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#neuma
$rom %i&ipedia the 'ree enc(clopedia This article is about the philosophical concept. For other uses, see Pneuma (disambiguation). Pneuma )*+,-./ is an ancient 0ree& word 'or 12reath 1 and in a religious conte3t 'or 1spirit1 or 1soul.1415[2] 6t has various technical meanings 'or medical writers and philosophers o' classical anti7uit( particularl( in regard to ph(siolog( and is also used in 0ree& translations o' the 8e2rew Bi2le and in the 0ree& 9ew Testament. 6n classical philosoph( it is distinguisha2le 'rom psyche ):;<=/ which originall( meant 12reath o' li'e1 2ut is regularl( translated as 1spirit1 or most o'ten 1soul1.435 Contents 4hide5 1 Classical anti7uit( o 1.1 #resocratics o 1.> "ncient 0ree& medical theor( o 1.3 "ristotle o 1.? Stoic pneuma > @udaism and Christianit( 3 See also ? Ae'erences B C3ternal lin&s Classical anti7uit(4edit5 Presocratics4edit5 Pneuma 1air in motion 2reath wind 1 is e7uivalent in the material monism o' "na3imenes to aer )=D 1air1/ as the element 'rom which all else originated. This usage is the earliest e3tant occurrence o' the term in philosoph(. 4?5 " 7uotation 'rom

"na3imenes o2serves that 1Eust as our soul (psyche) 2eing air (aer) holds us together so do 2reath (pneuma) and air (aer) encompass the whole world.1 6n this earl( usage aer and pneuma are s(non(mous.4B5 Ancient Greek medical theory4edit5 See also: Pneumatic school 6n ancient 0ree& medicine pneuma is the 'orm o' circulating air necessar( 'or the s(stemic 'unctioning o' vital organs. 6t is the material that sustains consciousness in a 2od(. "ccording to Fiocles and #ra3agoras the ps(chic pneuma mediates 2etween the heart regarded as the seat o' Gind in some ph(siological theories o' ancient medicine and the 2rain.465 The disciples o' 8ippocrates e3plained the maintenance o' vital heat to 2e the 'unction o' the 2reath within the organism. "round 300 BC #ra3agoras discovered the distinction 2etween the arteries and the veins. 6n the corpse arteries are empt(H hence in the light o' these preconceptions the( were declared to 2e vessels 'or conve(ing pneuma to the di''erent parts o' the 2od(. " generation a'terwards Crasistratus made this the 2asis o' a new theor( o' diseases and their treatment. Thepneuma inhaled 'rom the outside air rushes through the arteries till it reaches the various centres especiall( the 2rain and the heart and there causes thought and organic movement.4I5 Aristotle4edit5 See also: Spontaneous generation#Aristotle and On reath The 1connate pneuma1 o' "ristotle is the warm mo2ile 1air1 that in the sperm transmits the capacit( 'or locomotion and certain sensations to the o''spring. These movements derive 'rom the soul o' the parent and are em2odied 2( the pneuma as a material su2stance in semen. Pneuma is necessar( 'or li'e and as in medical theor( is involved with the 1vital heat 1 2ut the "ristotelian pneuma is less precisel( and thoroughl( de'ined than that o' the Stoics.435 Stoic pneuma4edit5 !ain article: Pneuma (Stoic) 6n Stoic philosoph( pneuma is the concept o' the 12reath o' li'e 1 a mi3ture o' the elements air )in motion/ and 'ire )as warmth/.485 $or the Stoics pneuma is the active generative principle that organiJes 2oth the individual and the cosmos.4K5 6n its highest 'orm pneuma constitutes the human soul )psych"/ which is a 'ragment o' the pneuma that is the soul o' 0od )Leus/. "s a 'orce that structures matter it e3ists even in inanimate o2Eects.4105 @udaism and Christianit(4edit5 See also: Soul in the ible This section re7uires e3pansion. (#ul y $%&&) 6n @udaic and Christian usage pneuma is a common word 'or 1spirit1 in the Septuagint and the 0ree& 9ew Testament. "t @ohn 3MB 'or e3ample pneuma is the 0ree& word translated into Cnglish as 1spirit1M 1Veril( veril( 6 sa( unto thee C3cept a man 2e 2orn o' water and o' the Spirit )pneuma/ he cannot enter into the &ingdom o' 0od.1 See also4edit5 The #neumatic or 1spiritual human1 o' 0nosticism The concept o' Christian pneumatolog( Pneuma a'atharton unclean spirit Pneuma (journal) su2titled 1The @ournal o' the Societ( 'or #entecostal Studies1 Ae'erences4edit5 1. Jump up^ Cntr( *+,-. in LiddellNScottN@ones " 0ree&OCnglish Le3icon online version. >. Jump up^ See pp.1K0 1KB >0B o' $ranPois "le3andre )>008/ 1Semantic maps and the t(polog( o' cole3i'icationM 6ntertwining pol(semous networ&s across

languages1 in Vanhove Gartine From Polysemy to Semantic change: To(ards a Typology o) *e+ical Semantic Associations Studies in Language Companion Series 106 "msterdam 9ew Qor&M BenEamins pp. 163O>1B. 3. R @ump up toMa b $urle( F.@. )1KKK/. From Aristotle to Augustine. 8istor( o' #hilosoph(. Aoutledge. p. >K. 6SB9 KI8N0N?1BN0600>N8. LCC9 K8008B?3. ?. Jump up^ Silvia Benso 1The Breathing o' the "irM #resocratic Cchoes in Levinas 1 in *e,inas and the Ancients )6ndiana Sniversit( #ress >008/ p. 13. B. Jump up^ Benso 1The Breathing o' the "ir 1 p. 1?. 6. Jump up^ #hilip @. van der CiE& 1The 8eart the Brain the Blood and the pneumaM 8ippocrates Fiocles and "ristotle on the Location o' Cognitive #rocesses 1 in !edicine and Philosophy in -lassical Anti.uity: /octors and Philosophers on 0ature, Soul, 1ealth and /isease )Cam2ridge Sniversit( #ress >00B/ pp. 131O13> et passim. 6SB9 0NB>1N81800N1 I. Jump up^ Tne or more o' the preceding sentences incorporates te3t 'rom a pu2lication now in the pu2lic domainM A.F. )1K11/. 18ic&s Stoics1. 6n Chisholm 8ugh. 2ncyclop3dia ritannica )11th ed./. Cam2ridge Sniversit( #ress 8. Jump up^ 1Stoicism 1 4outledge 2ncyclopedia o) Philosophy )Ta(lor U $rancis 1KK8/ p. 1?B. K. Jump up^ Favid Sedle( 1Stoic #h(sics and Getaph(sics 1 The -ambridge 1istory o) 1ellenistic Philosophy p. 388. 10. Jump up^ @ohn Sellars Stoicism )Sniversit( o' Cali'ornia #ress >006/ pp. K8N 10?. C3ternal lin&s4edit5 The dictionar( de'inition o' pneuma at %i&tionar(

#s(che )ps(cholog(/
$rom %i&ipedia the 'ree enc(clopedia Psychology

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Applied psychology

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Psychology portal v t e 6n ps(cholog( the psyche Wsaki/ is the totalit( o' the human mind conscious and unconscious. #s(cholog( is the scienti'ic or o2Eective stud( o' the ps(che. The word has a long histor( o' use in ps(cholog(and philosoph( dating 2ac& to ancient times and has 2een one o' the 'undamental concepts 'or understanding human nature 'rom a scienti'ic point o' view. The Cnglish word soul is sometimes used s(non(mousl( especiall( in older te3ts.415

Contents 4hide5 1 Ct(molog( > "ncient ps(cholog( 3 Gedieval ps(cholog( ? #henomenolog( B #s(choanal(sis o B.1 $reudian school o B.> @ungian school 6 Cognitive ps(cholog( I See also 8 9otes K Ae'erences 10 $urther reading Ct(molog(4edit5 The 2asic meaning o' the 0ree& word :;<= )ps5'h6/ was 1li'e1 in the sense o' 12reath1 'ormed 'rom the ver2 :X<Y )psu'h7 1to 2low1/. Ferived meanings included 1spirit1 1soul1 1ghost1 and ultimatel( 1sel'1 in the sense o' 1conscious personalit(1 or 1ps(che1.4>5[3] "ncient ps(cholog(4edit5 This section re7uires e3pansion. (#un e $%&&) The idea o' the #s(che is central to the philosoph( o' #lato. 6n his #haedo #lato has Socrates give 'our arguments 'or the immortalit( o' the soul and li'e a'ter death 'ollowing the separation o' the soul 'rom the 2od(.4?5 #latoZs Socrates also states that a'ter death the #s(che is 2etter a2le to achieve wisdom and e3perience the #latonic 'orms since it is unhindered 2( the 2od(.4B5 The 0ree& philosopher "ristotle wrote an in'luential treatise on the ps(che called in 0ree& [,D \;<] )Per8 Ps5ch"s/ in Latin /e Anima and in Cnglish On the Soul. "ristotleZs theor( o' the 1three souls )ps(ches/1 )vegetal animal and rational/ would rule the 'ield o' ps(cholog( until the 1Kth centur(. #rior to "ristotle a num2er o' 0ree& writings used the term psyche in a less precise sense.465 6n late anti7uit( 0alenic medicine developed the idea o' three 1spirits1 )pneuma/ corresponding to "ristotleZs three souls. The pneuma psychi'on corresponded to the rational soul. The other two pneuma were the pneuma physicon and the pneuma 9oticon. Gedieval ps(cholog(4edit5 This section re7uires e3pansion. (#un e $%&&) The term psyche was LatiniJed to anima which 2ecame one o' the 2asic terms used in medieval ps(cholog(. Anima would have traditionall( 2een rendered in Cnglish as 1soul1 2ut in modern usage the term 1ps(che1 is pre'era2le.4I5 #henomenolog(4edit5 This section re7uires e3pansion. (#un e $%&&) 1Kth centur( ps(chologists such as $ranJ Brentano developed the concept o' the ps(che in a more su2Eective direction. #s(choanal(sis4edit5

6n ps(choanal(sis and other 'orms o' depth ps(cholog( the ps(che re'ers to the 'orces in an individual that in'luence thought 2ehavior and personalit(.485 #reudian school4edit5 !ain article: :d, ego, and super;ego Sigmund $reud the 'ather o' ps(choanal(sis 2elieved that the ps(che NNN he used the word Seele throughout his writings NNN was composed o' three componentsM4K5 The id which represents the instinctual drives o' an individual and remains largel( unconscious. The superNego which represents a personZs conscience and their internaliJation o' societal norms and moralit(. The ego which is conscious and serves to integrate the drives o' the id with the prohi2itions o' the superNego. $reud 2elieved this con'lict to 2e at the heart o' neurosis. Jungian school 4edit5 Carl @ung wrote much o' his wor& in 0erman. Fi''iculties 'or translation arise 2ecause the 0erman word Seele means 2oth psyche and soul. @ung was care'ul to de'ine what he meant 2( ps(che and 2( soul. 6 have 2een compelled in m( investigations into the structure o' the unconscious to ma&e a conceptual distinction 2etween soul and psyche. B( ps(che 6 understand the totalit( o' all ps(chic processes conscious as well as unconscious. B( soul on the other hand 6 understand a clearl( demarcated 'unctional comple3 that can 2est 2e descri2ed as a 1personalit(1. )@ung 1KI1M Fe'. ?8 par. IKI/ 4The translation o' the 0erman word Seele presents almost insupera2le di''iculties on account o' the lac& o' a single Cnglish e7uivalent and 2ecause it com2ines the two words 1ps(che1 and 1soul1 in a wa( not altogether 'amiliar to the Cnglish reader. $or this reason some comment 2( the Cditors will not 2e out o' place.5 46n previous translations and in this one as well psycheO 'or which @ung in the 0erman original uses either Psyche or SeeleO has 2een used with re'erence to the totalit( o' all ps(chic processes )c'. @ung Psychological Types Fe'. ?8/H i.e. it is a comprehensive term. Soul on the other hand as used in the technical terminolog( o' anal(tical ps(cholog( is more restricted in meaning and re'ers to a 1'unction comple31 or partial personalit( and never to the whole ps(che. 6t is o'ten applied speci'icall( to 1anima1 and 1animus1H e.g. in this connection it is used in the composite word 1soulNimage1 )Seelenbild/. This conception o' the soul is more primitive than the Christian one with which the reader is li&el( to 2e more 'amiliar. 6n its Christian conte3t it re'ers to 1the transcendental energ( in man1 and 1the spiritual part o' man considered in its moral aspect or in relation to 0od.1 . . . OCditors.5 )@ung 1K68M note > par. K/ Cognitive ps(cholog(4edit5 This section re7uires e3pansion. (#un e $%&&) 6n recent decades cognitive ps(cholog( has replaced ps(choanal(sis as the dominant school o' ps(cholog( in academic centres. The word 1mind1 is pre'erred 2( cognitive scientists to 1ps(che1. See also4edit5 Consciousness Cgo death 8uman spirit 6nscape )art/ Gind Gotivation 9a's

#ersona #ersona )ps(cholog(/ Aeincarnation Soul #s(chosis 9otes4edit5 1. Jump up^ 8illman @ )T Goore Cd./ )1K8K/. A blue )ire: Selected (ritings by #ames 1illman. 9ew Qor& 9Q SS"M 8arper#erennial. p. >0. >. Jump up^ 8enr( 0eorge Liddell and Aidle( Scott A <ree';2nglish *e+icon entr( 1ps(che1. 3. Jump up^ See p.18IN1KI >0? o' $ranPois "le3andre )>008/ 1Semantic maps and the t(polog( o' cole3i'icationM 6ntertwining pol(semous networ&s across languages1 in Vanhove Gartine From Polysemy to Semantic change: To(ards a Typology o) *e+ical Semantic Associations Studies in Language Companion Series 106 "msterdam 9ew Qor&M BenEamins pp. 163O>1B. ?. Jump up^ #lato Phaedo 6KeN8?2. B. Jump up^ #lato Phaedo BKcN6Ke 6. Jump up^ C'. Aohde Psyche Chapters 6 and V66. "lso see the m(th o' Cros and #s(che where #s(che was the em2odiment o' the soul. I. Jump up^ Simon ^emp !edie,al PsychologyH Simon ^emp -ogniti,e Psychology in the !iddle AgesH "nthon( ^enn( A.uinas on !ind. 8. Jump up^ C'. Aeed Cdward S. on the narrowing o' the stud( o' the ps(che into the stud( o' the mind. K. Jump up^ Ae2er "rthur S.H Ae2er Cmil( S. )>001/. /ictionary o) Psychology. 9ew Qor&M #enguin Ae'erence. 6SB9 0N1?N0B1?B1N1. Ae'erences4edit5 @ung C.0. )1K68/. Psychology and Alchemy Collected %or&s Volume 1> #rinceton 9.@. #rinceton Sniversit( #ress. 6SB9 0N6K1N01831N6 TCLC >1K8B6. @ung C.0. )1KI1/. Psychological Types Collected %or&s Volume 6 #rinceton 9.@.M #rinceton Sniversit( #ress. 6SB9 0N6K1N01813N8. Aeed Cdward S. From Soul to !ind: The 2mergence o) Psychology, )rom 2rasmus /ar(in to =illiam #ames Qale Sniversit( #ress 1KK8. 6SB9 0N300N0IB81N> Aohde Crwin Psyche: The -ult o) Souls and the elie) in :mmortality Among the <ree's LondonM Aoutledge U ^egan #aul 1K>BH reprinted 2( Aoutledge >000. 6SB9 0N ?1BN>>B63NK $urther reading4edit5 Valsiner @aanH Aosa "l2erto The -ambridge 1andboo' o) Sociocultural Psychology Cam2ridge Sniversit( #ress >00I. 6SB9 0NB>1N8B?10NB. C'. Chapter 1 p. >3 1The G(th and Be(ondM Tntolog( o' #s(che and Cpistemolog( o' #s(cholog(1. %ilson Ao2ert "ndrewH ^eil $ran& C. The !:T 2ncyclopedia o) the -ogniti,e Sciences G6T #ress >001. 6SB9 0N>6>NI31??N? Snow #.@. The 8uman #s(che 6n Love %ar and Cnlightenment 415 Fecem2er >00K 6SB9 KI8N1NK>1BBBN?>N8