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BUILDING TECHNOLOGY AND MATERIALS

Professor: Arch. Arnel Ramos


(M-W-F) Feb. 24-Mar. 17, 2006 (10%)
Kinds/Forms Water Distribution System
Up feed main (Maynilad/Manila Water) fixtures (as long as there is normal pressure coming from the main
water line)
Down feed - main (Maynilad/Manila Water) Cistern pump storage tank gravity fixtures
- tank is placed 10 ft. above the highest fixture
Pneumatic - main (Maynilad/Manila Water) Cistern pump pressure tank pressure fixtures
- up to 23 stories only (water zoning 23 stories)
- 46 stories 2 pumps and 2 water tanks
Standard slope of pipes:
Drainage 1%
Sewer 2%
Architecture the art and science of designing and constructing satisfying the four factors.
Four factors of designing
1.
2.
3.
4.

Commercial

Institutional

4
2
1
3

2
4
3
1

Function
Economy
Aesthetic
Structures

Difference between a Structure and a Building:


Structure composed of building and plan
Building enclosure
Plan internal elements
Difference between a Storey and a Level:
Storey super structure only
Level - super structure and sub-structure

Classification of Structures
Low-rise Structure four storey and below
Medium-rise Structure 5-8 stories (3M deep foundation)
High-rise Structure 12 and above

Lay-outs and Excavation


Tools used for Lay-outing
1.
2.
3.
4.

Spirit level lebel 1.20M max length


Plastic hose filled with water leveling hose
Plum bulb hulog
Tremie funnel used when there is stagnant water in the excavated area

Concrete mixture of cement, sand, gravel and water


Curing Period of Concrete
28 days normal
21, 14, 7 days ready-mixed concrete
1 day removal of forms

Concrete Mixture
Class

Mixture

40kg

50kg

Sand

Gravel

AA

1*1*3

12

9.5

0.5

1.0

1*2*4

0.5

1.0

1*2*5

7.5

0.5

1.0

1*3*6

0.5

1.0

PSI Pounds per Square Inch


-

Strength of cement (cement and water ration provides the strength)

In traditional construction: max. of 3000 p.s.i. and 6.0M span

Elf 2-3 cum. capacity


Dump truck 8-10 cum. capacity
Forward 14-20 cum. capacity
Bagger mixer 28-30 rotations
Pre-Stress
-Method of Construction
Post-Tensioning used tendons instead of top bars and bottom bars
- Not a pre-cast beam
- cast in place/site
Pre-Tensioning Camber
- pre-cast

Windows
Oriel Window with corbel
Bay Window Floor is extended
Hopper Window hinge is at the bottom, inward swing
CONSTRUCTION TERMS
Adobe Anchor Llabe/liyabe
Astragal - Batidura (door stopper-strip)
Bath Tub Banyera
Blue Torch Suplete
Cabinet Hinge - Espolon
Cast Iron - Pundido
Cement Tiles Baldosa
Conductor - Alulod
Door Hinge - Bisagra
Earth Fill - Eskombro
Electrician Elektrista
Istuko - Palitada
Kitchen Sink Prigadero
Morta Bond Tile Adhesive (Pioneer Brand)
Mortar Paupo
Nail Brad
Nail 6 Spike
Pea Gravel Grabita
Plum Bob - Hulog
Rabbit Bashida
Ready Fix - Tile Adhesive (ABC Brand)
Riser Takip-silipan
Scratch Coat - Rebukada
Spirit Level Lebel
Wiring Knob Poleya
Weans Coating Asolehos

BUILDING MATERIALS
Wood
Classification
Soft Wood Tanguile, Lawaan, Giho
Hard Wood no flexibility
Properties
Hardness - compression strength of wood
Flexibility
Strength based on its grid
Durability
Categories
Yard trims and paneling (baseboards, etc.)
Shop door jambs (sash works)
Structural
Definition
Strips - <1 (1 x 2, 1 x 3, 1 x 4, etc.)
Board
Dimension more than 1 (2 x 3, 2 x 4, 2 x 6, etc.)
Timber square (2 x 2, 3 x 3, 4 x 4)
Log biggest section
Seasoning treatment applied to the wood
Air Drying P40-60
S4S, S2S
Rough lumber (no treatment P23-30)
Kiln Drying scientifically treated (P40-60)
Manufactured Board
Plywood
Soft Plywood , , , 1
Hardwood Plywood used for paneling (danarra wood)
Ply Board used in cabinets to be painted
* size of nails 3x thickness of board

Hard Board Lawanit (form works)


Particle Board used for laminated cabinets
Ply Board used in cabinets to be painted
Acoustical Ceiling System
Acoustic Board 2 x 2 and 2 x 4
Wall Angle installed in the perimeter of the wall
Main Tee center line of room
Cross Tee
Trooper Type Lighting Fixture lighting fixture used in acoustic ceiling
* Spacing of joist 0.60M
Gypsum Board no flexibility
Dry wall
Horizontal support carrying channel
Vertical support furring channel
* Spacing of studs 61mm or 2
Cement Board
Hardiflex 10mm, 12mm, 16mm (2 hours fire proof)

Casein glue for wood parquet


- Ingredients of milk
Paint
Reducers:
Latex Water
Enamel Paint Thinner
Lacquer - Lacquer Thinner
Applications of Paint:
Brush 25% reducer
Roller 50% reducer
Spray 100% reducer
Black add mixture