© All Rights Reserved

1 views

© All Rights Reserved

- Reference IEC61363
- OISD-149
- Earthing Transformers
- Transmission Line Protection
- Articulo Capacitores
- _Final_Sem_1_12_13
- Micologic 2 5 6 7.0A Manual
- dc offset
- Earth Fault Loop Impedence
- 7SR11 and 7SR12 Argus Catalogue Sheet_IEC61850
- E24
- Pd Maint Paper
- PDF_ajassp.2013.579.595
- 2 Intro Emtp Atp Vera
- Cable Fault (1)
- EE6702_qb
- Earth fault Restricted With NCT
- Topics for End Sem PROJECT
- Heavy Loaded Very High Voltage Lines and Distance Protections
- 1-s2.0-S0378779613002587-main

You are on page 1of 78

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

plicity many system problems have been reduced to this form for

motor or generator but which are known not to affect the large

stability.

The equations of rotor motion for machines 1 and 2, from Eq. 3-8,

can be written as

, ,,2 ~~ * ol ml ** el

kJ lit

H2 d S2 _ _

rj lit

[4-1]

51

their constant values, Tm\ = Tm2. This follows since there are

d 512 ir/

Tal [4-3]

or

dt2 H0

Tai [4-4]

where

H=rk

Since for the case of two machines with no resistance losses in the tie,

the electrical power or torque is given by Eq. 3-1, with #12 being

d%:

dt2

irf ( ElE2 \

Equation 4-6 is similar to Eq. 3-9 for one machine against an infinite

and Pritchard2 for the case of two changes in circuit conditions, and

tion of a fault and its removal. The solution is given for the maxi-

mum allowable switching time for removal of the fault without loss

to solve Eq. 4-6, and Byrd and Pritchard used long hand step-by-

step methods.

obtained as follows:

E\E2 E\E2

or

when

d 312 _ jr/

at 11 q

E\E2 _ *12(before)

* max '1

*12(before) *12(during)

d2S12 TfriTm

dt2 H0

(sin S0 . \ ,

Now, if

or

rf25]2 sin 50

rfr2 r,

This equation was solved for 5i2 in terms of r for various values of

tions.2 The curves of Figs. 4-1 to 4-17, taken from reference 2, give

xi 2 (before)

X\2 (after)

Sin 60-0.I0

55

5.0

5.0

Fig. 4-6.

Sin SQ-0.30

Sin 80n0.25

Sin $o=0.35

56

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

[Ch. 4

2.0 3.0

Fig. 4.9.

Fig. 4.8.

Sin 6o-0.50

Sin 80 '0.40

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

57

5.0

5.0

l'0.8

uN0.8

Fig. 411.

Fig. 4.10.

Sin 60-0.60

Sin 80-0.55

Sin 80=0.65

58

5.0

[Ch. 4

Fig. 413.

Fig. 4-15.

Fig. 4-14.

Sin S0'0.80

Sin 80-0.70

Sin 6on0.75

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

59

Sin 80-0.85

5.0

5.0

These curves represent the solution of Eq. 4-12 for different values

In this way these solutions give directly the critical switching time in

the exception of one special case. This special case will be described

next, after which the use of these curves will be illustrated in this

section by an example.

Special Case (r\ = 0). The solution of Eq. 4-12 requires a special

cos5s

r.>

[4-13]

dt2

H0

rmax sin 50

[4-14]

rmax [4-15]

or

t = , K [4-16]

IZ

1 max

d%

dp.

2 = sin 50 [4.17]

dp

2(Si2 50)

sin Sn

[4-18]

abscissa.

and inertia constant for each of the two machine groups. Machines

>

Q.

00

61

CO

oo

CNJ

00 f

3 "!S

62

[Ch. 4

TW6-MACHINE STABILITY

(5l and 82) as the transmitted load is varied. Plot the variation

Ho 0-

yOOQQQi

Hb 0-

-^msusir-

He Q-

-dmSSLr-

a>-

-\00000 r-

-vJMJ&ay-

-^umsu-

iQQOOOj

1 \S&St!llb'

iJUfiy^J

(0)

(b)'

I 'SiSiSiiI

MJ<S&&&Sb|viMfiff./ yjmaiLr(z)

to

Fig. 4-19.

of sin 5o, the sine of the initial angular displacement (512 initial),

sin 80. These two plots will be used to determine the transmitted

*12(before)

and

*12(during)

r2 =

^(before)

*12(after)

the plot of sin 80 versus initial power to obtain the power correspond-

63

ing to r\ (the power that can be transmitted if the fault is not cleared)

sin 50, which, from the curves plotted in accordance with (2), cor-

[4-19]

12(before)

If rt =0 for any case, use Fig. 4-18 to obtain p and use Eq. 4-16 to

obtain t.

6. Switching time curve. Plot the results of (4) and (5), initial

illustrate the steps in the calculation of the transient stability limits by the method

just outlined. The effect of a fault on one of the parallel transmission lines connect-

0.350

6.6/132

nmwM^

0.165

vicflfififla/

0.51. -'5

125.4/33.0

^ fr

Flg. 4-21. System diagram reactances based on 100,000 kva and rated voltages

6.6, 132, and 33 kv. Machine 1 is rated 50,000 kva at 1.0 power factor. Hi = 1.76

and Ha = 14.1.

It will be noted that the turn ratio of the step-down transformers is not the same

as the ratio of the rated voltages of the circuits which they connect. Therefore, if

132 kv, the rated voltage of the high-tension circuit, is chosen as the " unit " or

"base " voltage for the system, the per unit value of the low-tension rated voltage

will be 125.4/132 = 0.95; or the low-tension base voltage will be 34.7 kv. (See

Appendix I, Volume I.) Since the base voltage of the low-tension circuit is greater

H,l.76 0.350

o.i5o r^smsmu-

0.511

-'50 0.116

than 33 kv, the rated voltage upon which the reactances are given, the per unit

reactances of this part of the system must be decreased by the ratio (125.4/132 )2 =

(0.95)2 = 0.902. The reactance of the equivalent motor then becomes 0.902 X

0.131 = 0.118, and the reactance of the receiving end transformer becomes 0.902 X

65

The turn ratio of the step-up transformers corresponds to the ratio of the rated

voltages of the circuits; therefore the base voltage on the generating station side

of these transformers will be equal to the rated voltage for that circuit, and no

The transformers are connected A-Y and solidly grounded on the high sides as

1.230

1.210

1.190

1.170

1.150

1.130

1.0

1.110

0.9

0.8

XI

OJ

1.090

1.070

1.050

1.030

1.010

0.7

1-

t 0.6

>

- 0.5

\ 0.4

0.990

'0.3

0.970

0.2

0.950

0.1

0.930

Trnax

Per Unit

Power

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Sin S0

Fig. 4-23. Per unit power and rmax vs. sin So for the equivalent system of Fig. 4.22.

TABLE 4-1

Displacements between the Two Machines. If rated voltages are normally held on

the high-tension side of the step-up transformers and on the low-tension side of the

step-down transformers, the current can be determined for any value of power

transfer. If the current is known, the magnitudes of the voltages E\ and 2 which

exist behind the machine reactances and the angle 50 between them can be cal-

culated.

The magnitudes of the internal voltages and the angle between them for various

values of load are tabulated in Table 4.1 and used to plot the two curves of Fig. 4-23.

One curve shows the relation between the initial power transfer and the sine of the

initial angle 4o between the internal voltages. The other curve shows the relation

H.lfc.2

between the function Tmtx = and sin 5o. E\ and 2 are the internal voltages

of machines 1 and 2, respectively, and X12 is the total reactance between the points

at which these voltages are maintained (see Fig. 4-22) *i2(before) = 0.511 + 0.150 +

0.350

v 0000.0.0.0./^)

0.175 i 0.175

0.150 . 0.118

u.iou U.IIO /^

(0)?

(V)ys&smsu-r-^smsmj@

(b)

0.0438

Fig. 4-24. Reactance diagram with a three-phase fault at the midpoint of one of

3. Calculation of Reactances During and After the Fault, (a) Three-phase fault

at the center of one line. The equivalent reactance x/ of a three-phase fault is zero.

Therefore, (b) of Fig. 4-24 can be obtained from (a) by one A-Y transformation.

(0.749 X 0.356)

r\ = = - = 0.1535

*12<during) 7.192

*12(before) 1104:

r2 = = = 0.863

*12(after) 1-279

(6) Double-line-to-ground fault at the center of one line. The equivalent reactance

67

sequence reactances of the system viewed from the point of fault. Three steps in

*12(before) 1.104

i = = ~r~^r: = 0.461

f2 = 0.863, being the same for all types of faults at one location

0.350

0.118

Xf (L-L-G Foult)

I 7 I__L.

(c)

0.749 0.356

s-\ 0.749

Note. The assumption is made that the negative sequence reactance of the system is

equal to the positive sequence reactance when viewed from the point of fault; and

that the zero sequence reactance of the transmission lines is equal to 3.5 times their

positive sequence reactance, mutual reactance between the two circuits being negli-

68

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

TABLE 4-2

Per

Unit

10.95

(n-0.1535

Switching

Time,

Sin 5o

Power

.1 max

?ll max

Vr^ma*

r2 = 0.863)

Second

0.825

0.995

0.80

0.933

1.177

0.1807

4.65

0.127

0.0273

0.75

0.843

1.134

0.1741

4.57

0.2365

0.0518

0.70

0.763

1.097

0.1684

4.49

0.353

0.0784

0.65

0.690

1.067

0.1638

4.43

0.450

0.1016

0.60

0.623

1.041

0.1598

4.38

0.554

0.1265

0.55

0.560

1.020

0.1566

4.33

0.666

0.1538

0.50

0.500

1.001

0.1537

4.29

0.783

69

TABLE 4-3

Per

Unit

Power

10.95

Switching

Time,

Second

Sin Jo

-* max

fl* max

vVi7.max

(n = 0.461

r2- 0.863)

0.825

0.995

0.80

0.933

1.177

0.5426

8.07

0.353

0.0437

0.75

0.843

1.134

0.5228

7.92

0.702

0.0886

0.70

0.763

1.097

0.5057

7.79

1.01

0.1297

0.65

0.690

1.067

0.4919

7.68

1.32

0.1719

0.60

0.623

1.041

0.4799

7.59

1.671

0.2202

0.55

0.560

1.020

0.4702

7.51

2.081

0.2771

0.50

0.500

1.001

0.4615

7.38

2.574

0.3460

70

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

Data for switching time curves for a number of loads have been determined by

use of the curves of Fig. 4-23 and the master curves (Figs. 4-1 to 4-17) and are

From the data given in Tables 4.2 and 4-3, the switching time curves shown in

Fig. 4-26 (by the full lines) were plotted. The dotted curve is for a three-phase

fault on one of the parallel lines very near the sending end high-tension bus. The

calculations for this case of r\ = 0 and rj = 0.863 are summarized in Table 4.4,

~ -.0

0.9

8 8

8,0.7

! 0.6

& 0.5

* 0.4

fe0.3

5 0.2

.s

I 0.1

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Fig. 4.26. Permissible fault duration versus initial power transfer for the system

given by Fig. 4.22. Note. Full load on machine 1 of Fig. 4.21 is 0.5 per unit power.

Curve

-L-G

ine

L_

<

It

Sec. 15]

71

severe than those at the center of a line. See Fig. 4-27 for a com-

for a three-phase fault located near the high-tension bus. The bus

faults or faults near the buses, because they are more severe, are in

general considered in greater detail than faults along the line. There-

fore, any method which will decrease the severity of faults near the

1.4

1.3

i,

=J

"-;

Fig.

0>

o.89 nrvi)

Hi = 56 H2 = I90

'30

,Fou*-Lo

COtic

nA

Sg^ou

Lto

i^tVo

le_

0.1

0.2

0.3

Switching-Time-in Seconds

0.8

0.9

1.0

4-27. Switching time curves for three-phase faults near center of line and

72

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

to clear the faulty circuit. The use of a high-tension bus allows for

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.2

I.

o 0.

Q.

|0.

Fig.

oil

IJl-o cHj

fro

Gen. i i

iT Gen. 3

3x

"-Fault

* Vault

111

Lot

LEf^nJSussing

_ High-Tension Bussing

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.8

0.9

1.0

4.28. Switching time curves for double-line-to-ground faults with low- and

high-tension bussing.

clearing of the fault at both ends of the circuit with balanced relays;

than for simultaneous clearing if the time for the first breaker to

Sec. 15]

73

switching time curve (c) for sequential opening of the line breakers

(it was assumed that the second breaker and relay required as much

time to clear as the first breaker and relay after the opening of the

1.2

i.o

0.9

0.8

I -7

s.

.* 0.6

fc0.5

a.

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

^^

^^

^^

^5

0.8

0.9

Fig. 4-29. Switching time curves for three-phase faults at generator high-tension

realize fully the possible increase in the transient stability limit made

number of high-tension bussing stations for a given line and for given

number and types of faults expected as well as upon the breaker and

Valuable data from automatic oscillographs have been and are being

74

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

l.l

i.o

0.9

0.8

0.7

| 0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

O.I

0.35 J>0J^55_cH_D0134_t:, 0 03

Vault

-8_

"*

--^

~-'

0.1

0.2

Fig. 4.30. Switching time curves showing gains realized by use of an intermediate

double-line-to-ground fault.

probability for the occurrence of bus faults or faults just off the

state conditions are obtained usually with one line out or a sec-

and switching times are long, the intermediate high-tension bus may

lower the average transient stability limits for certain types of faults

and relays.

Sec. 15]

75

Fig. 4-31. This shows the gain that may be realized by the use of a

1.60

1.50

1.40

1.30

1.20

1.10

1.00

t 0.90

0.80

5 0.70

0.60

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 I.I

Fig. 4-31. Power-switching time curves for various kinds of faults and the effect

Gen.

Mot.

o-

-o

* Fault

'Line-ground fault

transformer reactance)

Line-ground fault

- Reactance in .neutral

^3-phose fault

76

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

4.32 shows the gains for particular switching times for different values

that as the switching times decrease the gains are decreased, and

2.00

1.80

1.60

.40

1.20

.1.00

<

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

t=0

t = 0.2

t = 0.4

t = 0.6

t = cc

12 3 4 5 6

near bus vs. reactance in transformer neutrals. 8 per cent transformer reactance

that the gains realized for this system by increasing the reactance in

the neutral rapidly drop off above two or three times transformer

reactance.

Sec. IS]

77

manner. Figure 4-33 shows the gains realized as the switching time

general decrease the transient stability limit for the other types of

2.2

2.0

1.8

1.6

w 1.4

= 1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

* 12% Reoctonce

^^8% Reactance

^"^4% Reactance

x0% Reactance

0.1

0.2

0.6

0.7

0.8

tension bus.

fault and fault locations rather than increase it, so that a more

one 220-kv line will have approximately the same reactance as four

than two circuits are used, the switching out of one line does not

Figure 4-34 shows the relative transient stability limits for a system

78

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

lower voltage circuits for this case equals the parallel reactance of the

two higher voltage circuits. The system having lower voltage cir-

cuits without high-tension bussing is, for the case considered, the

3.

2.

2.

2,

2.

?.

!1.

Q.

I,

I.

0.

oajrj \ iSjoqfep

1111

I3#-

Steady State

*6- .9

-5J^

^.6 .9 ^.

s&

1 .9

**7

All Lines In

-0-

3 ,9 &

** >

-i

-o-iJ

6 .9

4i^o-

S6

, .9

B 2L .9 *is

6 .9

5.F

1 .9

"r

.9

<>.6

A--

bad

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1

Sec. IS]

79

fault before the generator rotor has reached as great an angular dis-

3.0

2.8

'1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

o-f

0.

0000000

0.I ,

1 ti b Infinite

o]-i|-p bus

H = 2.60u - 0.3

TT5OTWr

I line fault

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.9 1.0 I.I

Fig. 4-35. Comparison of stability limits for faults on stub feeder against faults

system. That is, a 100 per cent increase in the inertia of a generator

of 41 per cent. Figure 4-36 shows the gains that can be realized by

Figure 4-37 shows the gains realized in the transient stability limit

80

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

I,

I.

5 i.

i '<

i o,

0,

1 0.3

H 3.38

[7

H-2.60

0.2

2.2

2.0

1.8

1.6

- 1.2

5 1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Fig. 4-37. Switching time curve showing the effect of change in ucj on transient

stability.

0.

0000000

0.3 0

| K Infinite

^nreflnonn ^

I K bus

Vj

can be neglected.

For this case, we can again start with the equation of motion of the

d2(h ~ h) d2S12

-/Tal Ta2\

[4.20]

dt2 dt*

d/dd\2 dS/d2S\

zero when

,5,

mS%)

This is the general form of the equal area criterion and applies when

This criterion may be applied for the case of two machines when

operating conditions.

maintained.

currents, and power factors which existed in the system before the

fault occurred, the magnitudes and angles of the voltages behind the

S2

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

of the fault and after the fault has been cleared (Section 2, Volume I)

the fault (Section 10). The driving point and transfer impedances

may be obtained for each machine for each circuit condition (Section

7, Volume I).

MJ'O0W>

rO-WWV '.OD'OW"1D-i

KMM/W nWGGa^-o-i

lo)

(b)

system.

machines 1 and 2, calculated by Eq. 1-6, are shown in Figs. 4-39 (a)

and 4-39 (b), respectively. These curves are shown separately for

The angle 50 is the initial value of the angle 512 between the volt-

ages E\ and E2. At the instant the fault occurs, the electrical torque

torque

E\E2

Tal = Ti - Tel

Ti sin an

12

Sec. 16]

83

^22 ^12

la)

8,

The torque Tai, which is the difference between Ti and the ordinate

will increase.

4. Determination of critical

while the relative acceleration was positive and 512 was increasing

come and the relative velocity of the machines will become zero just

84

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

method.

values of 512 from 50 to S/ for the conditions which existed with the

machines at which the fault can be cleared from the system with-

out causing instability. In this way Ss, the critical switching angle,

required for the angle between the two machines to equal S, (Sec-

one curve giving angle between machines (512) versus time can be

used.

the other end of the line), a curve for (Tai/Hi Ta2/H2) corre-

added to Fig. 4-40. If such values of Si2 (Ssi and Ss2) can be found

that the sum of the areas under the three curves is zero, the system

Fig. 4.41.

for a sustained fault. In this particular case the area under the

there is a value of 512 at which the area under the curve (Tai/Hi

Tai/Hz) is zero for the conditions existing with the fault on the

system.

T<a/H2) for the conditions existing after the fault is cleared. If the

service of a portion of the system. The angle S\2 will at first increase.

With increasing values of 512 the area under Curve C in Fig. 4-40

the case shown the system will not lose synchronism on the first

mine the maximum load that can be thrown on one of two syn-

. Etc 4,42

the motion of the two systems (Eq. 4-1) as follows (assuming system 1

Hi d% ElE2 .

vj at #12

H2d% Ar^l2

*7 dr x12

86

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

d%

Hi

d% irf

dt2

Ho

o2

where

Tai Tm

EiE2

*12

sin 5x2

^12

.(Tal Ta2\

d%

dt2

t4-27]

[4-28]

[4-29]

[4.30]

[4-31]

Equation 4.31 is the same as Eq. 4-22, for which the criterion for

stability is

jC(S?S)*"0

[4-32]

where Ta\ and Ta2 are expressed for this case by Eqs. 4-29 and 4-30,

respectively.

of 512.

H1*

'S^gi^>'

(b)

Fig. 4.43.

REFERENCES 87

REFERENCES

and Edith Clarke, General Electric Review, February 1934, pages 87-92.

CHAPTER 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

frequency.

the initial conditions and the accelerating torques under the transient

flow conditions.

step by step.

well selected so that the effect of other faults for different system con-

characteristics is obtained.

Elfh-T -T T

~ , 2 1 * ml J. el

ttj at

Ho d Qo

Hn d Sn _

kj at

The electrical torque at normal speed (from Eq. 1.6), for n machines

Ei . EiE2 . . .

t ^2 . EiE2 . .

^22 ^12

^2n

F2 Ki F

^(nl)n

the angular displacement of the machines (S12, 813, 523, " " S(n-i)n)'

lined in Section 12, when the inertia constants of each machine and

methods are not simple in their application and for this reason are not

following equations:

- Ei . E\E2 . . . -E1-E3 . ,. .

E2 E\Ei2 E2IL3

E3 . Ei\Ei% , E2E3

fault is on, when the first breaker opens, and when the faulty section

or fault is removed from the system. That is, for the different

hi, #22i <?33> #12. ^13. and 023 must be determined in order to obtain

an, <*22. 33. 12. 13. and a23. (See Section 7, Volume I.)

That is, this step in the procedure is to determine E\, E2, and 3,

groups; 8i, 82, and 53, the initial angular displacements of thesethree

voltages; and Tmi, Tm2, and Tm3, the initial shaft torques on the

three machines. The initial shaft torques are usually taken equal

When the circuit constants and the initial voltages behind transient

written from Eqs. 5-3 for the case when the fault is on, when it is

the accelerating torque constants ki, k^, and k3 for each machine,

Hn

sheet can now be set up (Table 5-1). The following form is for a

TABLE 51

klTal(n-l)

k2Ta2(n-l)

3?a3(n-l)

512 = 5152

513 =5153

523 =52 53

(512 a12)

(512 + 012)

(S13 13)

(5l3 + 13)

(S23 23)

(523 + 23)

TABLE 5-1Continued

r lJS2 /. ^

Z12

1^2 , .

Z12

1.E3 . , .

^13

E1E3 .... .

-^13

2^3 . , .

^23

2^3 . ,. . ,

Z23

El .

Zn

El .

/S22

El .

Z33

out until the time is reached at which there is a change in the circuit

.. . . , , Ua(nl)fbefore) T 7a(nl)(after)J

A5(n-V = A5(7>-^) + *

It is well to plot the angular displacement of the machines (6%, 82, 83)

against time (t) as the work proceeds; the shape of these curves will

94

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

other groups.

I.I26/-2.T

Fig. 5-1.

a positive phase sequence system diagram drawn up with a common leva base.

reactance of the machines of the same group, and reducing the system to the

Sec. 19]

95

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

identity of points of known voltage and power flow sufficient for establishing

the equivalent load flow. The load flow diagram, with loads represented as

shunt impedance loads, is made up as shown in Fig. 5.1 from which the

H2=7.65

H,-5.5

S $ Fault-

5.33+j 4.83

.154 KW

Unity P. F. converter

load disconnected

with occurence of

fault

to be disconnected from the system with the occurrence of the system fault.

The impedance diagram (Fig. 5-2) for calculation of the impedances between

machine groups with the fault on, first breaker cleared, and second breaker

I, for method.)

96

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

5. The swing curve sheets are made up from a summary of data (Table 5-2).

6. The swing curve calculations are carried out (see Table 5-3); and the swing

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

60

! 50

! 40

i 30

i 2

10

- 10

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60

Fault on

Calculated

Swing Curves

\y

'

n<?

'

&

*2.

'

/>

TABLE 5-2

ki = 4.92 k3 = 4.91

kz = 3.53 kt = 5.76

Ei = 1.138

3 = 1.126

E-t = 1.19

4 = 1.125

Si = 23.5

h = -2.7

S2 = 19.4

54 - -10.1

Circuit Impedances

Zn = 0.880/63.9

Zu = 55.5/90.8

Z22 = 0.311/86.3

Zu = 58.1/86.9

Z33 = 0.587/77.1

Z23 = 8.85/95.7

Z44 = 0.519/75.6

Z24 = 9.25/91.8

Z12 = 1.81/88.5

Z34 = 19.9/92.5

Zn = 0.884/63.8

Z13 = 33.7/91.0

Z22" = 0.330/85.8

Zu = 30.2/87.7

ZS3 = 0.598/76.8

Z23 = 5.36/95.8

Z44 = 0.537/75.1

Z24 = 4.80/92.5

Z12 = 1.73/88.7

Z84 = 10.1/93.0

Z11 = 0.900/63.4

Z13 = 11.03/91.7*

Z22 = 0.443/82.0

Zu = 9.94/89.7

Z33 = 0.663/74.4

22s = 1.76/96.6

Z44 = 0.590/71.5

Zu = 1.58/94.5

Z12 = 1.41/89.2

Z84 = 3.41/95.4

Fault on:

TABLE 5-3

0.40

2.523

11.241

60.455

1.019

14.634

93.067

-0.017

-1.766

-12.952

-1.086

-9.5*

-54.317

-32.61

73.41

114.77

106.02

147.38

41.37

-34.11

-31.11

74.21

0.*

2.262

8.718

49.214

1.1*

13.616

78.433

-0.048

-1.749

-11.186

-1.013

-8.479

-44.752

-29.22

60.40

93.97

89.62

123.19

33.57

-30.72

-27.72

61.20

SO 61)

0.*

1.920

6.456

40.496

1.441

12.4*

64.818

-0.116

-1.701

-9.437

-1.060

-7.466

-36.273

-24.32

49.93

76.77

74.26

101.09

26.84

-25.82

-22.82

*.73

49. 13

Sec. 19]

9<

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

<

cc

f^

^c

ro

^o

CN

O 00

CO ro

rs

-r

^O

CN U-3

t*

r^

CM

CO

00

r*

t~

iO

^1

oc

CN 00

- NO

-t-

vO

co

r-

rO

<

iO

00'

00

ic

in

Ov

c-

cc

O Ov

to iO

^H

t>

CN

iO

r<->

0O

100

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

OS

<

<

ta

i^

IO

-f

-r

vQ

r*)

^^

C N O IO ^O 1

f*5

i^

r-g

rs

-f

CN

-^

0 \ ^ 0 10 1

c"

rs

Cf.

rs

CN

CN

-r

-T

f^

00

TjOOlN|

-*

-r

ro

c3

1/3 CO O IN

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

101

vO

\r

rs

vo

NO

Ov

]>-

LO

Th

Ov

Tt<

t- *-.

CN

ro

CN

CO

io

CO

CS CN

t* *-H

Ov

vC

CO

CN

cv

vO

T*

CN

U-v

NO

Ov

CO

t^

ON

~H

00

IO

CN

y~i

00

CN

Ov

CO

Tt*

CN

O t~

CO

+1

102

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

H 00

CN O

~H CN

CO t^.

to *^.

fO <0

NO ro

t^. Tj<

- io

8S

ro OS

ro

CN 00

IO

io

* vO

gg:

CO

1*) ro

Ov Ov

Ov OO

O Tj"

iO ro

vO

<

t^ -H

oo

oo

oO

oo

o '

t^ r~

t* vO

Ov

Ov

CN CN

11

IO NO

-* 1

co ~H

to *>.

Ov CN

Ov o.

^o

Ov ro

iO -ej*

00 Ov

vO O0

~0 ">

O vO

CN

rN

t- 1^

H r^

vo v2>

io Ov

Ov OO

OO vO

r- CO

O -H

t~

oo

0.30

0.4591

0.3637

-0.*19

-0.2689

0.0208

0.0279

0.0405

0.0415

0.2421

0.2242

0.2772

0.2789

0.0574

0.0455

0.4056

0.0978

0.0567

-0.0001

, .... 2

0.25

0.3919

0.29*

-0.2459

-0.2120

0.0254

0.0244

0.0368

0.0384

0.2246

0.1974

0.2753

0.2701

0.0490

0.0367

0.*67

0.1741

0.0348

-0.0208

* I* U.15

0.20

0.3272

0.2267

-0.17*

-0.1387

0.0226

0.0216

0.0326

0.0347

0.1992

0.1641

0.2541

0.2427

0.0409

0.0203

0.2913

0.2940

+0.0067

-0.0603

0.16

0.2674

0.1*2

-0.0939

-0.0587

104

plil

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

IT;

t-

E?

<

r~ 00 to

IO Ov

vC

ro 00

3 ro

r^

* m is

Ot

-f

-<* <

vO CO

f)

Ov rC t-

-*

f^)

IO CN

rvi

vo <o

r^

~H O0 *^.

-*

CN

-r

co 10

rc

vC

CS

rC IO I-

JO *

ir,

O <0

3C

** *o

rg

fi O

I0 **

Sec. 19]

105

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

vO

O0 ov

r^

i^

Ov

v ON

.* o

<*

Ov

CN

>*

IO Ov

IO

t-- *-*

OO

'* r~

c^

to

O0

00

J^

-*

Ov vO

>o

O0 -^

O O0

t r~

T-^H ro

CO ro

Ov

Ov

Ov

Ov

00

Ov Ov

8S

*-i t^.

-^ IO

i O

oo

oo

*-H ~-!

vO ^

co *-

CO CN

CN O

Ov

CO

to

CN

CO

vO

106

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

vO

Ov t*

O -<

w CO

CO w

t #

vo vo

CN CN

00 ^H

ro O

CO

CN Ov

Ov CN

00 CO i*

tO Tf to

Ov ON -< CO

CO CO CO O

s-< vo

# ro

vo vo

* CN

O0 00

>o

to

i Tf

IO <0

CO iO

vo io

CO CO

*-t -t

OO

oo

oo

oo

oo

OO

oo

OOOO

11

00 CN

vo CO

"O CN

CO *

CN O

O l-

*-< CN

CN vo

ro v

t- vo

vO CO

to to

C> -* ^ iO

O0 O O Ov

Tf Ov O t*

H vo CO vo

to

T o

NO O

to Tf

00 I

NO to

CN CN

O vo

Sec. 19]

107

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

NO <0

C*

SS

ss

oo *-H

Ov C-

IT)

SO

IO

O0

Ov 00

Ov

IO T-H

Ov

io O

v-H *

vO

00

vo

^H

CN

oo

eC

vo

rO

<o r^

-*

IO t^>

CN

*- t*

u->

O CS

av

CO

CO

T-t T-H

IO

Ov

iO vO

r-

-*

CN

t-

CO

IO ~H

*-<

f*

~^

co

108

[Ch. S

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

<o

*~

-i o

00

00

r^

fN

rO

00

w 00

00

00

CO

ro

\O rs

O0

vo

00

00

IO

io

IO

IO

00 ^H

-r

00

CN

CN

oo

r*

CO

00

vo

NO

00

CO -Th

t^

<*

Ov

Ov

*H O

to

CN

o\

vo

Ov

oo

Oo

CN

cm

Sec. 19]

109

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

<o

t^

00

ON <0

ON

CO

CN

CN CN

ON

^,

<*

* ON

NO

00

O IO

NO

*0

Q ON

O -*

CO

NO

00

00 00

00

CO

t^. ON

00

Ov

00

NO

<>*

OO

ON

ON

tO CO

C- r-

CO

CO

CN *0

CO ~*

oo

OO

how the system will behave for the different fault locations are

reactance.

swing curve sheet for each machine group such as that shown in

Table 5-4. The swing curve calculation forms (Table 5-4) are

initial air gap power, magnitude, and phase angle of the voltage

"Before Fault."

4. The swing curve is started. First the fault is applied, (a) With

jj

t-

<

<

<

<

a'

c-

CJ

-h

**

h"

5?

-M

i2

ud

S0

-*';

uk

E3

3S

H II

>

3<

111

<-sl

U ffl

CDF

w if.

5 1*

irpD

gjj-3

JsS;: *

Sec. 19]

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

***s 0-*"'

S39J33p III

-j )U3lU33E[dSIQ

*--aa2a2

ss**

"J V a -

a-02 a

2a0* a

Za02 a

-62 a

2*- a

6*62 a

3-622 a

-a03 a

a*- a

8a'oe

-6*08 *

2 0N aovd

*X1+V*"V-,"(V

a*3

26* S

62a a

8a3a +

8*6a -

4-0 a

-O- a

-na *

04-a a

3aaa1*

*2*a0*

Za*-2*

608*-a*

N0iivinoivo 3 Ay no

".(

62a a

**50"a

0*aa a

0a0a %

a5a +

0-a*a

(nms)

It6'Oa*

24-'aa+v^

--6*-*

--a6a *X

JUCQ I'll.Mill

M.--.>..- V

MX aaO a

N *a1a a

"* a *

'*--a

-V -*a8a *

ff* aiqi

anbioj.

6aa

-aa a

*8aa +

*6a

ttVO +

fault) the air gap power is read for each machine group, (b) The

feeding the faulted circuit, or with the fault only partially cleared as a

result of opening only one breaker, the procedure is the same except

power outputs of all machine groups are read at the time interval for

breaker opening, and the average value used for determining the

network conditions or until the swing curve has been carried far

period.

read directly from electrical instruments. See Fig. 5-5 and Fig. 5-6

for views of a-c network analyzer and instrument panel for quick and

200

It

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

'/

//

//

s'

^.

//

>

o 80

oo oooooc

.1

^~.2

~T3

3-

-.4

0.

.5

.6

.7

.6

.90

- 10

-20

-30

-40

^s

Time in seconds

-50

-60

. -70

-80

-90

-100

-1 10

"

- -

115

Time

Sec. 19]

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

116

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

Fig. 5.6. Central instrument and control panel showing generator units and

carried forward. This allows for a full play of ingenuity on the part

this way the swing curve calculation time may be reduced. After a

time interval may be found to be small, and the time interval can be

increased. Usually, the time interval should not be larger than that

four times the original value, must be used for all succeeding compu-

tations. For the time interval at which this change is made, the

the new acceleration constant to the angular change for the two

preceding time intervals. This follows, since the angular change for

the two preceding intervals is in each case for only half as long a time.

From that point on, the calculation proceeds in the normal manner.

The sample swing curve sheet of Table 5.5 shows the manner

second.

118

ICh. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

le =

- ete

*dc

[5.4]

Ic = armature current,

xd

Section 25.

of synchronous con- , , , . , , ,

tion 28, this effect can be taken into account by subtracting from

the difference of the mechanical torque and the air gap electrical

Sec. 20]

119

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

V-J$

Z C|+j|

->M/ -\SXXLr-

Z" f|+j*l

-M - 1000/-

-pfI M\h

i i i -Y.j^

\MA/ '<QQlr-

-V _

Ttt

IX

=&

Fig. 5-8

7-

1 A

S=^fM [5<6]

When A5 is the change in angle from the (re 1) to the reth in-

terval, Eq. 5-7 gives the per unit slip at the (re J^) interval.

per unit speed for what is considered a fairly large rate of change of

for example, the case of a 60-cycle system which during the swing

speed is

10

5 = = 0.00925

360 X 60 X 0.05

or the speed

5=1-5 = 0.99075

governor characteristics.

this load during the swing more nearly to represent actual conditions.

used are either (1) constant shunt impedance or (2) constant shunt

chronous motor load, will pull out of step before the major synchro-

When the small machine has definitely gone out of step and has

upon the rest of the system may be obtained for the remainder of

directly to ground.

current, voltage, and power flow during the swing. Such informa-

tion may be used to check the performance and setting of relays, and

a relatively small effect on the system and whose identity was not

maintained.

plished by means of the general network equations for real and reac-

122

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

a-c network analyzer is used, voltage and current in any part of the

network being studied may be read directly while the swing curve

and zero phase sequence may be read directly from the corre-

Real Power

E3 . E1E3 . E2E3

P3 = -5 sin a33

^33 ^13

^23

Reactive Power

77^ 77 77 77 77

6\\ Ai2

77^ 77 77

z22 z12

77^ 77 77

Q3 = -^r sin 033 + -^- sin (513 - 013) + :=~ sin (523 - 023)

^13

E2E3

^23

E2E3

These are equations for positive phase sequence real and reactive

Fig. 5.9.

Sec. 21]

123

for P\ for the different conditions, fault on, first breaker cleared, etc.,

and 823. Since 5l2 and 823 are known at the various time intervals

The vector expression for the positive phase sequence current from

vector):

T - i-i

~J

[5-10]

Vol El lal Za

[5-11]

P. (Real Power)

analysis by application of

is of particular advantage

124

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

which have been studied were found to be entirely stable and would

J 0.2T5

j 0.085 . J 0.483

0.09+J 0.151

</ 3 0 Foult

g J-49 Q

change, generating power for the loads in their own areas. It was

Sec 22]

125

case it was possible to neglect all line resistance except in the lines

40

30

-JO

5 -50

,-70

-90

Time in Seconds

S^o

i*s

cating the system is stable although the fault has not been cleared

system with the application of the fault and because of the increase

voltage and power factor can be determined during the swing at any

bus or relay location. See Fig. 5-15 for system conditions slightly

if the swing current had not been considered, the current at c could

126

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

which depend upon the current and voltage existing during and

800

700

600

S. 500

400

300

200

100

Relo

y Se

ting

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2

Time in Seconds

1100

1000

900

eoo

700

600

~ 500

400

300

200

100

ela

ys

ett

inq

^Initial

Current

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 I.I 1.2

Time in Seconds

1400

1300

1200

1100

1000

900

I 800

<

= 700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 l.I

Time in Seconds

Relo

y Set

ting

4_

Initiol Load

Current

1400

1300

1200

MOO

1000

900

eoo

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

-~-

pt

"-

^ Power Fo<

11

^5

9r Fqc

tor-e

us d

toward e

Relay Setting

'^.

l1i

Voltage-Bus c

^ II:

'oltag

!-Bu'

70

80 tT

90

100

REFERENCES

1. " Load Studies on the D-C Calculating Table," Part I, by W. C. Hahn, General

"Load Studies on the D-C Calculating Table," Part II, by W. C. Hahn, General

1130-1138.

Components, by Edith Clarke, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1943.

- Reference IEC61363Uploaded byVictor Luiz Merlin
- OISD-149Uploaded byArunava Chakraborty
- Earthing TransformersUploaded byjitendrakmr593
- Transmission Line ProtectionUploaded byJai Gupta
- Articulo CapacitoresUploaded byYair Alexis Muñoz Rojas
- _Final_Sem_1_12_13Uploaded byKunalan Nadaraj
- Micologic 2 5 6 7.0A ManualUploaded bymanind_123
- dc offsetUploaded byBassem Mostafa
- 7SR11 and 7SR12 Argus Catalogue Sheet_IEC61850Uploaded byhanishalim89
- Earth Fault Loop ImpedenceUploaded bymsn-silva
- E24Uploaded bytucurici5740
- Pd Maint PaperUploaded bysdiaman
- PDF_ajassp.2013.579.595Uploaded byMohanraj Kabilan
- 2 Intro Emtp Atp VeraUploaded byjavad4531
- Cable Fault (1)Uploaded byAsmita Chandrakar
- EE6702_qbUploaded byRajesh
- Earth fault Restricted With NCTUploaded byasimjkhan
- Topics for End Sem PROJECTUploaded byra mal
- Heavy Loaded Very High Voltage Lines and Distance ProtectionsUploaded byIrfan Ali
- 1-s2.0-S0378779613002587-mainUploaded byJuan Jesús Roman
- 1-s2.0-S1110016816000260-mainUploaded byRizky Nafandy
- Halil CimenUploaded byAntonio Solís Murillo
- Motors and the NEC.pdfUploaded bygl1188
- 01Uploaded byElden Kyle Billones
- Overcurrent Protective Device Coordination StudyUploaded bySankalp Tiwari
- MN014007EN Ma Arcon EnUploaded byFernando Crespo Monsalve
- WI-NG-6460-002-065 Work Instruction for Circuit Breaker Fail Protection (5062) Rev00Uploaded byRaja Faheem Khalid
- RE_601_manual_apli.pdfUploaded byJOSEPH RR
- underground cable fault distance locatorUploaded byAman kumar
- 13.8KV Trafo- OC & EF Setting - LT Side - LinkedIn_goodUploaded byknsb

- Whats New in Power Factory V14.1Uploaded byIshtiaq Ahmad
- Phasor Measurement Units and Wide Area Monitoring SystemsUploaded byFlamingorosado
- Factura PerfumeUploaded byFlamingorosado
- w19-22Uploaded byFlamingorosado
- Robert (Transient Stability)Uploaded byFlamingorosado
- Cover Wind BookUploaded byFlamingorosado
- 0 34 Chain Conveyor RL and RMUploaded byAdnan Mujkanovic
- Olflex Classic 110 SyUploaded byFlamingorosado
- TrianguloPotier McPhersonUploaded byFlamingorosado
- GEH 6273E GenericUploaded byAmerico Guerrero
- Facts CatalogUploaded byFlamingorosado
- ImportanteUploaded byFlamingorosado
- is.3842.5.1968Uploaded bysunny1725
- Westinghouse Brand GuidelinesUploaded byFlamingorosado
- is.12802.1989Uploaded byFlamingorosado
- Untitled 2Uploaded byFlamingorosado
- Electric Transmission of Water PowerUploaded byFlamingorosado
- Cyclopedia of Appl 02 AmerUploaded byFlamingorosado
- Biblia Ilustrada-Gustave Doré.pdfUploaded byPadillaGonzálezJairo
- Mathematical Models of Electric MachinesUploaded byamelchor
- PotterFich-TheoryOfNetworksAndLinesUploaded byFlamingorosado
- Ragan MicrowaveTransmissionCircuitsUploaded byFlamingorosado
- Electrical ProtectionUploaded byNeil Summer

- South Dakota Electric Rates - Black Hills Power IncUploaded byGenability
- elecsUploaded byDenisse Cruz
- vtu syallbusUploaded bynaveennaik099
- PvModelingIsie2007final_Uploaded byPriyanka Gupta
- Elster LmsUploaded byNguyễn Hoàng Giang
- Heating of Pipelines DEH SmallUploaded byThirukkumaranBalasubramanian
- Phaser 5500 Series_2Uploaded bytwg.email8967
- Bp Res u2 Elect Symbols Outlets NoteUploaded byEdev Paula De Vera
- Conductors, Dielectrics, And CapacitanceUploaded byJoseMiguelDomingo
- Data Center UPS BatteriesUploaded bylmbpyro
- Etap CapabilitiesUploaded byJeffDeCastro
- MANEJADORA ADP LENNOX.pdfUploaded by45saul
- B-10.Dc-Ac Pure Sine Wave Inverter Using Bubba OscillatorUploaded byMohammed Shoaib
- Battery Inverter for Modularly Structured Pv Power Supply SystemsUploaded byQM_2010
- (Pearson Series in Economics) Robert Pindyck, Daniel Rubinfeld-Microeconomics-Prentice Hall (2012)Uploaded byPriyabrataTarai
- Samsung HT-E5530K.pdfUploaded byboroda2410
- Providing the Steps to Your Continued EducationUploaded bympscr
- ICS Lab Manual Student VersionUploaded byUsman Saeed
- Life Assessment of Electric Arc Furnace TransformersUploaded byHgoglez
- DRF4432F20Uploaded byIlie Cristian
- aet-2009-10 iskraUploaded byceljko
- API RP 540 4th Ed. Apr. 1999 - Electrical Installations in Petroleum Processing PlantsUploaded byendimetal
- Isolation Monitor Circuit Generation II LeTourneau Equipment (2) (1)Uploaded byjose
- RFID ModifiedUploaded byshyam437
- HydroUploaded bySonya Gilman
- Autocom MDX1400Uploaded bySuzi Power
- Antenna DesigningUploaded bymsajjad_68
- Single-Mode Optical Waveguides on Native High-Refractive-Index SubstratesUploaded byNguyen Theanh
- 1ZUA2761-500_High Voltage Bushing Wells for Pad Mounted Distribution TransformersUploaded byChandrashekar Venkategowda
- IEEE Std 81 Measuring Earth ResistivityUploaded byepala01