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In the United States in 2010 there were only about 70,000 new cases of melanoma cancer but 10,000 deaths, making it one of the deadliest types of cancer. Melanoma cancer can be cured. Then why so deadly? The biggest problem with melanoma is that it is not diagnosed early enough.
I created a computer program for at home use to help with the early diagnosis of melanoma cancer.
The experiments suggest that among the methods tested. if diagnosed early. Here I propose an efficient system which helps with the early diagnosis of melanoma cancer. the combination of Bayes machine learning with Hosei image feature extraction is the best method for detecting cancerous moles.Abstract Melanoma cancer is one of the most dangerous and potentially deadly types of skin cancer. using this method. Two image feature databases were created: one compiled from a dermatologist-training tool for melanoma from Hosei University and the other created by extracting features from digital pictures of lesions using a software called Skinseg. however. Then. a computer tool was developed to return the probability that an image is cancerous. Different image processing techniques and machine learning algorithms are evaluated to distinguish between cancerous and noncancerous moles. it is nearly one-hundred percent curable [UnderstMel09]. This is a very practical application as it allows for at-home findings of the probability that a mole is cancerous. I then applied various machine learning techniques on the image feature database using a Python-based tool called Orange. This does not replace visits to a .
If the mole is malignant. If there is a high probability that a mole is cancerous from this manual inspection. the surgeon performs a Sentinel Lymph Node or SLN biopsy. the surgeon may remove nearby lymph nodes to keep the . then the dermatologist performs an excisional biopsy and looks at it at the microscopic level to distinguish if the mole is malignant or benign.Current Methods of Diagnosis Currently. the initial diagnosis of melanoma is based on manual inspection by a trained dermatologist using what is known as the ABCDE method. If melanoma is still present in the body after this step.
The diagnosis of melanoma is not based on just one of these factors but a combination of all of them. Diameter. My project uses these image attributes as Source: The Ear. Nose. and Throat Alliance: http://www. or evolves over time. When a mole is asymmetrical or the boarders are uneven. there is a high probability that the mole is cancerous.net/index. it is more likely to be malignant. if it has two or more colors.The ABCDE Method The ABCDE method is the current method of manual inspection used by dermatologists to distinguish between moles that are cancerous and benign. ABCDE is an acronym for the following: Asymmetry. Evolving.php?section=3&pid=198 . a large diameter. Color. Boarder Irregularity. allianceent. Similarly.
For this project. ● Feature extraction: Feature extraction is deciding what features are important and extracting those features from an image. ● Machine learning: Machine learning algorithms can be used to determine trends based on the relationship between features found in the previous step.My Steps for Detecting Melanoma ● Image acquisition: I first need to acquire images of moles that may be cancerous. I received a database of images online and from a dermatologist. I used images taken from a standard household digital camera in order to make the tool available for at-home use. These trends can be used to predict whether a new image will be . For this project. the important features corresponded with the ABCDE method for melanoma detection.
If automatic segmentation doesn’t work.e. the mole) and extracts a set of features from this segment.Skinseg segments a given image to isolate the portion of interest (i. and segment it. open each image individually. do semi-automatic or manual segmentation. .Procedure (1) Step 1 Acquire Images Acquire images of both cancerous and non-cancerous moles from dermatologists and from the internet Step 2 Create feature database using different image feature extraction software tools i) Skinseg tool . After compiling a set of images.
ii) Hosei tool: The Hosei Tool has predetermined features for given images. Most likely. Using this dermatologist-training website.Procedure (2) Once all of the feature files are saved. use a python script to create a database of the following features: ■ Dominant HSI intensity ■ Asymmetry ■ Entropy ■ Boundary irregularity ■ Energy ■ Average RGB intensity ■ Inertia ■ Dominant RGB intensity ■ Homogeneity ■ Average HSI intensity This creates a database of the features in a TAB delimited file. compile a set of the following features: ■ Globules ■ Symmetry ■ Atypical Pigment ■ Borders ■ Blue Whitesh Veil ■ Color ■ Atypical Vascular Pattern ■ Pigment Network ■ Irregular Streaks ■ Branched Steaks ■ Irregular Pigmentation ■ Homogenous ■ Regression Structures ■ Dots . these features were determined by physician inspection.
There are various methods for machine learning. I wrote code in this program to test the percent accuracies of different sets of data for a given machine learning method and feature extraction method. I worked with the following: Majority Learning Bayes Learning Decision Trees kNN (Nearest Neighbor) Evaluate the above methods using a Python based software tool called Orange. Machine Learning The databases created in step 2 are now used for machine learning. .Procedure (3) Step 3.
OR ○ Internet . MD. MD. Sandhya Koppula.Image Acquisition ● Taken by normal digital camera ● Acquired images from multiple sources ○ Dr. OR ○ Dr. Beaverton. Dermatologist. Providence Medical Group. Portland. Cornell Dermatology Clinic. Kristin Stevens. Dermatologist.
this software required a certain pixel per millimeter count which was not available for my images. It is possible to create a computer program which does this in a more automatic way. it is not specifically for melanoma images. so I did not use it for my project. ● CVIP tools: This tool. is very powerful but mostly interactive. developed by Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville. Unfortunately. In the future.Feature Extraction Tools ● Skinseg: Skinseg is a program developed by Wright State University. I plan to experiment more with this tool. In the future. however. this tool provides predetermined features for given images. ● Hosei Tool: Created by Hosei University in Japan. I plan to use Open CV or get the source . but I chose to use Skinseg and the Hosei tool instead. ● Open CV: This tool from Intel would be very powerful in completely automating the process of feature extraction. I was able to receive an evaluation version of this software for free from the founder of the company. Most likely. This tool segments a given image and then extracts a set of features based from the segment. ● Mole Expert Micro: This is a commercial software for the feature extraction of melanoma images. these features were determined by manual inspection by dermatologists.
a python-based tool. ● I wrote programs in Orange to test a variety of different machine learning algorithms (listed below) ● MVSIS is another machine learning tool which I explored but didn’t test . which had libraries of multiple machine learning algorithms.Machine Learning Machine Learning Tools ● I used Orange.
There are a variety of different techniques to how to create the best tree and to distinguish which features are important and which are not. ● kNN (k-Nearest Neighbor) ○ Nearest Neighbor is a machine learning method which creates a ndimensional space corresponding to n features. Combined. is a basic technique which gives a probability of a given mole being cancerous based on the distribution of cancerous and non-cancerous entries in the database. ● Decision Trees ○ This machine learning method creates a tree based on the training data. ● Bayes Learning ○ In Bayes learning.Machine Learning Algorithms ● Majority Learning ○ Majority learning. It then calculates the . these networks can give a probability for whether or not the mole is cancerous. Bayesian networks are created which represent the relationship between a given feature and the probability that the mole is cancerous.
Sample Feature Database .
tab .py) providing all the feature text files as input and creating a TAB file Each input file gets represented by a row in TAB file No skinsegd b.Creating Feature Database Save to text file with feature list and classification (melanoma.yes/no?) Original image Segmented Extracted image Features Process Next Image Ye s More images to process? Run Python script (convert.
tab Run Python script in Orange for machine learning which applies various machine learning methods to provide a probability for whether or not the user-submitted image has a cancerous mole. Decision Trees Majority Learning Bayes Learning Nearest Neighbor .Analyzing a User-Submitted Image Save to text file with feature list User-Submitted Image Segmented image Extracted Features skinsegd b.
Proposed Web-based Melanoma Diagnostic System Web Page Submit . jpg image of mole Display Result Feature Extraction Features Machine Learning Diagnosis .
Results Machine Learning Algorithm Machine Learning Algorithm .
This was different from my original hypothesis. the accuracy will grow to a larger number. ● Next steps include automating the process. perimeter. ● I eliminated some variables from the machine learning database to help keep my results consistent. ● The accuracy of classification was less than I predicted. I eliminated number of pixels. I did some experimentation and found that accuracy increases with the size of the database. With more images. ● The best learning method on my data set was using Bayes learning and the Hosei tool for feature extraction. using a larger . I also eliminated the file name because that had no effect on whether or not the image was cancerous.Analysis & Conclusion ● I concluded that using image processing and machine learning tools I can create an effective algorithm to assist with the early diagnosis of melanoma cancer. and area. because each image used a different scale. This algorithm can be implemented in a website which can be used by people at home. but I only had about 130 images in my database.
Field expert for current methods of diagnosis. Southern Illinois University. Kristin Stevens. Wright State University on Skinseg Image processing tool ● Dr. University of California Berkeley for MVSIS ● Mr. ● Ms. Scott E Umbaughs. Goshtasby. also provided images of melanoma ● Dr.J. University of California Berkeley for sharing her research on image processing ● Dr. MD. A. Cornell . founder of MoleExpert for providing access to an evaluation version of the MoleExpert Micro tool.Acknowledgements ● Dr. Edwardsville on CVIP tools ● Dr. Providence Medical Group. Dermatologist. Alan Mishchenko. B. Dermatologist. Holger Lüdtke. Portland. Sandhya Koppula. Missouri University of Science and Technology ● Dr. Shrestha. MD. Iris Cheng.