachpazis.info

Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
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Sheet no./rev. 1

Dr. C. Sachpazis

04/04/2014

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Date

- Distance to vertical component; Effective height of wall; - Distance to horizontal component; Area of wall stem; - Distance to vertical component; Area of wall base; - Distance to vertical component; Area of saturated soil; - Distance to vertical component; - Distance to horizontal component; Area of water; - Distance to vertical component; - Distance to horizontal component; Area of moist soil; - Distance to vertical component; - Distance to horizontal component;

xsur_v = lbase - lheel / 2 = 3550 mm heff = hbase + dcover + hret + lsur × tan(β) = 5022 mm xsur_h = heff / 2 = 2511 mm Astem = hstem × (tstem + lslf / 2) = 2 m
2

xstem = (hstem × tstem × (ltoe + lslf + tstem / 2) + hstem × lslf / 2 × (ltoe + 2 × lslf / 3)) / Astem = 1299 mm Abase = lbase × tbase = 2.498 m xbase = lbase / 2 = 2775 mm Asat = hsat × lheel = 3.2 m xsat_v = lbase - (hsat ×
2 2 lheel 2

/ 2) / Asat = 3550 mm
2

xsat_h = (hsat + hbase) / 3 = 417 mm Awater = hsat × lheel = 3.2 m xwater_v = lbase - (hsat × lheel / 2) / Asat = 3550 mm xwater_h = (hsat + hbase) / 3 = 417 mm Amoist = hmoist × lheel + tan(β) × lheel / 2 = 12.944 m
2 3 2 2 2

xmoist_v = lbase - (hmoist × lheel / 2 + tan(β) × lheel / 6) / Amoist = 3660 mm xmoist_h = ((heff - hsat - hbase) × (tbase + hsat + (heff - hsat - hbase) / 3) / 2 + (hsat + tbase) /2) / (hsat + tbase + (heff hsat - hbase) / 2) = 1757 mm
2

Area of base soil; - Distance to vertical component;

Apass = dcover × (ltoe + lslf × dcover / (2 × hstem)) = 0.503 m
2

xpass_v = lbase - (dcover × ltoe × (lbase - ltoe / 2) + lslf × dcover / (2 × hstem) × (lbase - ltoe - lslf × dcover / (3 × hstem))) / Apass = 503 mm
2

- Distance to horizontal component; Area of excavated base soil; - Distance to vertical component;

xpass_h = (dcover + hbase) / 3 = 317 mm Aexc = hpass × (ltoe + lslf × hpass / (2 × hstem)) = 0.503 m
2

xexc_v = lbase - (hpass × ltoe × (lbase - ltoe / 2) + lslf × hpass / (2 × hstem) × (lbase - ltoe - lslf × hpass / (3 × hstem))) / Aexc = 503 mm
2

- Distance to horizontal component;

xexc_h = (hpass + hbase) / 3 = 317 mm

Partial factors on actions - Table A.3 - Combination 1
Permanent unfavourable action; Permanent favourable action; Variable unfavourable action; Variable favourable action; γG = 1.35 γGf = 1.00 γQ = 1.50 γQf = 0.00

Partial factors for soil parameters – Table A.4 - Combination 1
Angle of shearing resistance; γφ' = 1.00

Retaining wall Analysis & Design, In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the recommended values.
Project: Section

Job Ref.

GEODOMISI Ltd. - Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Consulting Company for Structural Engineering, Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Foundation Engineering & Retaining Structures.
Tel.: (+30) 210 5238127, 210 5711263 - Fax.:+30 210 5711461 - Mobile: (+30) 6936425722 & (+44) 7585939944, costas@sachpazis.info

Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
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Sheet no./rev. 1

Dr. C. Sachpazis

04/04/2014 γc' = 1.00 γγ = 1.00

App'd by

Date

Effective cohesion; Weight density;

Retained soil properties
Design effective shear resistance angle; Design wall friction angle; φ'r.d = atan(tan(φ'r.k) / γφ') = 25 deg δr.d = atan(tan(δr.k) / γφ') = 16 deg

Base soil properties
Design effective shear resistance angle; Design wall friction angle; Design base friction angle; Design effective cohesion; Design adhesion; φ'b.d = atan(tan(φ'b.k) / γφ') = 25 deg δb.d = atan(tan(δb.k) / γφ') = 20 deg δbb.d = atan(tan(δbb.k) / γφ') = 25 deg c'b.d = c'b.k / γc' = 5 kN/m ab.d = ab.k / γc' = 5 kN/m
2 2

Using Coulomb theory
Active pressure coefficient; KA = sin(α + φ'r.d) / (sin(α) × sin(α - δr.d) × [1 + √[sin(φ'r.d + δr.d) × sin(φ'r.d - β) / (sin(α - δr.d) × sin(α + β))]] ) = 0.469 Passive pressure coefficient; KP = sin(αf - φ'b.d) / (sin(αf) × sin(αf + δb.d) × [1 √[sin(φ'b.d + δb.d) × sin(φ'b.d) / (sin(αf + δb.d) × sin(αf))]] ) = 4.403
2 2 2 2 2 2

Sliding check Vertical forces on wall
Wall stem; Wall base; Saturated retained soil; Water; Moist retained soil; Base soil; Total; Fstem = γGf × Astem × γstem = 50 kN/m Fbase = γGf × Abase × γbase = 62.4 kN/m Fsat_v = γGf × Asat × (γsr - γw) = 39.8 kN/m Fwater_v = γGf × Awater × γw = 31.4 kN/m Fmoist_v = γGf × Amoist × γmr = 258.9 kN/m Fexc_v = γGf × Aexc × γmb = 10.1 kN/m Ftotal_v = Fstem + Fbase + Fsat_v + Fmoist_v + Fexc_v + Fwater_v = 452.6 kN/m

Horizontal forces on wall
Surcharge load; Saturated retained soil; Water; Fsur_h = KA × cos(δr.d) × γQ × SurchargeQ × heff = 33.9 kN/m Fsat_h = γG × KA × cos(δr.d) × (γsr - γw) × (hsat + hbase) / 2 = 5.9 kN/m Fwater_h = γG × γw × (hwater + dcover + hbase) / 2 = 10.3 kN/m
2 2

Retaining wall Analysis & Design, In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the recommended values.
Project: Section

Job Ref.

GEODOMISI Ltd. - Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Consulting Company for Structural Engineering, Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Foundation Engineering & Retaining Structures.
Tel.: (+30) 210 5238127, 210 5711263 - Fax.:+30 210 5711461 - Mobile: (+30) 6936425722 & (+44) 7585939944, costas@sachpazis.info

Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
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Sheet no./rev. 1

Dr. C. Sachpazis

04/04/2014

App'd by

Date

Moist retained soil;

Fmoist_h = γG × KA × cos(δr.d) × γmr × ((heff - hsat hbase) / 2 + (heff - hsat - hbase) × (hsat + hbase)) = 143.9
2

Total;

kN/m Ftotal_h = Fsat_h + Fmoist_h + Fwater_h + Fsur_h = 194.1 kN/m

Check stability against sliding
Base soil resistance; = 37.3 kN/m Base friction; Resistance to sliding; Factor of safety; Ffriction = ab.d × b + Ftotal_v × tan(δbb.d) = 216 kN/m Frest = Fexc_h + Ffriction = 253.4 kN/m FoSsl = Frest / Ftotal_h = 1.306 PASS - Resistance to sliding is greater than sliding force Fexc_h = γGf × KP × cos(δb.d) × γmb × (hpass + hbase) / 2
2

Overturning check Vertical forces on wall
Wall stem; Wall base; Saturated retained soil; Water; Moist retained soil; Base soil; Total; Fstem = γGf × Astem × γstem = 50 kN/m Fbase = γGf × Abase × γbase = 62.4 kN/m Fsat_v = γGf × Asat × (γsr - γw) = 39.8 kN/m Fwater_v = γGf × Awater × γw = 31.4 kN/m Fmoist_v = γGf × Amoist × γmr = 258.9 kN/m Fexc_v = γGf × Aexc × γmb = 10.1 kN/m Ftotal_v = Fstem + Fbase + Fsat_v + Fmoist_v + Fexc_v + Fwater_v = 452.6 kN/m

Horizontal forces on wall
Surcharge load; Saturated retained soil; Water; Moist retained soil; Fsur_h = KA × cos(δr.d) × γQ × SurchargeQ × heff = 33.9 kN/m Fsat_h = γG × KA × cos(δr.d) × (γsr - γw) × (hsat + hbase) / 2 = 5.9 kN/m Fwater_h = γG × γw × (hwater + dcover + hbase)2 / 2 = 10.3 kN/m Fmoist_h = γG × KA × cos(δr.d) × γmr × ((heff - hsat hbase) / 2 + (heff - hsat - hbase) × (hsat + hbase)) = 143.9 kN/m Base soil; Total; Fexc_h = -γGf × KP × cos(δb.d) × γmb × (hpass + hbase) / 2 = -37.3 kN/m Ftotal_h = Fsat_h + Fmoist_h + Fexc_h + Fwater_h + Fsur_h = 156.7 kN/m
2 2 2

Overturning moments on wall
Surcharge load; Msur_OT = Fsur_h × xsur_h = 85.2 kNm/m

Retaining wall Analysis & Design, In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the recommended values.
Project: Section

Job Ref.

GEODOMISI Ltd. - Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Consulting Company for Structural Engineering, Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Foundation Engineering & Retaining Structures.
Tel.: (+30) 210 5238127, 210 5711263 - Fax.:+30 210 5711461 - Mobile: (+30) 6936425722 & (+44) 7585939944, costas@sachpazis.info

Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
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Sheet no./rev. 1

Dr. C. Sachpazis

04/04/2014

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Date

Saturated retained soil; Water; Moist retained soil; Total;

Msat_OT = Fsat_h × xsat_h = 2.5 kNm/m Mwater_OT = Fwater_h × xwater_h = 4.3 kNm/m Mmoist_OT = Fmoist_h × xmoist_h = 252.8 kNm/m Mtotal_OT = Msat_OT + Mmoist_OT + Mwater_OT + Msur_OT = 344.8 kNm/m

Restoring moments on wall
Wall stem; Wall base; Saturated retained soil; Water; Moist retained soil; Base soil; Total; Mstem_R = Fstem × xstem = 65 kNm/m Mbase_R = Fbase × xbase = 173.3 kNm/m Msat_R = Fsat_v × xsat_v = 141.3 kNm/m Mwater_R = Fwater_v × xwater_v = 111.4 kNm/m Mmoist_R = Fmoist_v × xmoist_v = 947.6 kNm/m Mexc_R = Fexc_v × xexc_v - Fexc_h × xexc_h = 16.9 kNm/m Mtotal_R = Mstem_R + Mbase_R + Msat_R + Mmoist_R + Mexc_R + Mwater_R = 1455.4 kNm/m

Check stability against overturning
Factor of safety; FoSot = Mtotal_R / Mtotal_OT = 4.222 PASS - Maximum restoring moment is greater than overturning moment

Bearing pressure check Vertical forces on wall
Wall stem; Wall base; Surcharge load; Saturated retained soil; Water; Moist retained soil; Base soil; Total; Fstem = γG × Astem × γstem = 67.5 kN/m Fbase = γG × Abase × γbase = 84.3 kN/m Fsur_v = γQ × SurchargeQ × lheel = 60 kN/m Fsat_v = γG × Asat × (γsr - γw) = 53.7 kN/m Fwater_v = γG × Awater × γw = 42.4 kN/m Fmoist_v = γG × Amoist × γmr = 349.5 kN/m Fpass_v = γG × Apass × γmb = 13.6 kN/m Ftotal_v = Fstem + Fbase + Fsat_v + Fmoist_v + Fpass_v + Fwater_v + Fsur_v = 671 kN/m

Horizontal forces on wall
Surcharge load; Saturated retained soil; Water; Moist retained soil; Fsur_h = KA × cos(δr.d) × γQ × SurchargeQ × heff = 33.9 kN/m Fsat_h = γG × KA × cos(δr.d) × (γsr - γw) × (hsat + hbase) / 2 = 5.9 kN/m Fwater_h = γG × γw × (hwater + dcover + hbase) / 2 = 10.3 kN/m Fmoist_h = γG × KA × cos(δr.d) × γmr × ((heff - hsat hbase) / 2 + (heff - hsat - hbase) × (hsat + hbase)) = 143.9 kN/m
2 2 2

Retaining wall Analysis & Design, In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the recommended values.
Project: Section

Job Ref.

GEODOMISI Ltd. - Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Consulting Company for Structural Engineering, Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Foundation Engineering & Retaining Structures.
Tel.: (+30) 210 5238127, 210 5711263 - Fax.:+30 210 5711461 - Mobile: (+30) 6936425722 & (+44) 7585939944, costas@sachpazis.info

Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
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Sheet no./rev. 1

Dr. C. Sachpazis

04/04/2014

App'd by
2

Date

Base soil; Total;

Fpass_h = -γGf × KP × cos(δb.d) × γmb × (dcover + hbase) / 2 = -37.3 kN/m Ftotal_h = max(Fsat_h + Fmoist_h + Fpass_h + Fwater_h + Fsur_h - (ab.d × b + Ftotal_v × tan(δbb.d)), 0 kN/m) = 0 kN/m

Moments on wall
Wall stem; Wall base; Surcharge load; Saturated retained soil; Water; Moist retained soil; Base soil; Total; Mstem = Fstem × xstem = 87.7 kNm/m Mbase = Fbase × xbase = 233.9 kNm/m Msur = Fsur_v × xsur_v - Fsur_h × xsur_h = 127.8 kNm/m Msat = Fsat_v × xsat_v - Fsat_h × xsat_h = 188.3 kNm/m Mwater = Fwater_v × xwater_v - Fwater_h × xwater_h = 146.1 kNm/m Mmoist = Fmoist_v × xmoist_v - Fmoist_h × xmoist_h = 1026.4 kNm/m Mpass = Fpass_v × xpass_v - Fpass_h × xpass_h = 18.7 kNm/m Mtotal = Mstem + Mbase + Msat + Mmoist + Mpass + Mwater + Msur = 1829 kNm/m

Check bearing pressure
Distance to reaction; Eccentricity of reaction; Loaded length of base; Bearing pressure at toe; Bearing pressure at heel; Effective overburden pressure; Design effective overburden pressure; Bearing resistance factors; x = Mtotal / Ftotal_v = 2726 mm e = x - lbase / 2 = -49 mm lload = 2 × x = 5452 mm qtoe = Ftotal_v / lload = 123.1 kN/m qheel = 0 kN/m 6.7 kN/m
2 2 2

q = (tbase + dcover) × γmb - (tbase + dcover + hwater) × γw = q' = q / γγ = 6.7 kN/m2 Nq = Exp(π × tan(φ'b.d)) × (tan(45 deg + φ'b.d / 2)) = 10.662 Nc = (Nq - 1) × cot(φ'b.d) = 20.721 Nγ = 2 × (Nq - 1) × tan(φ'b.d) = 9.011
2

Foundation shape factors;

sq = 1 sγ = 1 sc = 1 H = Ftotal_h = 0 kN/m V = Ftotal_v = 671 kN/m m=2 iq = [1 - H / (V + lload × c'b.d × cot(φ'b.d))] = 1 iγ = [1 - H / (V + lload × c'b.d × cot(φ'b.d))]
(m + 1) m

Load inclination factors;

=1

Retaining wall Analysis & Design, In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the recommended values.
Project: Section

Job Ref.

GEODOMISI Ltd. - Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Consulting Company for Structural Engineering, Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Foundation Engineering & Retaining Structures.
Tel.: (+30) 210 5238127, 210 5711263 - Fax.:+30 210 5711461 - Mobile: (+30) 6936425722 & (+44) 7585939944, costas@sachpazis.info

Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
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Sheet no./rev. 1

Dr. C. Sachpazis

04/04/2014

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ic = iq - (1 - iq) / (Nc × tan(φ'b.d)) = 1 Net ultimate bearing capacity; Factor of safety; nf = c'b.d × Nc × sc × ic + q' × Nq × sq × iq + 0.5 × (γmb - γw) × lload × Nγ × sγ × iγ = 425.7 kN/m FoSbp = nf / max(qtoe, qheel) = 3.459 PASS - Allowable bearing pressure exceeds maximum applied bearing pressure
2

Partial factors on actions - Table A.3 - Combination 2
Permanent unfavourable action; Permanent favourable action; Variable unfavourable action; Variable favourable action; γG = 1.00 γGf = 1.00 γQ = 1.30 γQf = 0.00

Partial factors for soil parameters – Table A.4 - Combination 2
Angle of shearing resistance; Effective cohesion; Weight density; γφ' = 1.25 γc' = 1.25 γγ = 1.00

Retained soil properties
Design effective shear resistance angle; Design wall friction angle; φ'r.d = atan(tan(φ'r.k) / γφ') = 20.5 deg δr.d = atan(tan(δr.k) / γφ') = 12.9 deg

Base soil properties
Design effective shear resistance angle; Design wall friction angle; Design base friction angle; Design effective cohesion; Design adhesion; φ'b.d = atan(tan(φ'b.k) / γφ') = 20.5 deg δb.d = atan(tan(δb.k) / γφ') = 16.2 deg δbb.d = atan(tan(δbb.k) / γφ') = 20.5 deg c'b.d = c'b.k / γc' = 4 kN/m ab.d = ab.k / γc' = 4 kN/m
2 2

Using Coulomb theory
Active pressure coefficient; KA = sin(α + φ'r.d) / (sin(α) × sin(α - δr.d) × [1 + √[sin(φ'r.d + δr.d) × sin(φ'r.d - β) / (sin(α - δr.d) × sin(α + β))]] ) = 0.590 Passive pressure coefficient; KP = sin(αf - φ'b.d) / (sin(αf) × sin(αf + δb.d) × [1 √[sin(φ'b.d + δb.d) × sin(φ'b.d) / (sin(αf + δb.d) × sin(αf))]] ) = 3.111
2 2 2 2 2 2

Sliding check Vertical forces on wall
Wall stem; Wall base; Saturated retained soil; Water; Fstem = γGf × Astem × γstem = 50 kN/m Fbase = γGf × Abase × γbase = 62.4 kN/m Fsat_v = γGf × Asat × (γsr - γw) = 39.8 kN/m Fwater_v = γGf × Awater × γw = 31.4 kN/m

Retaining wall Analysis & Design, In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the recommended values.
Project: Section

Job Ref.

GEODOMISI Ltd. - Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Consulting Company for Structural Engineering, Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Foundation Engineering & Retaining Structures.
Tel.: (+30) 210 5238127, 210 5711263 - Fax.:+30 210 5711461 - Mobile: (+30) 6936425722 & (+44) 7585939944, costas@sachpazis.info

Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
Calc. by Date Chk'd by Date

Sheet no./rev. 1

Dr. C. Sachpazis

04/04/2014

App'd by

Date

Moist retained soil; Base soil; Total;

Fmoist_v = γGf × Amoist × γmr = 258.9 kN/m Fexc_v = γGf × Aexc × γmb = 10.1 kN/m Ftotal_v = Fstem + Fbase + Fsat_v + Fmoist_v + Fexc_v + Fwater_v = 452.6 kN/m

Horizontal forces on wall
Surcharge load; Saturated retained soil; Water; Moist retained soil; Fsur_h = KA × cos(δr.d) × γQ × SurchargeQ × heff = 37.5 kN/m Fsat_h = γG × KA × cos(δr.d) × (γsr - γw) × (hsat + hbase) / 2 = 5.6 kN/m Fwater_h = γG × γw × (hwater + dcover + hbase) / 2 = 7.7 kN/m Fmoist_h = γG × KA × cos(δr.d) × γmr × ((heff - hsat hbase) / 2 + (heff - hsat - hbase) × (hsat + hbase)) = 136 Total; kN/m Ftotal_h = Fsat_h + Fmoist_h + Fwater_h + Fsur_h = 186.8 kN/m
2 2 2

Check stability against sliding
Base soil resistance; = 27 kN/m Base friction; Resistance to sliding; Factor of safety; Ffriction = ab.d × b + Ftotal_v × tan(δbb.d) = 172.8 kN/m Frest = Fexc_h + Ffriction = 199.8 kN/m FoSsl = Frest / Ftotal_h = 1.07 PASS - Resistance to sliding is greater than sliding force Fexc_h = γGf × KP × cos(δb.d) × γmb × (hpass + hbase) / 2
2

Overturning check Vertical forces on wall
Wall stem; Wall base; Saturated retained soil; Water; Moist retained soil; Base soil; Total; Fstem = γGf × Astem × γstem = 50 kN/m Fbase = γGf × Abase × γbase = 62.4 kN/m Fsat_v = γGf × Asat × (γsr - γw) = 39.8 kN/m Fwater_v = γGf × Awater × γw = 31.4 kN/m Fmoist_v = γGf × Amoist × γmr = 258.9 kN/m Fexc_v = γGf × Aexc × γmb = 10.1 kN/m Ftotal_v = Fstem + Fbase + Fsat_v + Fmoist_v + Fexc_v + Fwater_v = 452.6 kN/m

Horizontal forces on wall
Surcharge load; Saturated retained soil; Fsur_h = KA × cos(δr.d) × γQ × SurchargeQ × heff = 37.5 kN/m Fsat_h = γG × KA × cos(δr.d) × (γsr - γw) × (hsat + hbase) / 2 = 5.6 kN/m
2

Retaining wall Analysis & Design, In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the recommended values.
Project: Section

Job Ref.

GEODOMISI Ltd. - Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Consulting Company for Structural Engineering, Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Foundation Engineering & Retaining Structures.
Tel.: (+30) 210 5238127, 210 5711263 - Fax.:+30 210 5711461 - Mobile: (+30) 6936425722 & (+44) 7585939944, costas@sachpazis.info

Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
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2

Sheet no./rev. 1

Dr. C. Sachpazis

04/04/2014

App'd by

Date

Water; Moist retained soil;

Fwater_h = γG × γw × (hwater + dcover + hbase) / 2 = 7.7 kN/m Fmoist_h = γG × KA × cos(δr.d) × γmr × ((heff - hsat hbase) / 2 + (heff - hsat - hbase) × (hsat + hbase)) = 136 kN/m
2

Base soil; Total;

Fexc_h = -γGf × KP × cos(δb.d) × γmb × (hpass + hbase) / 2 = -27 kN/m Ftotal_h = Fsat_h + Fmoist_h + Fexc_h + Fwater_h + Fsur_h = 159.8 kN/m

2

Overturning moments on wall
Surcharge load; Saturated retained soil; Water; Moist retained soil; Total; Msur_OT = Fsur_h × xsur_h = 94.2 kNm/m Msat_OT = Fsat_h × xsat_h = 2.3 kNm/m Mwater_OT = Fwater_h × xwater_h = 3.2 kNm/m Mmoist_OT = Fmoist_h × xmoist_h = 238.9 kNm/m Mtotal_OT = Msat_OT + Mmoist_OT + Mwater_OT + Msur_OT = 338.7 kNm/m

Restoring moments on wall
Wall stem; Wall base; Saturated retained soil; Water; Moist retained soil; Base soil; Total; Mstem_R = Fstem × xstem = 65 kNm/m Mbase_R = Fbase × xbase = 173.3 kNm/m Msat_R = Fsat_v × xsat_v = 141.3 kNm/m Mwater_R = Fwater_v × xwater_v = 111.4 kNm/m Mmoist_R = Fmoist_v × xmoist_v = 947.6 kNm/m Mexc_R = Fexc_v × xexc_v - Fexc_h × xexc_h = 13.6 kNm/m Mtotal_R = Mstem_R + Mbase_R + Msat_R + Mmoist_R + Mexc_R + Mwater_R = 1452.2 kNm/m

Check stability against overturning
Factor of safety; FoSot = Mtotal_R / Mtotal_OT = 4.288 PASS - Maximum restoring moment is greater than overturning moment

Bearing pressure check Vertical forces on wall
Wall stem; Wall base; Surcharge load; Saturated retained soil; Water; Moist retained soil; Base soil; Fstem = γG × Astem × γstem = 50 kN/m Fbase = γG × Abase × γbase = 62.4 kN/m Fsur_v = γQ × SurchargeQ × lheel = 52 kN/m Fsat_v = γG × Asat × (γsr - γw) = 39.8 kN/m Fwater_v = γG × Awater × γw = 31.4 kN/m Fmoist_v = γG × Amoist × γmr = 258.9 kN/m Fpass_v = γG × Apass × γmb = 10.1 kN/m

Retaining wall Analysis & Design, In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the recommended values.
Project: Section

Job Ref.

GEODOMISI Ltd. - Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Consulting Company for Structural Engineering, Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Foundation Engineering & Retaining Structures.
Tel.: (+30) 210 5238127, 210 5711263 - Fax.:+30 210 5711461 - Mobile: (+30) 6936425722 & (+44) 7585939944, costas@sachpazis.info

Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
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Dr. C. Sachpazis

04/04/2014

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Total;

Ftotal_v = Fstem + Fbase + Fsat_v + Fmoist_v + Fpass_v + Fwater_v + Fsur_v = 504.6 kN/m

Horizontal forces on wall
Surcharge load; Saturated retained soil; Water; Moist retained soil; Fsur_h = KA × cos(δr.d) × γQ × SurchargeQ × heff = 37.5 kN/m Fsat_h = γG × KA × cos(δr.d) × (γsr - γw) × (hsat + hbase) / 2 = 5.6 kN/m Fwater_h = γG × γw × (hwater + dcover + hbase) / 2 = 7.7 kN/m Fmoist_h = γG × KA × cos(δr.d) × γmr × ((heff - hsat hbase) / 2 + (heff - hsat - hbase) × (hsat + hbase)) = 136 kN/m Base soil; Total; Fpass_h = -γGf × KP × cos(δb.d) × γmb × (dcover + hbase) / 2 = -27 kN/m Ftotal_h = max(Fsat_h + Fmoist_h + Fpass_h + Fwater_h + Fsur_h - (ab.d × b + Ftotal_v × tan(δbb.d)), 0 kN/m) = 0 kN/m
2 2 2 2

Moments on wall
Wall stem; Wall base; Surcharge load; Saturated retained soil; Water; Moist retained soil; Base soil; Total; Mstem = Fstem × xstem = 65 kNm/m Mbase = Fbase × xbase = 173.3 kNm/m Msur = Fsur_v × xsur_v - Fsur_h × xsur_h = 90.4 kNm/m Msat = Fsat_v × xsat_v - Fsat_h × xsat_h = 139 kNm/m Mwater = Fwater_v × xwater_v - Fwater_h × xwater_h = 108.2 kNm/m Mmoist = Fmoist_v × xmoist_v - Fmoist_h × xmoist_h = 708.7 kNm/m Mpass = Fpass_v × xpass_v - Fpass_h × xpass_h = 13.6 kNm/m Mtotal = Mstem + Mbase + Msat + Mmoist + Mpass + Mwater + Msur = 1298.1 kNm/m

Check bearing pressure
Distance to reaction; Eccentricity of reaction; Loaded length of base; Bearing pressure at toe; Bearing pressure at heel; Effective overburden pressure; Design effective overburden pressure; x = Mtotal / Ftotal_v = 2573 mm e = x - lbase / 2 = -202 mm lload = 2 × x = 5145 mm qtoe = Ftotal_v / lload = 98.1 kN/m qheel = 0 kN/m 6.7 kN/m
2 2 2 2

q = (tbase + dcover) × γmb - (tbase + dcover + hwater) × γw = q' = q / γγ = 6.7 kN/m

Retaining wall Analysis & Design, In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the recommended values.
Project: Section

Job Ref.

GEODOMISI Ltd. - Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Consulting Company for Structural Engineering, Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Foundation Engineering & Retaining Structures.
Tel.: (+30) 210 5238127, 210 5711263 - Fax.:+30 210 5711461 - Mobile: (+30) 6936425722 & (+44) 7585939944, costas@sachpazis.info

Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
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Dr. C. Sachpazis

04/04/2014

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2

Date

Bearing resistance factors;

Nq = Exp(π × tan(φ'b.d)) × (tan(45 deg + φ'b.d / 2)) = 6.698 Nc = (Nq - 1) × cot(φ'b.d) = 15.273 Nγ = 2 × (Nq - 1) × tan(φ'b.d) = 4.251

Foundation shape factors;

sq = 1 sγ = 1 sc = 1

Load inclination factors;

H = Ftotal_h = 0 kN/m V = Ftotal_v = 504.6 kN/m m=2 iq = [1 - H / (V + lload × c'b.d × cot(φ'b.d))] = 1 iγ = [1 - H / (V + lload × c'b.d × cot(φ'b.d))] ic = iq - (1 - iq) / (Nc × tan(φ'b.d)) = 1
(m + 1) m

=1

Net ultimate bearing capacity; Factor of safety;

nf = c'b.d × Nc × sc × ic + q' × Nq × sq × iq + 0.5 × (γmb - γw) × lload × Nγ × sγ × iγ = 217.7 kN/m FoSbp = nf / max(qtoe, qheel) = 2.22
2

PASS - Allowable bearing pressure exceeds maximum applied bearing pressure

RETAINING WALL DESIGN
In accordance with EN1992-1-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated January 2008 and the recommended values Concrete details - Table 3.1 - Strength and deformation characteristics for concrete
Concrete strength class; Characteristic compressive cylinder strength; Characteristic compressive cube strength; Mean value of compressive cylinder strength; Mean value of axial tensile strength; 5% fractile of axial tensile strength; Secant modulus of elasticity of concrete; N/mm
2

C20/25 2 fck = 20 N/mm fck,cube = 25 N/mm
2 2 2 2 2 2/3

fcm = fck + 8 N/mm = 28 N/mm fctk,0.05 = 0.7 × fctm = 1.5 N/mm
2 2

fctm = 0.3 N/mm × (fck / 1 N/mm )

= 2.2 N/mm = 29962

2

Ecm = 22 kN/mm × (fcm / 10 N/mm ) γC = 1.50 αcc = 1.00 fcd = αcc × fck / γC = 13.3 N/mm hagg = 20 mm
2 2 2

2 0.3

Partial factor for concrete - Table 2.1N; Compressive strength coefficient - cl.3.1.6(1); Design compressive concrete strength - exp.3.15; Maximum aggregate size; Reinforcement details Characteristic yield strength of reinforcement; Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement;

fyk = 500 N/mm

Es = 200000 N/mm

Retaining wall Analysis & Design, In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the recommended values.
Project: Section

Job Ref.

GEODOMISI Ltd. - Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Consulting Company for Structural Engineering, Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Foundation Engineering & Retaining Structures.
Tel.: (+30) 210 5238127, 210 5711263 - Fax.:+30 210 5711461 - Mobile: (+30) 6936425722 & (+44) 7585939944, costas@sachpazis.info

Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
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Sheet no./rev. 1

Dr. C. Sachpazis

04/04/2014 γS = 1.15 fyd = fyk / γS = 435 N/mm
2

App'd by

Date

Partial factor for reinforcing steel - Table 2.1N; Design yield strength of reinforcement;

Cover to reinforcement
Front face of stem; Rear face of stem; Top face of base; Bottom face of base; csf = 40 mm csr = 50 mm cbt = 50 mm cbb = 75 mm

Check stem design at base of stem
Depth of section; h = 550 mm

Rectangular section in flexure - Section 6.1
Design bending moment combination 1; Depth to tension reinforcement; M = 235.8 kNm/m d = h - csr - φsr / 2 = 488 mm K = M / (d × fck) = 0.050 K' = 0.196 K' > K - No compression reinforcement is required Lever arm; 463 mm Depth of neutral axis; Area of tension reinforcement required; Tension reinforcement provided; Area of tension reinforcement provided; Minimum area of reinforcement - exp.9.1N; mm /m Maximum area of reinforcement - cl.9.2.1.1(3); Asr.max = 0.04 × h = 22000 mm /m max(Asr.req, Asr.min) / Asr.prov = 0.477 PASS - Area of reinforcement provided is greater than area of reinforcement required
2 2 2

z = min(0.5 + 0.5 × (1 – 3.53 × K) , 0.95) × d = x = 2.5 × (d – z) = 61 mm Asr.req = M / (fyd × z) = 1171 mm /m 25 dia.bars @ 200 c/c Asr.prov = π × φsr / (4 × ssr) = 2454 mm /m Asr.min = max(0.26 × fctm / fyk, 0.0013) × d = 634
2 2 2

0.5

Crack control - Section 7.3
Limiting crack width; Variable load factor - EN1990 – Table A1.1; Serviceability bending moment; Tensile stress in reinforcement; Load duration; Load duration factor; Effective area of concrete in tension; mm /m Mean value of concrete tensile strength; Reinforcement ratio; Modular ratio; Bond property coefficient; fct.eff = fctm = 2.2 N/mm αe = Es / Ecm = 6.675 k1 = 0.8
2 2

wmax = 0.3 mm ψ2 = 0.3 Msls = 152.3 kNm/m σs = Msls / (Asr.prov × z) = 134 N/mm Long term kt = 0.4 Ac.eff = min(2.5 × (h - d), (h – x) / 3, h / 2) = 156250
2

ρp.eff = Asr.prov / Ac.eff = 0.016

Retaining wall Analysis & Design, In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the recommended values.
Project: Section

Job Ref.

GEODOMISI Ltd. - Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Consulting Company for Structural Engineering, Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Foundation Engineering & Retaining Structures.
Tel.: (+30) 210 5238127, 210 5711263 - Fax.:+30 210 5711461 - Mobile: (+30) 6936425722 & (+44) 7585939944, costas@sachpazis.info

Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
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Sheet no./rev. 1

Dr. C. Sachpazis

04/04/2014 k2 = 0.5 k3 = 3.4 k4 = 0.425

App'd by

Date

Strain distribution coefficient;

Maximum crack spacing - exp.7.11; Maximum crack width - exp.7.8;

sr.max = k3 × csr + k1 × k2 × k4 × φsr / ρp.eff = 441 mm wk = sr.max × max(σs – kt × (fct.eff / ρp.eff) × (1 + αe × ρp.eff), 0.6 × σs) / Es wk = 0.177 mm wk / wmax = 0.59 PASS - Maximum crack width is less than limiting crack width

Rectangular section in shear - Section 6.2
Design shear force; V = 153.5 kN/m CRd,c = 0.18 / γC = 0.120 k = min(1 + √(200 mm / d), 2) = 1.641 Longitudinal reinforcement ratio; Design shear resistance - exp.6.2a & 6.2b; vmin) × d VRd.c = 207.2 kN/m V / VRd.c = 0.741 PASS - Design shear resistance exceeds design shear force ρl = min(Asr.prov / d, 0.02) = 0.005 vmin = 0.035 N /mm × k
1/2 3/2

× fck
2

0.5

= 0.329 N/mm
4 1/3

2

VRd.c = max(CRd.c × k × (100 N /mm × ρl × fck) ,

Horizontal reinforcement parallel to face of stem - Section 9.6
Minimum area of reinforcement – cl.9.6.3(1); 614 mm /m Maximum spacing of reinforcement – cl.9.6.3(2); Transverse reinforcement provided; Area of transverse reinforcement provided; ssx_max = 400 mm 16 dia.bars @ 200 c/c Asx.prov = π × φsx / (4 × ssx) = 1005 mm /m
2 2 2

Asx.req = max(0.25 × Asr.prov, 0.001 × (tstem + lslf)) =

PASS - Area of reinforcement provided is greater than area of reinforcement required

Check base design at toe
Depth of section; h = 450 mm

Rectangular section in flexure - Section 6.1
Design bending moment combination 1; Depth to tension reinforcement; M = 48.9 kNm/m d = h - cbb - φbb / 2 = 367 mm K = M / (d × fck) = 0.018 K' = 0.196 K' > K - No compression reinforcement is required Lever arm; 349 mm Depth of neutral axis; Area of tension reinforcement required; x = 2.5 × (d – z) = 46 mm Abb.req = M / (fyd × z) = 323 mm /m
2 2

z = min(0.5 + 0.5 × (1 – 3.53 × K) , 0.95) × d =

0.5

Retaining wall Analysis & Design, In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the recommended values.
Project: Section

Job Ref.

GEODOMISI Ltd. - Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Consulting Company for Structural Engineering, Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Foundation Engineering & Retaining Structures.
Tel.: (+30) 210 5238127, 210 5711263 - Fax.:+30 210 5711461 - Mobile: (+30) 6936425722 & (+44) 7585939944, costas@sachpazis.info

Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
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Sheet no./rev. 1

Dr. C. Sachpazis

04/04/2014 16 dia.bars @ 200 c/c

App'd by

Date

Tension reinforcement provided; Area of tension reinforcement provided; Minimum area of reinforcement - exp.9.1N; mm /m Maximum area of reinforcement - cl.9.2.1.1(3);
2

Abb.prov = π × φbb / (4 × sbb) = 1005 mm /m Abb.min = max(0.26 × fctm / fyk, 0.0013) × d = 477 Abb.max = 0.04 × h = 18000 mm /m max(Abb.req, Abb.min) / Abb.prov = 0.475
2

2

2

PASS - Area of reinforcement provided is greater than area of reinforcement required

Crack control - Section 7.3
Limiting crack width; Variable load factor - EN1990 – Table A1.1; Serviceability bending moment; Tensile stress in reinforcement; Load duration; Load duration factor; Effective area of concrete in tension; mm /m Mean value of concrete tensile strength; Reinforcement ratio; Modular ratio; Bond property coefficient; Strain distribution coefficient;
2

wmax = 0.3 mm ψ2 = 0.3 Msls = 35.3 kNm/m σs = Msls / (Abb.prov × z) = 100.8 N/mm Long term kt = 0.4 Ac.eff = min(2.5 × (h - d), (h – x) / 3, h / 2) = 134708 fct.eff = fctm = 2.2 N/mm αe = Es / Ecm = 6.675 k1 = 0.8 k2 = 0.5 k3 = 3.4 k4 = 0.425
2 2

ρp.eff = Abb.prov / Ac.eff = 0.007

Maximum crack spacing - exp.7.11; Maximum crack width - exp.7.8;

sr.max = k3 × cbb + k1 × k2 × k4 × φbb / ρp.eff = 619 mm wk = sr.max × max(σs – kt × (fct.eff / ρp.eff) × (1 + αe × ρp.eff), 0.6 × σs) / Es wk = 0.187 mm wk / wmax = 0.625 PASS - Maximum crack width is less than limiting crack width

Rectangular section in shear - Section 6.2
Design shear force; V = 97.4 kN/m CRd,c = 0.18 / γC = 0.120 k = min(1 + √(200 mm / d), 2) = 1.738 Longitudinal reinforcement ratio; Design shear resistance - exp.6.2a & 6.2b; vmin) × d VRd.c = 134.9 kN/m V / VRd.c = 0.722 PASS - Design shear resistance exceeds design shear force ρl = min(Abb.prov / d, 0.02) = 0.003 vmin = 0.035 N /mm × k
1/2 3/2

× fck
2

0.5

= 0.359 N/mm
4 1/3

2

VRd.c = max(CRd.c × k × (100 N /mm × ρl × fck) ,

Retaining wall Analysis & Design, In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the recommended values.
Project: Section

Job Ref.

GEODOMISI Ltd. - Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Consulting Company for Structural Engineering, Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Foundation Engineering & Retaining Structures.
Tel.: (+30) 210 5238127, 210 5711263 - Fax.:+30 210 5711461 - Mobile: (+30) 6936425722 & (+44) 7585939944, costas@sachpazis.info

Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
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Sheet no./rev. 1

Dr. C. Sachpazis

04/04/2014

App'd by

Date

Check base design at heel
Depth of section; h = 450 mm

Rectangular section in flexure - Section 6.1
Design bending moment combination 2; Depth to tension reinforcement; M = 238.1 kNm/m d = h - cbt - φbt / 2 = 388 mm K = M / (d × fck) = 0.079 K' = 0.196 K' > K - No compression reinforcement is required Lever arm; 358 mm Depth of neutral axis; Area of tension reinforcement required; Tension reinforcement provided; Area of tension reinforcement provided; Minimum area of reinforcement - exp.9.1N; mm /m Maximum area of reinforcement - cl.9.2.1.1(3); Abt.max = 0.04 × h = 18000 mm /m max(Abt.req, Abt.min) / Abt.prov = 0.623 PASS - Area of reinforcement provided is greater than area of reinforcement required
2 2 2

z = min(0.5 + 0.5 × (1 – 3.53 × K) , 0.95) × d = x = 2.5 × (d – z) = 73 mm Abt.req = M / (fyd × z) = 1529 mm /m 25 dia.bars @ 200 c/c Abt.prov = π × φbt / (4 × sbt) = 2454 mm /m Abt.min = max(0.26 × fctm / fyk, 0.0013) × d = 504
2 2 2

0.5

Crack control - Section 7.3
Limiting crack width; Variable load factor - EN1990 – Table A1.1; Serviceability bending moment; Tensile stress in reinforcement; Load duration; Load duration factor; Effective area of concrete in tension; mm /m Mean value of concrete tensile strength; Reinforcement ratio; Modular ratio; Bond property coefficient; Strain distribution coefficient; fct.eff = fctm = 2.2 N/mm αe = Es / Ecm = 6.675 k1 = 0.8 k2 = 0.5 k3 = 3.4 k4 = 0.425 Maximum crack spacing - exp.7.11; Maximum crack width - exp.7.8; sr.max = k3 × cbt + k1 × k2 × k4 × φbt / ρp.eff = 387 mm wk = sr.max × max(σs – kt × (fct.eff / ρp.eff) × (1 + αe × ρp.eff), 0.6 × σs) / Es wk = 0.142 mm
2 2

wmax = 0.3 mm ψ2 = 0.3 Msls = 107.7 kNm/m σs = Msls / (Abt.prov × z) = 122.5 N/mm Long term kt = 0.4 Ac.eff = min(2.5 × (h - d), (h – x) / 3, h / 2) = 125559
2

ρp.eff = Abt.prov / Ac.eff = 0.020

Retaining wall Analysis & Design, In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the recommended values.
Project: Section

Job Ref.

GEODOMISI Ltd. - Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Consulting Company for Structural Engineering, Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Foundation Engineering & Retaining Structures.
Tel.: (+30) 210 5238127, 210 5711263 - Fax.:+30 210 5711461 - Mobile: (+30) 6936425722 & (+44) 7585939944, costas@sachpazis.info

Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
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Sheet no./rev. 1

Dr. C. Sachpazis

04/04/2014 wk / wmax = 0.475

App'd by

Date

PASS - Maximum crack width is less than limiting crack width

Rectangular section in shear - Section 6.2
Design shear force; V = 89.9 kN/m CRd,c = 0.18 / γC = 0.120 k = min(1 + √(200 mm / d), 2) = 1.718 Longitudinal reinforcement ratio; Design shear resistance - exp.6.2a & 6.2b; vmin) × d VRd.c = 186.3 kN/m V / VRd.c = 0.483 PASS - Design shear resistance exceeds design shear force ρl = min(Abt.prov / d, 0.02) = 0.006 vmin = 0.035 N /mm × k
1/2 3/2

× fck
2

0.5

= 0.353 N/mm
4 1/3

2

VRd.c = max(CRd.c × k × (100 N /mm × ρl × fck) ,

Secondary transverse reinforcement to base - Section 9.3
Minimum area of reinforcement – cl.9.3.1.1(2); Transverse reinforcement provided; Area of transverse reinforcement provided; Abx.req = 0.2 × Abt.prov = 491 mm /m 16 dia.bars @ 300 c/c Abx.prov = π × φbx / (4 × sbx) = 670 mm /m
2 2 2

Maximum spacing of reinforcement – cl.9.3.1.1(3); sbx_max = 450 mm

PASS - Area of reinforcement provided is greater than area of reinforcement required

Retaining wall Analysis & Design, In accordance with EN1997-1:2004 incorporating Corrigendum dated February 2009 and the recommended values.
Project: Section

Job Ref.

GEODOMISI Ltd. - Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering Consulting Company for Structural Engineering, Soil Mechanics, Rock Mechanics, Foundation Engineering & Retaining Structures.
Tel.: (+30) 210 5238127, 210 5711263 - Fax.:+30 210 5711461 - Mobile: (+30) 6936425722 & (+44) 7585939944, costas@sachpazis.info

Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
Calc. by Date Chk'd by Date

Sheet no./rev. 1

Dr. C. Sachpazis

04/04/2014

App'd by

Date