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 MS Config MSConfig (officially called System Configuration in Windows Vista,Windows 7 and Windows 8 or Microsoft System Configuration Utility

in previous operating systems) is a system utility to troubleshoot the Microsoft Windows startup process. It can disable or re-enable software, device driversand Windows services that run at startup, or change boot parameters. It is bundled with all versions of Microsoft Windows operating systems sinceWindows 98 except Windows 2000. Windows 95 and Windows 2000 users can download the utility as well, although it was not [citation needed] designed for them. MSConfig is a troubleshooting tool. The main function of MSConfig is to temporarily disable or reenable software, device drivers or Windows services that run during startup process to help user decide the cause of problem. Uses It is often used for helping speed up Microsoft Windows on Start up of the machine or even general computer running speeds. 2.

IP Address/ different class of IP address, how to locate the IP address?

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, [1] printer) participating in acomputer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two principal functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing. Its role has been characterized as follows: "A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get there

IP versions
Two versions of the Internet Protocol (IP) are in use: IP Version 4 and IP Version 6. Each version defines an IP address differently. Because of its prevalence, the generic term IP address typically still refers to the addresses defined by IPv4. The gap in version sequence between IPv4 and IPv6 resulted from the assignment of number 5 to the experimental Internet Stream Protocol in 1979, which however was never referred to as IPv5. • Need of Different IP Address

IP address is the important key to find the physical location of the particular computer system. It works similar to the home address by the identification of that anything reaches to your house. To communicate in the network each electronic device uses IP address. To identify the network size these IP address is categorized into various classes. All these types of IP address is assigned to the organizations, businesses or government operations

• •

Different Types of IP address Classes IP address contains four groups of numbers separated by decimal point. All these numbers are referred as octets. It is 32 bit number identified as binary form. The range of these numbers starts from 0 to 255. Types of IP address classes are Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E. Class A IP Address For the large number of hosts Class A IP addresses are used. The first octet of this class ranges from 1 to 126. Most of the IP address comes in Class A IP address. Class B IP address In the first octet of this class IP range from 128 to 191. In this class first two octets are used to identify the network. Generally for the medium size networks this network is used. Class C IP address For the smaller network this IP address class is used. In this class three octets are used to identify the network. This IP ranges between 192 to 223. A local area network use Class C IP address to connect with network

• • • • •

Class E IP Address This type of IP address class is mostly used for the experimental or future use. It ranges from 240 to 255

IP Classes An IP address is an Internet Protocol address. It is used to identify all the websites on the internet. Each IP address is unique and it is separated by periods. For example : 124.2.3.5 . It ranges from 0 to 255. Each and every website have an IP address. For example, an IP address for Google.com is 216.239.59.147 and that is how the internet identifies it. Generally, ip address is very difficult to remember by the visitors. So, they type domain name ( google.com/yahoo.com etc ) in the browser and it is converted to the destination address . This conversion process is done by DNS ( Domain name system / Domain Name Server ). There are two types of ip addresses: 1. Private Ip address 2. Public Ip address Private IP class Class A(Netid.hostid.hostid.hostid) : 1.0.0.0 to 126.0.0.0 Class B(Netid.Netid.hostid.hostid) : 128.0.0.0 to 191.0.0.0 Class C(Netid.Netid.Netid.hostid) : 192.0.0.0 to 223.0.0.0 Class D(Multicast) : 224.0.0.0 to 239.0.0.0 Class E(For Research) : 240.0.0.0 to 255.0.0.0 Public Ip Class : Class A(Netid.hostid.hostid.hostid) : 1.0.0.0 to 126.0.0.0 Class B(Netid.Netid.hostid.hostid) : 128.0.0.0 to 191.0.0.0 Class C(Netid.Netid.Netid.hostid) : 192.0.0.0 to 223.0.0.0 Class D(Multicast) : 224.0.0.0 to 239.0.0.0 Class E(For Research) : 240.0.0.0 to 255.0.0.0 To determine public ip address visit Ip-details.com .

What is DSL?
Digital subscriber line (DSL, originally digital subscriber loop) is a family of technologies that provide Internet access by transmitting digital data over the wires of a local telephone network. In telecommunications marketing, the term DSL is widely understood to mean asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), the most commonly installed DSL technology. DSL service is delivered simultaneously with wired telephone service on the same telephone line. This is possible because DSL uses higher frequency bands for data. On the customer premises, a DSL filter on each non-DSL outlet blocks any high frequency interference, to enable simultaneous use of the voice and DSL services. The bit rate of consumer DSL services typically ranges from 256 kbit/s to 40 Mbit/s in the direction to the customer (downstream), depending on DSL technology, line conditions, and service-level implementation. In ADSL, the data throughput in the upstream direction, (the direction to the service provider) is lower, hence the designation of asymmetric service. In symmetric digital subscriber line(SDSL) services, the downstream and upstream data rates are equal.

Drivers?
A driver is software that allows your computer to communicate with hardware or devices. Without drivers, the hardware you connect to your computer—for example, a video card or a webcam —will not work properly. In most cases, drivers come with Windows or can be found by going to Windows Update in Control Panel and checking for updates. If Windows doesn't have the driver you need, you can find it on the disc that came with the hardware or device you want to use, or on the manufacturer's website .

· Device Manager?
The Device Manager is a Control Panel applet in Microsoft Windows operating systems. It allows users to view and control the hardware attached to the computer. When a piece of hardware is not working, the offending hardware is highlighted for the user to deal with. The list of hardware can be sorted by various criteria. For each device, users can:     Supply device drivers Enable or disable devices Tell Windows to ignore malfunctioning devices View other technical properties

Device Manager was introduced with Windows 95 and later added to Windows 2000. In NT-based versions, it is included as a Microsoft Management Console snap-in.

How to install and uninstall an application from a system? How to delete a program?
1. 2. Right-click in the screen’s bottom-left corner and choose the Control Panel from the pop-up menu. When the Control Panel appears, choose Uninstall a Program from the Programs category.

How to install new programs
Today, most programs install themselves automatically as soon as you slide their discs in to your PC’s drive or double-click their downloaded installation file. If you’re not sure whether a program has installed, go to the Start screen and look for its tile, usually toward the far right edge. If it’s listed there, the program has installed.

·Difference between Router /Modemn?
Answer:
Routers and modems are two of the most common computer peripherals, yet many people don't know

the function of each one. While the two devices may look similar, they each serve a difference purpose. Fortunately, the functions of the two devices are pretty easy to understand. A router is a small box that allows multiple computers to join the same network While early routers provided several Ethernet ports for wired connections, most modern routers offer wireless connectivity as well. These "wireless routers" often have one or two moveable antennas on the sides, though some models house the antennas inside the enclosure. Wireless routers allow multiple computers and other devices, such as smart phones and tablets, to join the same network. While connecting to a router provides access to a local network (LAN), it does not necessarily provide access to the Internet. In order for devices on the network to connect to the Internet, the router must be connected to a modem. Therefore, most routers have a specific Ethernet port that is designed to connect to the Ethernet port of a cable or DSL modem. A modem is a device that provides access to the Internet The modem connects to your ISP, which typically provides either cable or DSL Internet service. Cable modems have a coaxial (or "coax") connection, which is the same type of connector found on a TV or cable box. This connects to a cable port on the wall. DSL modems have a telephone connector, also called an RJ-11 jack, which connects to a telephone socket on the wall. By connecting your modem to your router (instead of directly to a computer), all devices connected to the router can access the modem, and therefore, the Internet. The router provides a local IP address to each connected device, but they will all have the same external IP address, which is assigned by your ISP. To summarize, the device connection order is outlined below: PC or wireless device Router Modem

ISP Internet While the router and modem are usually separate entities, in some cases, the modem and router may be combined into a single device. This type of hybrid device is sometimes offered by ISPs to simplify the setup process.

· What is a switch/router/modemn?

What is an ADSL modem?
An ADSL modem is a device that transmits and receives data over the plain old telephone system's (POTS) analogue lines. It allows your PC to connect to your ISP using the Internet Protocol. The modem acts as a "bridge" between your PC and your ISP. The dynamic or static public IP address which your modem obtains from your ISP is passed on to your PC. Your ADSL modem forwards packets based on hardware level MAC addresses between your ISP's router (and the Internet) and your PC.

What is a router?
A router is a device which acts as an interface between two networks. It forwards packets based on network level addresses (Internet Protocol addresses in this case) between your ISP's router and either your LAN or your single PC. A router learns more about the networks to which it is connected and can be more selective about the packets it passes on. A router rejects packets unless they match predefined attributes (eg specific protocols or destination network addresses). A router can also select the best route for packets to take in large interconnected networks. For a more detailed look at how routers work, check out this link at the How Stuff Works web site.

What is a switch?
An Ethernet/LAN switch creates a virtual network between two networked devices for the duration of the data transfer. This is unlike a hub which forwards all received data to all connected devices, even though the data may be destined for just one of those devices. A switch learns the association between the MAC addresses of connected devices and its switched ports. By sending data only to where it needs to go, a switch reduces the amount of data on the network, thereby increasing the overall performance of the connected devices. A switch also improves security, since data is not broadcast to every connected device, but only to the device for which it is destined, it cannot be monitored by other connected devices. For a more detailed look at how switches work, check out this link at the How Stuff Works web site.

 Difference between RAM and ROM?
There is one major difference between a ROM chip and a RAM chip. A ROM chip does not require a constant source of power to retain the information stored on it, whereas a RAM chip does require a constant source of power to retain the information. When a computer is turned on, and programs are being run, the programs information is stored in the RAM chip for better efficiency and speed. However, as soon as the computer is turned off any information stored in the RAM chip is lost. With a ROM chip, any information stored on the chip remains on it with or without power. ROM chips are commonly used in gaming system cartridges, like the original Nintendo, Gameboy, Sega Genesis, and a number of others. The game cartridge stores the game programming on a ROM chip which is read by the game console when the cartridge is inserted into the console. ROM chips can also be found in computers, to store the programming needed to begin the initial boot up process when turning on a computer. Using non-volatile storage is the only way to begin the start up process for computers and other devices that use similar a start up process. The most common type of programmable ROM (PROM) chip in a computer is the BIOS. RAM chips are also used in computers, as well as other devices, to store information of the programs currently running on the computer. However, only volatile information can be stored on RAM chips, due to that fact that if power is lost to the computer all information stored in the RAM is lost. The oldest ROM-Type storage media can be dated back to 1932with drum memory. Today, ROM-Type storage media is still used and continues to be improved upon for better performance and storage capacity.

Different types of Operating Systems and Brower’s? Operating system
An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardwareresources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is an essential component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an [1][2] intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently make a system call to an OS function or be interrupted by it. Operating systems can be found on almost any device that contains a computer — from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers.

Examples of popular modern operating systems include Android, BSD, iOS, Linux, OS X,QNX, Microsoft [3] Windows, Windows Phone, and IBM z/OS. All these, except Windows, Windows Phone and z/OS, share roots in UNIX.

Types of operating systems

Real-time
A real-time operating system is a multitasking operating system that aims at executing real-time applications. Real-time operating systems often use specialized scheduling algorithms so that they can achieve a deterministic nature of behavior. The main objective of real-time operating systems is their quick and predictable response to events. They have an event-driven or timesharing design and often aspects of both. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.

Multi-user
A multi-user operating system allows multiple users to access a computer system at the same time. Time-sharing systems and Internet servers can be classified as multi-user systems as they enable multiple-user access to a computer through the sharing of time. Single-user operating systems have only one user but may allow multiple programs to run at the same time.

Multi-tasking vs. single-tasking
A multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running at the same time, from the point of view of human time scales. A single-tasking system has only one running program. Multi-tasking can be of two types: pre-emptive and co-operative. In pre-emptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates one slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems such as Solaris and Linux support pre-emptive multitasking, as does AmigaOS. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to give time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking. 32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used pre-emptive multi-tasking. Mac OS prior to OS X used to support cooperative multitasking.

Distributed
A distributed operating system manages a group of independent computers and makes them appear to be a single computer. The development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine. When computers in a group work in cooperation, they make a distributed system.

Embedded
Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems. They are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources. They are very compact and extremely efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems.

What is the difference between LAN/WAN?
LAN: (local area network) A group of computers that share a common connection and are usually in a small area or even in the same building. For example an office or home network. They are usually connected by Ethernet cables and have high speed connections. If it was a wireless setup it would be called a WLAN, which would have a lower connection speed.

MAN: (metropolitan area network) This is a larger network that connects computer users in a particular geographic area or region. For example a large university may have a network so large that it may be classified as a MAN. The MAN network usually exist to provide connectivity to local ISPs, cable tv, or large corporations. It is far larger than a LAN and smaller than a WAN. Also large cities like London and Sydney, Australia have metropolitan area networks.

WAN: (wide area network) This is the largest network and can interconnect networks throughout the world and is not restricted to a geographical location. The Internet is an example of a worldwide public WAN. Most WANs exist to connect LANs that are not in the same geographical area. This technology is high speed and very expensive to setup.

What is a VOIP?
VOIP is an acronym for Voice Over Internet Protocol, or in more common terms phone service over the Internet. If you have a reasonable quality Internet connection you can get phone service delivered through your Internet connection instead of from your local phone company. Some people use VOIP in addition to their traditional phone service, since VOIP service providers usually offer lower rates than traditional phone companies, but sometimes doesn't offer 911 service, phone directory listings, 411 service, or other common phone services. While many VoIP providers offer these services, consistent industry-wide means of offering these are still developing.

How does VOIP work?
A way is required to turn analog phone signals into digital signals that can be sent over the Internet. This function can either be included into the phone itself (See: VOIP Phones) or in a separate box like an ATA

Why use VOIP?
There are two major reasons to use VOIP

 

Lower Cost Increased functionality

What is a file allocation system?

File Allocation Table (FAT ) is the name of a computer file system architecture and a family of industry standard file systems utilizing it. The FAT file system is a legacy file system which is simple and robust. It offers good performance even in light-weight implementations, but cannot deliver the same performance, reliability and scalability as some modern file systems. It is, however, supported for compatibility reasons by virtually all existing operating systems forpersonal computers, and thus is a well-suited format for data exchange [citation between computers and devices of almost any type and age from the early 1980s up to the present.
needed] [4]

Originally designed in the late 1970s for use on floppy disks, FAT was soon adapted and used almost universally on hard disks throughout the DOS and Windows 9x eras for two decades. With the introduction of more powerful computers and operating systems, as well as the development of more complex filesystems for them, FAT is no longer the default filesystem for usage on hard drives by most [citation needed] modern desktop operating systems. Today, FAT file systems are still commonly found on floppy disks, solid-statememory cards, flash memory cards, and many portable and embedded devices. It is also utilized in the boot stage of EFIcompliant computers. The name of the file system originates from the file system's prominent usage of an index table, the FAT, statically allocated at the time of formatting. The table contains entries for each cluster, a contiguous area of disk storage. Each entry contains either the number of the next cluster in the file, or else a marker indicating end of file, unused disk space, or special reserved areas of the disk. The root directory of the disk contains the number of the first cluster of each file in that directory; the operating system can then traverse the FAT table, looking up the cluster number of each successive part of the disk file as a cluster chain until the end of the file is reached. In much the same way, sub-directories are implemented as special files containing the directory entries of their respective files.

As disk drives have evolved, the maximum number of clusters has significantly increased, and so the number of bits used to identify each cluster has grown. The successive major versions of the FAT format are named after the number of table element bits: 12 (FAT12), 16 (FAT16), and 32 (FAT32). Each of these variants is still in use. The FAT standard has also been expanded in other ways while generally preserving backward compatibility with existing software.

What is System Restore?

System Restore is a feature in Microsoft Windows that allows the user to revert their computer's state (including system files, installed applications,Windows Registry, and system settings) to that of a previous point in time, which can be used to recover from system malfunctions or other problems. First included in Windows ME, it has since been included in all following desktop versions of Windows released since, [1] excluding the Windows Server In prior Windows versions it was based on a file filter that watched changes for a certain set of file [2] extensions, and then copied files before they were overwritten. An updated version of System Restore introduced by Windows Vista uses the Shadow Copy service as a backend (allowing block-level changes in files located in any directory on the volume to be monitored and backed up regardless of their location.) and allows System Restore to be used from the Windows Recovery Environment in case the Windows [3] installation no longer boots at all. In System Restore, the user may create a new restore point manually (as opposed to the system creating one automatically), roll back to an existing restore point, or change the System Restore configuration. Moreover, the restore itself can be undone. Old restore points are discarded in order to keep the volume's usage within the specified amount. For many users, this can provide restore points covering the past several weeks. Users concerned with performance or space usage may also opt to disable System Restore entirely. Files stored on volumes not monitored by System Restore are never backed up or restored. System Restore backs up system files of certain extensions (.exe, .dll, etc.) and saves them for later [4] recovery and use. It also backs up the registry and most drivers

What are patches?
[1]

A patch is a piece of software designed to fix problems with, or update a computer program or its [1] supporting data. This includes fixing security vulnerabilities and other bugs, and improving the usability or performance. Though meant to fix problems, poorly designed patches can sometimes introduce new problems (see software regressions). In some special cases updates may knowingly break the functionality, for instance, by removing components for which the update provider is no longer licensed or disabling a device. Patch management is the process of using a strategy and plan of what patches should be applied to which systems at a specified time

Types

Patches for proprietary software are typically distributed as executable files instead of source code. This type of patch modifies the program executable—the program the user actually runs—either by modifying the binary file to include the fixes or by completely replacing it. Patches can also circulate in the form of source code modifications. In these cases, the patches consist of textual differences between two source code files. These types of patches commonly come out of open source projects. In these cases, developers expect users to compile the new or changed files themselves. Because the word "patch" carries the connotation of a small fix, large fixes may use different nomenclature. Bulky patches or patches that significantly change a program may circulate as "service packs" or as "software updates". Microsoft Windows NT and its successors (including Windows 2000, Windows XP, and later versions) use the "service pack" terminology.

 Difference between Update and Upgrade? An update is a free program that fixes issues with the software or adds more hardware support while Upgrades add additional features to your software product and are not free. Updates (Patches) In software terms, a patch (or update) is meant to address two issues -- (1) to correct bugs (or problems) within the software that makes it perform less than optimal and (2) to add new compatible hardware support. The latter is due to the constant development of hardware since the launch of our software. All updates are available for free on our website.

Upgrades Upgrades are different in the sense that they do not address the two issues, but rather make an OEM version (refers to our software that came bundled with some hardware you purchased) or Standard version and advances it to the next version. Basically adding more features to your program

What is NTFS? NTFS (New Technology File System) is a proprietary file system developed byMicrosoft. Starting [7] with Windows NT 3.1, it is the default file system of Windows NTfamily. NTFS supersedes FAT file system. NTFS has several technical improvements over FAT and HPFS (High Performance File System), such as improved support for metadata, and the use of advanced data structures to improve performance, reliability, and disk space utilization, plus additional extensions, such as security access control lists (ACL) and file system journaling.
[1]

What are the two file system in Windows?

This document introduces the major file systems used by the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems and, explains how they differ from one another. A file system is a method of organizing files on physical media, such as hard disks, CD's, and flash drives. In the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems, users are presented with several different choices of file systems when formatting such media. These choices depend on the type of media involved and the situations in which the media is being formatted. The two most common file systems in Windows are as follows:
 

NTFS FAT

The NTFS file system
NTFS (short for New Technology File System) is a modern, well-formed file system that is most commonly used by Windows 2000, XP, and Vista. It has feature-rich, yet simple organization that allows it to be used on very large volumes. NTFS has the following properties:
   

NTFS partitions can extend up to 16EB (about 16 million TB). Files stored to NTFS partitions can be as large as the partition. NTFS partitions occasionally become fragmentented and should be defragmented every one to two months. NTFS partitions can be read from and written to by Windows and Linux systems and, can only be read from by Mac OS X systems (by default). Mac OS X, with the assistance of the NTFS-3G driver, can write to NTFS partitions. Installation instructions for the NTFS-3G driver can be found here: Mac OS X - Writing to NTFS drives

It is recommended that NTFS be used on all media whose use is primarily with modern Windows systems. It should not be used for devices which need to be written to by Mac OS X systems or on media that is used in devices which are not compatible with NTFS.

The FAT file system The FAT (short for File Allocation Table) file system is a general purpose file system that is compatible with all major operating systems (Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux/Unix). It has relatively simple technical underpinnings, and was the default file system for all Windows operating systems prior to Windows 2000. Because of its overly simplistic structure, FAT suffers from issues such as over-fragmentation, file corruption, and limits to file names and size. The FAT file system has the following properties:

   

FAT partitions cannot extend beyond 2TB. Files stored to a FAT partition cannot exceed 4GB. FAT partitions need to be defragmented often to maintain reasonable performance. FAT partitions larger than 32GB are generally not recommended as that amount of space starts to overwhelm FAT's overly simplistic organization structure.

FAT is generally only used for devices with small capacity where portability between operating systems is paramount. When choosing a file system for a hard disk, FAT is not recommend unless you are using an older version of Windows.

What tool can be used to check for system errors in windows vista?