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PRL 108, 062502 (2012

)

PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS

week ending 10 FEBRUARY 2012

Q Value and Half-Lives for the Double-

Schweikhard. Beck.2 Ch.1.* 7 1. Lunney. 91406 Orsay. Sloane Physics Laboratory. Universidad de Concepcio ´ n. Yale University.5 D. published 10 February 2012) 2 1 The 110 Pd double-.‡ M.6 F. 64291 Darmstadt. J. USA 8 ´ de Paris Sud. Comenius University. Casilla 160-C. Concepcio ´ n.3 J. Kotila.9 F. Breitenfeldt. 3001 Leuven. Zuber12 S. Michigan State University.1.2 Ch.† A. Belgium 7 Center for Theoretical Physics. Rosenbusch. USA 11 Department of Theoretical Physics. Connecticut 06520-8120. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Germany Institut fu (Received 22 August 2011. 84848 Bratislava. Borgmann. 01069 Dresden. Germany Max-Planck-Institut fu ¨ t fu ¨ r Physik und Astronomie.en Stralingsfysica. M. Michigan 48824-1321. S ¨ r Kernphysik.4 D. Slovak Republic 12 ¨ r Kern. 1211 Geneva 23. Stanja. Blaum. Bo 3. Herfurth. 69117 Heidelberg.5 K. Chile Departamento de Fı 5 ¨ r Schwerionenforschung GmbH.12 and K.8. Switzerland 4 ´sica. Barea. 17487 Greifswald. Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universita ¨ t.8 S. Germany Fakulta 3 CERN.1.11 J. France CSNSM-IN2P3/CNRS. New Haven.10 L. Germany Institut fu 10 NSCL. revised manuscript received 17 January 2012.2 M. Kreim.-Decay Nuclide 110 Pd ¨ hm. Kowalska. Ruprecht-Karls-Universita ¨ t. S. Germany GSI Helmholtzzentrum fu 6 Instituut voor Kern. Universite 9 ¨ r Physik. Herlert. 69120 Heidelberg.2.9 ˇ imkovic.und Teilchenphysik. Technische Universita ¨ t. East Lansing. Schwarz. Fink.1. Naimi.1 D.

This value shifted by 14 keV compared with the literature value and is 17 times more precise. decay Q value was measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP to be Q ¼ 2017:85ð64Þ keV. In addition a new set of the relevant matrix elements has been calculated. the new results reveal 110 Pd to be an excellent candidate for double-. resulting in new phase-space factors for the two-neutrino and neutrinoless decay modes. With its high natural abundance. The expected half-life of the two-neutrino mode was reevaluated as 1:5ð6Þ Â 1020 yr.

+h. in particular.108. decay studies. by proving that neutrinos have a finite mass.10. In the quest for a detailed understanding of the neutrino itself. 32.Bi The recent results on neutrino oscillations [1–4] have revolutionized our understanding of the role played by neutrinos in particle physics and cosmology. 07. 14.40.75.60.Pq. DOI: 10.062502 PACS numbers: 23. the rare process of double-.1103/PhysRevLett.Bw.

which violate the individual flavor-lepton number while conserving the total lepton number.6]. In contrast to neutrino oscillations. decay offers the most promising opportunity to probe the neutrino character and to constrain the neutrino mass [5. the process of neutrinoless double-.

decay (0.

.

decay) violates total lepton number and is as such. forbidden by the standard model of particle physics. unlike the observed neutrinoaccompanied double-. Moreover.

decay (2.

.

the 0. decay) process.

.

While the decay spectrum of the 2. decay process would imply that the neutrino is a Majorana particle. i.. its own antiparticle.e.

.

the experimental signal of the 0. decay is continuous.

.

decay represents the sum energy of the two electrons at the decay Q value. The expected half-life of the 0.

.

In addition. a high accuracy (below 1 keV) is desirable to properly identify the signal with respect to background. a well-known Q value allows a precise determination of the phase space of the half-lives of the double-. very small event rates are expected. Furthermore. decay is extremely long and hence.

0. decay modes. The decay rates of both decay modes are strong functions of the Q value.

.

decay scales with the fifth 0031-9007= 12 =108(6)=062502(5) power of the Q value and 2.

.

124 Sn. 76 Ge. 116 Cd. 110 Pd. decay with the 11th power. Eleven nuclides (48 Ca. 82 Se. 96 Zr. 130 Te. 136 Xe. and 150 Nd [7]) are considered as potential 0. 100 Mo.

.

Among these. which predicts that the double-. 110 Pd is an excellent test candidate for the ‘‘single-state dominance hypothesis’’ (SSDH) [8–10]. having high enough Q values (above 2 MeV) for relatively short half-lives. 110 Pd has the second highest abundance. which are accessible within the experimental limits and natural abundances for feasible experiments. decay candidates. Furthermore. making it a particularly interesting case.

the experimental knowledge about the double-. Nevertheless. decay rate is dominated by a virtual two-step transition through just one single intermediate 1þ state.

Recently. However. 110 Pd has the highest Q-value uncertainty of all candidates mentioned above. first experimental limits on excited state transitions were published [11]. we report the first direct mass comparison between 110 Pd and the double-. In this Letter. decay of 110 Pd is still very limited.

The new Q value is shifted by almost 14 keV to the literature value [12] and has a 17 times smaller uncertainty. We also report new calculations for the phase-space factors of the . Furthermore. the absolute masses of 110 Pd and 110 Cd were measured with high precision within the same measurement campaign. decay daughter nuclide 110 Cd.

À .

À -double-.

decay modes based on the new Q value. the relevant nuclear matrix elements have been calculated as well as the Ó 2012 American Physical Society 062502-1 . In addition.

062502 (2012) PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS week ending 10 FEBRUARY 2012 resulting half-lives of the neutrino-accompanied and neutrinoless double-.PRL 108.

For each resonance curve (Fig. In total. a 50-600-50 ms Ramsey excitation scheme was applied with the same duration of data taking per resonance and the same number of resonances. All three targets were mounted on a rotary sample holder for rapid element selection. 2). decay. 1). data were taken for about 20 min. Two different measurement sets using two different Ramsey excitation schemes [17] were performed to increase the accuracy. For the second set of measurements. a palladium. ISOLTRAP determines masses by measuring the cyclotron frequency c ¼ qB=ð2mÞ of the corresponding ions with mass m and charge q in a magnetic field B. the ions were guided to the preparation Penning trap (see Fig. After the ablation from the sample. a laser ablation ion source for the production of carboncluster reference-mass ions [14] was modified to deliver singly charged 110 Pd and 110 Cd ions. The measurements were performed with the Penningtrap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP [13] at the CERN ISOLDE facility. In short. 17 such resonances of 110 Cdþ and 16 resonances ToF Detector: MCP 3 of 110 Pdþ were recorded alternately. where they were centered and purified by buffer-gas cooling [15]. or a cadmium foil for desorption and ionization. a frequencydoubled Nd:YAG laser was focused with a typical pulse power density of 5 Â 107 W=cm2 on either a carbon. The first excitation scheme (30-840-30 ms) consisted of two rf pulses of 30 ms separated by a 840 ms waiting period. They were then transferred to the precision Penning trap where the time-of-flight ion-cyclotron resonance (TOFICR) detection technique [16] was used to determine their cyclotron frequency c . For the present off-line experiment. The Q value of the double-.

2 ðtÞ ¼ rðc0 þ c1 t þ c2 t2 þ Á Á Á þ cn tn Þ (2) (3) Precision Penning Trap B = 5. decay of the mother nuclide with mass mm to the daughter nuclide with mass md is given by the mass difference Q ¼ mm À md . In addition. different systematic uncertainties have to be taken into account: the presence of contaminating ions. the frequency ratio r and thus the mass ratio between the two ion species is deduced by fitting simultaneously a pair of polynomials 1 ðtÞ ¼ c0 þ c1 t þ c2 t2 þ Á Á Á þ cn tn . Scheme of ISOLTRAP as used for the present measurements. A countrate-class analysis applied to the individual frequency measurements confirmed that there were no contaminating ions or space-charge effects present [18].9T MCP 2 Cd / Pd Ion Source Preparation Penning Trap B = 4. mainly given by a variation of the magnetic-field strength in time. which in turn can be written as a function of the frequency ratio r ¼ d =m and the electron mass me :    Q ¼ mm À md ¼ d À 1 ðmd À me Þ: (1) m Figure 3 shows the resonance frequencies for the 50-60050 ms Ramsey excitation scheme as a function of time of the measurement campaign with typical statistical uncertainties on the order of ðc Þ=c ¼ 1 Â 10À8 . 1. 062502-2 . 3 follow the same trend. the timedependent magnetic-field changes. [19]. The atoms are ionized with the ablation ion source.7T Cd+. 2 (color online). Pd+ λ = 532 nm Emax = 20 mJ/Pulse MCP 1 Nd:YAG Laser FIG. Time-of-flight resonance as a function of the excitation frequency for 110 Pdþ for the Ramsey excitation scheme 50-600-50 ms with a fit of the expected theoretical line shape (solid line) [29]. FIG. trapped in the first trap for purification and transferred to the second trap to measure their cyclotron frequency. The 110 Cdþ and 110 Pdþ data from Fig. and the residual systematic uncertainty of ISOLTRAP [18]. the mass-dependent systematic effect. Following Bradley et al.

where the residual systematic uncertainty dominates the value by more than 70%.000 019 708 1(89) 1. respectively. 062502 (2012) PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS week ending 10 FEBRUARY 2012 FIG. In Fig. While the mass excess ME ¼ À90 348:84ð1:30Þ keV of 110 Cd is in good agreement with the literature value. which does not cancel using reference ions of different masses. an additional relative systematic uncertainty is taken into account for the slight differences between the production and ion-guiding parameters of 110 Cdþ data and 110 Pdþ . (2) and (3)] of different orders were tested with smallest 2 found for n ¼ 3.85(64) 2004(11) weighted averages. the result of the 50-60050 ms data is shown as an example. the mass excess ME ¼ À88 333:23ð1:34Þ keV of 110 Pd deviates by more than 20 keV [12]. The phase space of the 2.000 0197 106(63) Q value/keV 2018. Second column: cyclotron frequency ratios. Here. the extracted Q value of 2015. their TABLE I. Table I lists the obtained frequency ratios and Q values as derived from Eq.6(1. resulting in a reduced 2 of 1. Because of the systematic mass-dependent effect. top) and of 110 Pdþ (squares. bottom) using the Ramsey excitation pattern 50-600-50 ms.000 019 713 1(89) 1. Within the same measurement campaign. to the data sets of 110 Pdþ and 110 Cdþ .08. Results of the evaluation of the Q-value measurements of the 110 Pd and 110 Cd mass doublet. the frequency ratio r entered as one of the fit parameters. Polynomials [Eqs. while the other fit parameters represent the behavior of the magnetic field strength in time. This is a reduction by more than a factor of 17 from the literature value based on the AME2003 results [12]. (1) of both measurements. 3.60(90) 2017.10. Cyclotron frequencies of 110 Cdþ (circles. The solid lines are simultaneous fits to both isobars (see text). fourth line: Q value based on AME2003 [12].09(90) 2017. The procedure was performed separately for both sets of Ramsey schemes. and the Q value based on AME2003 [12]. In the case of the 50-600-50 ms data. The results from the two data sets agree with each other within 0:55 and the uncertainty of the weighted average of both measurements is 0.9) has a larger uncertainty. 3 (color online). the relative residual systematic uncertainty of ISOLTRAP for frequency ratios of r=r ¼ 8 Â 10À9 was taken as an upper limit [18]. Data 30-840-30 ms 50-600-50 ms Weighted average AME2003 Ratio r 1. Their uncertainties were reduced by a factor of 1. First and second line: individual Ramsey data sets. The mass-dependent effect is more than 1 order of magnitude smaller than the achieved statistical uncertainty. but agrees well with the direct measurement of the Q value. but also the absolute masses of 110 Cd and 110 Pd have been determined using carbon clusters as reference ions. not only the Q value. third line: weighted average of both data sets.PRL 108. the 2 of the polynomial was 1.7 and 5. Finally.64 keV. Although this uncertainty is expected to lie well below the statistical uncertainty for mass doublets. third column: Q values with uncertainties.

.

decay and of the 0.

.

decay and thus their half-lives are affected by the new measurement of the Q value. Half-lives and phase-space factors G are linked via 2 ÞÀ1 ¼ G2 ðQ . ZÞg4 jm M2 j2 ðT1 .

.

e GT A =2 (4) and 0 À1 ðT1 =2 Þ ¼G 0 .

2 .

hm i .

.

.

0 2 .

.

.

ðQ.

.

. ZÞg4 j M j .

.

. A .

.

me .

.

.

.

the energy of the intermediate 1þ state. the electron screening. and in case of the neutrino-accompanied mode. could be reduced by more 062502-3 . A nuclear radius of R ¼ r0 A1=3 with r0 ¼ 1:2 fm was assumed for these calculations. However. in contrast to previous calculations. (5) where me is the mass of the electron. MGT the corresponding decay modes. gA is the axial-vector coupling constant. which is dominating the total uncertainty in case of the old Q value. [20]. where an approximate expression for the electron wave function at the nucleus was used. increases the phase space of the transitions and shortens the expected half-lives of both decay modes. The possible sources of uncertainties for both decay modes are the Q value. The uncertainties coming from the Q value. A general formulation of the calculation of the phase-space factors was given by Doi et al. the nuclear radius. and hm i is the effective Majorana 2 and M0 are the matrix elements of neutrino mass. the phase-space factors reported here are calculated by a new method [21] using exact Dirac electron wave functions and including electron screening by the electron cloud. The new Q value is almost 14 keV higher and thus. The wave functions are obtained by numerically solving [22] the Dirac equation with a potential for which the electron screening is taken into account through the numerically obtained Thomas-Fermi function [23].

Comparison of the phase-space factors for 2.PRL 108. 062502 (2012) PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS week ending 10 FEBRUARY 2012 TABLE II.

.

decay and 0.

.

while the values in the outer right set of parentheses are the total uncertainties. Q. decay based on Q values determined from the AME2003 mass values [12] and the new ISOLTRAP values. The values in the first set of parentheses are the uncertainties caused by the uncertainty of the Q value.

.

which is in good agreement with previously predicted values [8. A comparison between the space factors based on the new Q value and the Q value from AME2003 and their uncertainties is shown in Table II. which works well for the nearby nuclei 100 Mo 2 and 116 Cd. Using the single-state-dominance hypothesis (SSDH) [8–10].9. 2004 2017. the SSDH-half-life was calculated to be T1 =2 ¼ 20 1:5ð6Þ Â 10 yr. The uncertainty of the half-life was evaluated considering the uncertainties of the .24].8 G2 ðyrÀ1 Þ 1:386ð67Þð81Þ Â 10À19 1:469ð5Þð20Þ Â 10À19 G0 ðyrÀ1 Þ 4:707ð86Þð157Þ Â 10À15 4:815ð6Þð78Þ Â 10À15 than an order of magnitude due to the more precise measurements.

decay half-life and the minimal and maximal value of the .

In general. decay and electron-capture amplitudes of the 1þ intermediate state 110 Ag. Nevertheless. since it is included in the logft values. in order to calculate the SSDH-matrix element for the neutrino-accompanied double-. the SSDH half-life is independent of the value of the axial coupling constant gA [9]. an axial coupling constant of a free nucleon (gA ¼ 1:269) was assumed.

decay to be 2 ¼ 0:263 MeVÀ1 . MGT To specify the required sensitivity of future 0.

.

The resulting matrix element using QRPA with the CD-Bonn potential is M0 ¼ 6:5ð9Þ and M0 ¼ 5:9ð8Þ with the Argonne potential. A reliable estimation of the half-life of the neutrinoless double-. decay searches.27]. the nuclear matrix element M0 for 110 Pd was calculated using two different models: the quasiparticle random phase approximation theory (QRPA) [25] and the microscopic interacting Boson model (IBM-2) [26]. These matrix elements have relatively large values compared to most other isotopes [25. With the IBM-2 model one gets M0 ¼ 4:3ð1:3Þ and M0 ¼ 4:1ð1:2Þ. We assumed for these calculations gA ¼ 1:269 and a nuclear radius of R ¼ r0 A1=3 with r0 ¼ 1:2 fm. using the CD-Bonn and Argonne potentials for the short-range correlations as in [25]. respectively.

the uncertainty is mainly due to the unknown neutrino mass. Here. the half-life can be estimated by 0 T1 =2 ¼ Assuming the effective neutrino mass in the range from 1 eV down to 10À3 eV leads to a 0. decay is more complicated than in the case of the neutrino-accompanied mode. obtained with the QRPA. Using Eq. (5) and the weighted average M0 ¼ 5:5ð5Þ of the four different matrix elements.and IBM-2-model and the CD-Bonn and Argonne potentials.

.

decay half-life between 6:8 Â 1023 yr and 6:8 Â 1029 yr. Currently. a possible evidence for 0. respectively.

.

To explore this mass range. decay in 76 Ge is discussed resulting in an effective Majorana neutrino mass of hm i ¼ 0:32ð3Þ eV [28]. a 0.

.

decay experiment on 110 Pd must be sensi0 24 tive to a half-life range from T1 yr to =2 ¼ 5 Â 10 0 25 T1=2 ¼ 1 Â 10 yr. In conclusion. the Q value of the double-.

In addition. masses of 110 Pd and 110 Cd were determined. Thus. reducing their uncertainties significantly. the phase-space factors of the 2. Based on the more accurate Q value. revealing a 14 keV higher Q value compared to the literature value. transition from 110 Pd to 110 Cd was measured by high-precision Penning-trap mass spectrometry and resulted in a value of Q ¼ 2017:85ð64Þ keV. the uncertainty was reduced by a factor of 17 with respect to the AME2003 value.

.

decay and the 0.

.

more precise method. decay were recalculated by a new. The SSDH half-life calculation leads to an expected half-life of 2 the neutrino-accompanied double-.

decay of T1 =2 ¼ 20 1:5ð6Þ Â 10 yr. In the case of the neutrinoless double-.

decay. the matrix elements have been calculated with the help of the QRPA and IBM-2 models. resulting in large values compared to most other possible double-.

Thus. in combination with its high natural abundance. decay nuclides. 110 Pd becomes a very promising candidate for double-.

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