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CHAPTER 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

13. Two-Machine Stability Problem. In the preceding chapter

the torque angle characteristics of a simple two-machine system were

discussed for different fault and system conditions. The two-

machine system, which represents the simplest type of transient

stability problem, is useful for studying and illustrating many of the

fundamental phenomena of stability. Because of its relative sim-

plicity many system problems have been reduced to this form for

study. The case of a hydro station located at a distance from its

load and receiver system can usually be well represented as a two-

machine problem. If a study is made of a small generator or motor

connected to a large system, fault conditions which affect the small

motor or generator but which are known not to affect the large

system can be studied as a two-machine problem, or more specifically

as one machine against an infinite bus. Also many stability prob-

lems which may start out as multi-machine problems can later be

resolved into "two-machine problems" for many of the cases.

Because of the importance of the two-machine problem, particularly

for illustrating the phenomena under transient conditions, it is

worthy of considerable attention. In this chapter the special

methods of analyzing the stability of two equivalent machine groups

will be thoroughly discussed.

The multi-machine case will be described later.

14. Two Machines Resistance Neglected. In the simplest

two-machine case all resistance losses are neglected. This simplifica-

tion may be used to illustrate many fundamental principles of

stability.

The equations of rotor motion for machines 1 and 2, from Eq. 3-8,

can be written as

, ,,2 ~~ * ol ml ** el

kJ lit

H2 d S2 _ _

~~Z ~r& _ l <<2 J. tt<2 1 e2

rj lit

[4-1]

51

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52 TWO-MACHINE STABILITY [Ch. 4

If it is further assumed that during the first swing apart of the

machine rotors the mechanical shaft torques do not change from

their constant values, Tm\ = Tm2. This follows since there are

no losses and Te\ = Te2. Therefore, for the case of no resistance,

TaX = ~Ta2 [4-2]

Equations 4-1 may be written as

d2(Si - S2) _ d%2 _ vfjHi + H2)

dt2 dt2 HlH2

d 512 ir/

Tal [4-3]

or

dt2 H0

Tai [4-4]

where

H=rk

Since for the case of two machines with no resistance losses in the tie,

the electrical power or torque is given by Eq. 3-1, with #12 being

dependent upon the system conditions as described in Chapter 3.

Equation 4-6 may be written directly from Eq. 4-4.

d%:

dt2

irf ( ElE2 \

= i Tmi sin 512 ) 4-6]

Equation 4-6 is similar to Eq. 3-9 for one machine against an infinite

bus. The effect of two machines is included by the equivalent inertia

constant (Eq. 4-5).

This relatively simple equation (4-6) describing the relative angu-

lar displacement of two equivalent synchronous machine rotors was

thoroughly analyzed by Summers and McClure1 and later by Byrd

and Pritchard2 for the case of two changes in circuit conditions, and

general solutions given in the form of curves which greatly simplified

the calculations. This case corresponds, for example, to the applica-

tion of a fault and its removal. The solution is given for the maxi-

mum allowable switching time for removal of the fault without loss

of stability. Summers and McClure used a mechanical integrator

to solve Eq. 4-6, and Byrd and Pritchard used long hand step-by-

step methods.

These investigations used equations expressed in general terms so

that the results would have as broad an application as possible. One

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Sec. 14] TWO MACHINESRESISTANCE NEGLECTED 53

of these general relations, which defines the critical switching angle

(5S of Fig. 3-11), is defined by Eq. 3.2. Equation 46 is the equation

whose solution is desired for the critical switching time corresponding

to SS during the fault period, after it is put in a more general form

obtained as follows:

E\E2 E\E2

sin S0 sin 512 [4-7]

or

when

d 312 _ jr/

dt H0 \_X 12(before) ^(during)

-TT = TT (^ax sin 50 - r\Tm&% sin 512) [4.8]

at 11 q

E\E2 _ *12(before)

* max '1

*12(before) *12(during)

Equation 4.8 can be written as

d2S12 TfriTm

dt2 H0

(sin S0 . \ ,

-^ - sin S12J [4.9]

Now, if

''X Tmax [4-10]

or

-Jri Tmai [441]

Equation 4-9 becomes

rf25]2 sin 50

rfr2 r,

sin 512 [4.12]

This equation was solved for 5i2 in terms of r for various values of

T\ and sin S0 by machine integration1 and by step-by-step calcula-

tions.2 The curves of Figs. 4-1 to 4-17, taken from reference 2, give

directly the critical values of r for stability as a function of r\, r2,

and sin 50, where

xi 2 (before)

X\2 (after)

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Sin 60-0.I0

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55

5.0

5.0

Fig. 4-6.

Sin SQ-0.30

Sin 80n0.25

Sin $o=0.35

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56

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

[Ch. 4

2.0 3.0

Fig. 4.9.

Fig. 4.8.

Sin 6o-0.50

Sin 80 '0.40

0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

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57

5.0

5.0

l'0.8

uN0.8

Fig. 411.

Fig. 4.10.

Sin 60-0.60

Sin 80-0.55

Sin 80=0.65

Sec. 14] TWO MACHINES RESISTANCE NEGLECTED

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58

5.0

[Ch. 4

Fig. 413.

Fig. 4-15.

Fig. 4-14.

Sin S0'0.80

Sin 80-0.70

Sin 6on0.75

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

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Sec. 14] TWO MACHINESRESISTANCE NEGLECTED

59

Sin 80-0.85

5.0

5.0

These curves represent the solution of Eq. 4-12 for different values

of r\ and sin S0 evaluated for the value of r, at which the displace-

ment reaches the critical angular displacement SS defined by Eq. 3.7.

In this way these solutions give directly the critical switching time in

terms of the system constants and initial loading conditions, with

the exception of one special case. This special case will be described

next, after which the use of these curves will be illustrated in this

section by an example.

Special Case (r\ = 0). The solution of Eq. 4-12 requires a special

solution when r\ 0, corresponding to a three-phase bus fault or

total disconnection i.e., Xi2(during) = 0-

Under this condition of r = 0, Eq. 3-7 becomes

cos5s

(5/ S0) sin S0 + r2 cos 5/

r.>

[4-13]

and Eq. 4-8 becomes

dt2

H0

rmax sin 50

[4-14]

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60 TWO-MACHINE STABILITY [Ch. 4

For this case, let

rmax [4-15]

or

t = , K [4-16]

IZ

1 max

When Eq. 4.16 is substituted in Eq. 4-14, we have

d%

dp.

2 = sin 50 [4.17]

Solving for p when is initially zero, we have

dp

2(Si2 50)

sin Sn

[4-18]

The curves of Fig. 4-18 give the value of p corresponding to the

critical switching time (512 = 5S) when r\ = 0 for different values

of r2 and sin 5o.

Procedure for Calculation of Critical Switching Times. The follow-

ing is an outline of the procedure for determining the stability

characteristics of a system which can be represented by two equiva-

lent machines with resistance loss neglected. These stability char-

acteristics can best be shown in the form of switching time curves,

where the maximum power which can be transmitted without loss of

stability is plotted as ordinate and the critical switching time as

abscissa.

1. System representation. The first step is to draw an equivalent

one-line diagram of the system with an equivalent transient reactance

and inertia constant for each of the two machine groups. Machines

of the system which are known to swing together are considered as

one machine group having an inertia constant equal to the sum of

their inertia constants on the same kva base and an equivalent

transient reactance equal to their paralleled value including the

interconnecting system tie reactances.

If a network analyzer is used, an equivalent machine group can

easily be obtained by connecting together to one point all the points

back of transient reactance of the individual machines of that group.

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>

Q.

00

61

CO

oo

CNJ

00 f

3 "!S

Sec. 14] TWO MACHINES RESISTANCE NEGLECTED

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62

[Ch. 4

TW6-MACHINE STABILITY

This is shown in Fig. 4-19. If a network analyzer is not available,

the equivalent can be obtained by methods for reducing the system

network as given in Section 12, Volume I.

2. Determination of the initial voltages. From the initial operating

conditions, determine the voltages back of transient reactance

(i and E2) and the initial angular displacements of these voltages

(5l and 82) as the transmitted load is varied. Plot the variation

Ho 0-

yOOQQQi

Hb 0-

-^msusir-

He Q-

-dmSSLr-

a>-

-\00000 r-

-vJMJ&ay-

-^umsu-

iQQOOOj

1 \S&St!llb'

iJUfiy^J

(0)

(b)'

I 'SiSiSiiI

MJ<S&&&Sb|viMfiff./ yjmaiLr(z)

to

Fig. 4-19.

of sin 5o, the sine of the initial angular displacement (512 initial),

against the load transmitted. Also plot EiE2/xi2(be(oTe) against

sin 80. These two plots will be used to determine the transmitted

power for a given switching time.

*12(before)

3. Determination of r and r2. Calculate r\ =

and

*12(during)

r2 =

^(before)

*12(after)

4. Determination of zero and infinite switching times. From Fig.

4-20 determine sin 80 corresponding to r\ and to r2. Refer back to

the plot of sin 80 versus initial power to obtain the power correspond-

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Sec. 14] TWO MACHINESRESISTANCE NEGLECTED

63

ing to r\ (the power that can be transmitted if the fault is not cleared)

and the power corresponding to r2 (the power that can be transmitted

for instantaneous or zero switching time).

Fig. 4-20. r\ or r% vs. sin 8o.

5. Determination of the intermediate switching times {between

t = 0 to t ). From the curves of Figs. 4-1 to 4-17, for the

calculated values of r\ and r2, determine t for the selected values of

sin 50, which, from the curves plotted in accordance with (2), cor-

respond to definite values of initial power. Convert the values of r

into actual switching times by the following equation:

[4-19]

12(before)

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64 TWO-MACHINE STABILITY [Ch. 4

iE2/*i2(before) is obtained from the plot of i2/^i2(before) against

sin 50 as calculated in (2).

If rt =0 for any case, use Fig. 4-18 to obtain p and use Eq. 4-16 to

obtain t.

6. Switching time curve. Plot the results of (4) and (5), initial

power against switching time, switching time as abscissa, initial

power as ordinate. This is the desired switching time curve which

is a graphic summary of the results of the calculations for the selected

fault and fault location.

Example. (Abstracted from reference 2.)

1. System Representation. The system represented in Fig. 4-21 will be used to

illustrate the steps in the calculation of the transient stability limits by the method

just outlined. The effect of a fault on one of the parallel transmission lines connect-

ing machines 1 and 2 will be determined.

0.350

6.6/132

nmwM^

0.165

vicflfififla/

0ftH1H 0.350 f~||hSb-0

0.51. -'5

125.4/33.0

^ fr

Flg. 4-21. System diagram reactances based on 100,000 kva and rated voltages

6.6, 132, and 33 kv. Machine 1 is rated 50,000 kva at 1.0 power factor. Hi = 1.76

and Ha = 14.1.

It will be noted that the turn ratio of the step-down transformers is not the same

as the ratio of the rated voltages of the circuits which they connect. Therefore, if

132 kv, the rated voltage of the high-tension circuit, is chosen as the " unit " or

"base " voltage for the system, the per unit value of the low-tension rated voltage

will be 125.4/132 = 0.95; or the low-tension base voltage will be 34.7 kv. (See

Appendix I, Volume I.) Since the base voltage of the low-tension circuit is greater

H,l.76 0.350

o.i5o r^smsmu-

0.511

-'50 0.116

O^^HII" 0350 'tlh^Qfi^

Fjg. 4-22. System equivalent circuit (base kva = 100,000).

than 33 kv, the rated voltage upon which the reactances are given, the per unit

reactances of this part of the system must be decreased by the ratio (125.4/132 )2 =

(0.95)2 = 0.902. The reactance of the equivalent motor then becomes 0.902 X

0.131 = 0.118, and the reactance of the receiving end transformer becomes 0.902 X

0.165 = 0.15. Figure 4-21 becomes Fig. 4-22.

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Sec. 14J TWO MACHINES RESISTANCE NEGLECTED

65

The turn ratio of the step-up transformers corresponds to the ratio of the rated

voltages of the circuits; therefore the base voltage on the generating station side

of these transformers will be equal to the rated voltage for that circuit, and no

correction of the per unit reactance of the circuit will be necessary.

The transformers are connected A-Y and solidly grounded on the high sides as

indicated in Fig. 4.21.

1.230

1.210

1.190

1.170

1.150

1.130

1.0

1.110

0.9

0.8

XI

OJ

1.090

1.070

1.050

1.030

1.010

0.7

1-

t 0.6

>

- 0.5

\ 0.4

0.990

'0.3

0.970

0.2

0.950

0.1

0.930

Trnax

Per Unit

Power

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Sin S0

Fig. 4-23. Per unit power and rmax vs. sin So for the equivalent system of Fig. 4.22.

TABLE 4-1

Data for Curves in Fig. 4'23

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66 TWO-MACHINE STABILITY [Ch. 4

2. Calculation of Initial and Maximum Power Corresponding to Initial Angular

Displacements between the Two Machines. If rated voltages are normally held on

the high-tension side of the step-up transformers and on the low-tension side of the

step-down transformers, the current can be determined for any value of power

transfer. If the current is known, the magnitudes of the voltages E\ and 2 which

exist behind the machine reactances and the angle 50 between them can be cal-

culated.

The magnitudes of the internal voltages and the angle between them for various

values of load are tabulated in Table 4.1 and used to plot the two curves of Fig. 4-23.

One curve shows the relation between the initial power transfer and the sine of the

initial angle 4o between the internal voltages. The other curve shows the relation

H.lfc.2

between the function Tmtx = and sin 5o. E\ and 2 are the internal voltages

of machines 1 and 2, respectively, and X12 is the total reactance between the points

at which these voltages are maintained (see Fig. 4-22) *i2(before) = 0.511 + 0.150 +

0.175 + 0.150 + 0.118 = 1.104.

s-** U.OIl U.1DU

0.350

v 0000.0.0.0./^)

0.175 i 0.175

0.150 . 0.118

u.iou U.IIO /^

g Xf? 0(3$ fault)

(0)?

^-. 0.749 0.356

(V)ys&smsu-r-^smsmj@

(b)

0.0438

Fig. 4-24. Reactance diagram with a three-phase fault at the midpoint of one of

the parallel lines of Fig. 4-22.

3. Calculation of Reactances During and After the Fault, (a) Three-phase fault

at the center of one line. The equivalent reactance x/ of a three-phase fault is zero.

Therefore, (b) of Fig. 4-24 can be obtained from (a) by one A-Y transformation.

(0.749 X 0.356)

smdurin*) - 0.749 + 0.356 + i ^^ = 7.192

*i2(aiteo = 0.511 + 0.150 + 0.350 + 0.150 + 0.118 = 1.279

X\ 2 (before) 1104 _,-,.

r\ = = - = 0.1535

*12<during) 7.192

*12(before) 1104:

r2 = = = 0.863

*12(after) 1-279

(6) Double-line-to-ground fault at the center of one line. The equivalent reactance

Xj of a double-line-to-ground fault is the parallel value of the negative and zero

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Sec. 14] TWO MACHINESRESISTANCE NEGLECTED

67

sequence reactances of the system viewed from the point of fault. Three steps in

the simplification of the reactance diagram are shown in Fig. 4-25.

*i2(dum) = 0.749 + 0.356 + ^ ^p"'35^ = 2-393

*12(before) 1.104

i = = ~r~^r: = 0.461

*12 (during) 2.393

f2 = 0.863, being the same for all types of faults at one location

0.350

^-^ 0.511 0.150 ^v ^' 0.150 0.118 ^-v

0.118

Xf (L-L-G Foult)

I 7 I__L.

(c)

0.749 0.356

s-\ 0.749

Fig. 4-25. Reactance diagram with double-line-to-ground fault at the midpoint of

one of the parallel lines of Fig. 4.22.

Note. The assumption is made that the negative sequence reactance of the system is

equal to the positive sequence reactance when viewed from the point of fault; and

that the zero sequence reactance of the transmission lines is equal to 3.5 times their

positive sequence reactance, mutual reactance between the two circuits being negli-

gible. See Section 10 for discussion of network representation during faults.

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68

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

TABLE 4-2

Data for Three-Phase Fault at Center of One Line

Per

Unit

10.95

(n-0.1535

Switching

Time,

Sin 5o

Power

.1 max

?ll max

Vr^ma*

r2 = 0.863)

Second

0.825

0.995

0.80

0.933

1.177

0.1807

4.65

0.127

0.0273

0.75

0.843

1.134

0.1741

4.57

0.2365

0.0518

0.70

0.763

1.097

0.1684

4.49

0.353

0.0784

0.65

0.690

1.067

0.1638

4.43

0.450

0.1016

0.60

0.623

1.041

0.1598

4.38

0.554

0.1265

0.55

0.560

1.020

0.1566

4.33

0.666

0.1538

0.50

0.500

1.001

0.1537

4.29

0.783

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Sec. 14] TWO MACHINESRESISTANCE NEGLECTED

69

TABLE 4-3

Data for Double-Line-to-Ground Fault at Center of One Line

Per

Unit

Power

10.95

Switching

Time,

Second

Sin Jo

-* max

fl* max

vVi7.max

(n = 0.461

r2- 0.863)

0.825

0.995

0.80

0.933

1.177

0.5426

8.07

0.353

0.0437

0.75

0.843

1.134

0.5228

7.92

0.702

0.0886

0.70

0.763

1.097

0.5057

7.79

1.01

0.1297

0.65

0.690

1.067

0.4919

7.68

1.32

0.1719

0.60

0.623

1.041

0.4799

7.59

1.671

0.2202

0.55

0.560

1.020

0.4702

7.51

2.081

0.2771

0.50

0.500

1.001

0.4615

7.38

2.574

0.3460

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70

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

Data for switching time curves for a number of loads have been determined by

use of the curves of Fig. 4-23 and the master curves (Figs. 4-1 to 4-17) and are

tabulated in Tables 4-2 and 4-3.

From the data given in Tables 4.2 and 4-3, the switching time curves shown in

Fig. 4-26 (by the full lines) were plotted. The dotted curve is for a three-phase

fault on one of the parallel lines very near the sending end high-tension bus. The

calculations for this case of r\ = 0 and rj = 0.863 are summarized in Table 4.4,

based on the solutions of Fig. 4-18.

~ -.0

0.9

8 8

8,0.7

! 0.6

& 0.5

* 0.4

fe0.3

5 0.2

.s

I 0.1

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Switching Time in Seconds

Fig. 4.26. Permissible fault duration versus initial power transfer for the system

given by Fig. 4.22. Note. Full load on machine 1 of Fig. 4.21 is 0.5 per unit power.

Curve

-L-G

fault ot center of one

ine

Curve 2-3$ - fault at center of one line.

Curve 3-3$ -fault negligibly distant

from gen. station h-v. bus.

L_

<

It

15. Results Obtained from Two-Machine Stability Analyses.

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Sec. 15]

71

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY ANALYSES

severe than those at the center of a line. See Fig. 4-27 for a com-

parison of switching time curves for a three-phase fault located near

the center of one of the high-voltage circuits as compared with those

for a three-phase fault located near the high-tension bus. The bus

faults or faults near the buses, because they are more severe, are in

general considered in greater detail than faults along the line. There-

fore, any method which will decrease the severity of faults near the

buses will usually increase the value of power that it is considered

safe to transmit. This leads to a consideration of the effect of low-

tension versus high-tension bussing.

1.4

1.3

i,

=J

"-;

Fig.

Fault Location B7 < Fault Location A

n** /0.95 io.34^ n.n*

0>

o.89 nrvi)

Gen. System ^ Rec. System

Hi = 56 H2 = I90

'30

,Fou*-Lo

COtic

nA

Sg^ou

Lto

i^tVo

le_

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Switching-Time-in Seconds

0.8

0.9

1.0

4-27. Switching time curves for three-phase faults near center of line and

near generator system bus. Faults cleared of both ends simultaneously.

High-Tension Versus Low-Tension Bussing. Low-tension bussing

reduces the severity of faults on the high-voltage circuits because of

the increased reactance to the fault made possible by such an arrange-

ment. The power that can be transferred through prolonged faults

is therefore increased. However, for quick switching off or clearing

of the fault no advantage is realized. For very small switching

times or for machine groups having comparatively large inertias

compared to the power being transmitted, high-tension bussing may

be advantageous. (See Fig. 4-28.)

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72

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

These curves are based on simultaneous opening of line breakers

to clear the faulty circuit. The use of a high-tension bus allows for

an appreciable increase in the transient stability limit above that

obtained by low-tension bussing, provided the switching time can be

reduced below that indicated by the intersection of the two curves.

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.2

I.

o 0.

Q.

|0.

Fig.

oil

IJl-o cHj

fro

Gen. i i

iT Gen. 3

3x

"-Fault

* Vault

Low-Tension Bussing versus High-Tension Bussing

111

Lot

LEf^nJSussing

_ High-Tension Bussing

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Switching Time in Seconds

0.8

0.9

1.0

4.28. Switching time curves for double-line-to-ground faults with low- and

high-tension bussing.

The above comparisons are not altogether complete without con-

sidering the relays used to detect faults on the high-voltage circuits.

In low-tension bussing it may be possible to obtain simultaneous

clearing of the fault at both ends of the circuit with balanced relays;

in high-tension bussing sequential clearing of bus faults is generally

necessary unless pilot wire or carrier current relaying is used. The

transient stability limits for sequential clearing of faults will be less

than for simultaneous clearing if the time for the first breaker to

clear in either case is the same. The use of high-tension buses is

therefore of increasing value as breaker and relay times are reduced.

Intermediate High-Tension Buses. The question naturally arises,

when it is found that for a particular system high-tension bussing at

the generator and receiver ends is advantageous, of what additional

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Sec. 15]

73

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY ANALYSES

value is an intermediate high-tension bus? Figure 4-29 shows the

total critical switching times (breaker and relay) when an inter-

mediate high-tension bus is used. For this arrangement the im-

portance of the type of relaying is emphasized. Figure 4-29 has a

switching time curve (c) for sequential opening of the line breakers

(it was assumed that the second breaker and relay required as much

time to clear as the first breaker and relay after the opening of the

1.2

i.o

0.9

0.8

I -7

s.

.* 0.6

fc0.5

a.

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

^^

^^

^^

^5

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Switching Time in Seconds For First Breoker To Open

0.8

0.9

Fig. 4-29. Switching time curves for three-phase faults at generator high-tension

bus. A. No intermediate high-tension bus. B. Intermediate bus with simul-

taneous switching. C. Intermediate bus with sequential switching.

first breaker). From these results it is evident that the intermediate

high-tension bus requires even smaller switching times in order to

realize fully the possible increase in the transient stability limit made

available by the additional bus. Therefore, there is an optimum

number of high-tension bussing stations for a given line and for given

switching times. The most reasonable design depends upon the

number and types of faults expected as well as upon the breaker and

relay times. Figure 4-30 compares a three-phase and a double-line-

to-ground fault with high- and low-tension intermediate bussing.

It becomes important to determine the probability of the number

and types of faults, in order to determine in a rational manner the

best design. This information may be obtained from experience.

Valuable data from automatic oscillographs have been and are being

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74

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

l.l

i.o

0.9

0.8

0.7

| 0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

O.I

0.35 J>0J^55_cH_D0134_t:, 0 03

Vault

-8_

"*

--^

~-'

0.1

0.2

0.4 0.5 0.6

Switching Time in Seconds

Fig. 4.30. Switching time curves showing gains realized by use of an intermediate

high-tension bus. A. No intermediate high-tension bus three-phase fault.

B. No intermediate high-tension bus double-line-to-ground fault. C. Inter-

mediate high-tension bus three-phase fault. D. Intermediate high-tension bus

double-line-to-ground fault.

collected by the operating companies in an effort to determine the

number and nature of faults which occur on their systems.

Two additional considerations, aside from the economic ones,

which influence the use of an additional high-tension bus are:

1. When one or more intermediate high-tension buses are used, the

probability for the occurrence of bus faults or faults just off the

high-tension buses is increased.

2. The steady state power limits of a system which determine the

amount of power that can be safely transmitted under steady

state conditions are obtained usually with one line out or a sec-

tion of a line out. These steady state stability limits can be

increased by intermediate high-tension buses.

When the two interconnected machine groups do not have large

inertias compared to the loads being transmitted, or when the relay

and switching times are long, the intermediate high-tension bus may

lower the average transient stability limits for certain types of faults

rather than increase them. However, intermediate bussing has

become generally beneficial with the use of modern circuit breakers

and relays.

Neutral Grounding Reactance. For faults involving ground it is

possible to increase the fault reactance and therefore the stability

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Sec. 15]

75

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY ANALYSES

limit for a given switching time by increasing the reactance offered

to the flow of zero phase sequence currents. This can be accom-

plished by grounding the neutrals of the high-voltage transformer

banks through impedance. The switching time curves for different

types of faults occurring at the high-tension bus of a hydroelectric

station delivering power to a synchronous motor load are shown on

Fig. 4-31. This shows the gain that may be realized by the use of a

1.60

1.50

1.40

1.30

1.20

1.10

1.00

t 0.90

0.80

5 0.70

0.60

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 I.I

Switching Time (Seconds)

Fig. 4-31. Power-switching time curves for various kinds of faults and the effect

of transformer neutral reactance. Synchronous generators delivering power to

synchronous motor loads.

Gen.

Mot.

o-

-o

* Fault

'Line-ground fault

(Reactance in neutral = 3 times -

transformer reactance)

Line-ground fault

Neutral solidly grounded

Double line-ground fault

- Reactance in .neutral

Double line-ground fault

Neutral solidly grounded

^3-phose fault

neutral grounding reactor having a reactance of three times the

transformer for the faults involving grounding (L-G and L-L-G).

No gain, of course, is realized for the three-phase fault, which is the

most severe type. In this case, it may be important to know the

probable number of three-phase faults as compared with the other

types in order to determine the economical advisability of installing

neutral grounding impedance.

The best value of neutral grounding reactance from a stability

standpoint depends upon the particular system involved. Figure

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76

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

4.32 shows the gains for particular switching times for different values

of neutral ground reactance for a given system. It should be noted

that as the switching times decrease the gains are decreased, and

2.00

1.80

1.60

.40

1.20

.1.00

<

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

t=0

t = 0.2

t = 0.4

t = 0.6

t = cc

12 3 4 5 6

Times Transformer Reactance in Neutral of Transformer

Fig. 4.32. Power which may be carried through a double-line-to-ground fault

near bus vs. reactance in transformer neutrals. 8 per cent transformer reactance

assumed. / = high-tension switching time in seconds.

that the gains realized for this system by increasing the reactance in

the neutral rapidly drop off above two or three times transformer

reactance.

Instead of grounding the transformer through a neutral grounding

reactance it is possible to use a higher reactance transformer and

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Sec. IS]

77

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY ANALYSES

limit somewhat the zero phase sequence or ground current in this

manner. Figure 4-33 shows the gains realized as the switching time

is varied for different values of transformer reactance for a particular

system. These curves are for a double-line-to-ground fault at the

transformer terminals only. High-reactance transformers will in

general decrease the transient stability limit for the other types of

2.2

2.0

1.8

1.6

w 1.4

= 1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

* 12% Reoctonce

^^8% Reactance

^"^4% Reactance

x0% Reactance

0.1

0.2

0.3 0.4 0.5

Switching Time In Seconds

0.6

0.7

0.8

Fig. 4-33. Switching time curve showing maximum power-transfer as a function

of transformer reactance for a double-line-to-ground fault near transformer high-

tension bus.

fault and fault locations rather than increase it, so that a more

logical arrangement is to keep the transformer reactance as low as

economically justifiable and place additional reactance in the neutral

if necessary to increase the power limit for faults involving ground.

High-Voltage Circuits Versus Low-Voltage Circuits. A given

amount of power may be transmitted over two circuits at a high

voltage or over a large number at a lower voltage. For example,

one 220-kv line will have approximately the same reactance as four

110-kv lines in parallel or three 132-kv lines in parallel. When more

than two circuits are used, the switching out of one line does not

increase the transfer reactance as much as the switching out of one of

two parallel circuits.

Figure 4-34 shows the relative transient stability limits for a system

having two parallel circuits as compared with a system having six

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78

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

parallel circuits at a lower voltage. The parallel line reactance of the

lower voltage circuits for this case equals the parallel reactance of the

two higher voltage circuits. The system having lower voltage cir-

cuits without high-tension bussing is, for the case considered, the

best arrangement for stability.

3.

2.

2.

2,

2.

?.

!1.

Q.

I,

I.

0.

oajrj \ iSjoqfep

1111

I3#-

Steady State

<.6 .9 <>.6 <

*6- .9

-5J^

^.6 .9 ^.

s&

1 .9

**7

All Lines In

-0-

3 ,9 &

** >

-i

-o-iJ

6 .9

4i^o-

S6

, .9

B 2L .9 *is

6 .9

5.F

1 .9

^""i "u ""J

"r

.9

<>.6

A--

bad

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1

Switching Time (seconds)

Fig. 4-34. Comparison of switching arrangements for double-line-to-ground faults.

In general, therefore, with an increase in the number of parallel

circuits the advantage at small switching times for high-tension

bussing decreases. The high-tension bussing arrangement will,

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Sec. IS]

79

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY ANALYSES

An increase in generator inertia will make it possible to clear the

fault before the generator rotor has reached as great an angular dis-

placement as it would with less inertia. For a system in which

series and shunt resistances may be neglected in order to simplify the

calculations, the maximum switching time for stability varies directly

as the square root of the equivalent inertia constant (H0) of the

3.0

2.8

'1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

Steady state power limit (2 lines in)

Steady state power limit (1 line in)

-Stub feeder fault

o-f

0.

0000000

0.I ,

1 ti b Infinite

o]-i|-p bus

H = 2.60u - 0.3

TT5OTWr

I line fault

* Double line -to ground faults

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.9 1.0 I.I

Switching Time (seconds)

Fig. 4-35. Comparison of stability limits for faults on stub feeder against faults

on one of the two parallel transmission lines.

system. That is, a 100 per cent increase in the inertia of a generator

delivering power to an infinite receiver system will result in an in-

crease in maximum switching time in order to transmit a given load

of 41 per cent. Figure 4-36 shows the gains that can be realized by

increasing the inertia 30 per cent. It should be noted that an increase

of 10 per cent in allowable switching time at about 0.2 second switch-

ing time is equivalent to only about a 4 per cent increase in the

power that can be transferred with stability. It is therefore im-

portant to define the percentages when using them in reference to the

gains obtained by a change in the influencing factors.

Figure 4-37 shows the gains realized in the transient stability limit

for a double-line-to-ground fault at the generator bus when the

machine transient reactance is changed from 0.4 to 0.316 per unit.

This change in transient reactance, for the case under consideration,

resulted in a larger machine with a correspondingly higher short-

circuit ratio, i.e., from 1 to 1.25.

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80

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

I,

I.

5 i.

i '<

i o,

0,

-'U1MM J_| lntinit.

1 0.3

Double line to ground foult

H 3.38

[7

H-2.60

0.2

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Switching Time in Seconds

Fig. 4-36. Effect of increasing generator inertia 30 per cent.

2.2

2.0

1.8

1.6

- 1.2

5 1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Switching Time (seconds)

Fig. 4-37. Switching time curve showing the effect of change in ucj on transient

stability.

0.

0000000

0.3 0

| K Infinite

^nreflnonn ^

I K bus

H = 2.60 X Double line to ground foult

.SCR l.25,x'd .316

Vj

SCR l.00,xd 0.4

16. Two Machines with Resistance. An important type of

transient stability problem is that of two machines in which the

effect of resistance loss in the network cannot be neglected. The

procedure in this case has been outlined in reference 3 and is quite

straightforward although not so simple as for the case when resistance

can be neglected.

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Sec. 16] TWO MACHINES WITH RESISTANCE 81

For this case, we can again start with the equation of motion of the

two machines, and from Eq. 44 obtain

d2(h ~ h) d2S12

-/Tal Ta2\

[4.20]

dt2 dt*

In order to obtain an expression for dh2/dt, Eq. 4-21 may be used

d/dd\2 dS/d2S\

Alt) =2-d\le) [4-211

Substituting Eq. 4-20 in 4-21 and integrating, we obtain

This equation states that the relative angular velocity dSi2/dt is

zero when

,5,

mS%)

This is the general form of the equal area criterion and applies when

F.i is not equal to Ta2.

This criterion may be applied for the case of two machines when

resistance is included (Tai ? Ta2) in the following steps:

1. Calculation of voltages behind transient reactances for the given

operating conditions.

2. Calculation of driving point and transfer impedances.

3. Calculation of torque angle characteristics.

4. Determination of the critical switching angle, that is, the

maximum angle at which the fault can be cleared with stability

maintained.

5. Determination of switching time corresponding to the critical

switching angle by a step-by-step calculation.

1. Calculation of voltages behind transient reactances. Figure 4-38 (a)

shows a one-line impedance diagram of a system consisting of a

synchronous machine connected by two parallel transmission lines

to a second machine and a shunt impedance load. The transient

reactances of the machines are used in this diagram. The second

machine in this case is a motor, although the same methods could be

used if it were a generator or a condenser. From known voltages,

currents, and power factors which existed in the system before the

fault occurred, the magnitudes and angles of the voltages behind the

transient reactances of machines 1 and 2 can be calculated.

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S2

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

2. Calculation of driving point and transfer impedances. For cal-

culating transfer and driving point impedances before the occurrence

of the fault and after the fault has been cleared (Section 2, Volume I)

the system can be reduced to the simple three-branch positive

sequence network shown in Fig. 4-38(6). When a fault occurs, it

may be replaced in the positive sequence impedance diagram by a

fault impedance Z/ which depends upon the character and location of

the fault (Section 10). The driving point and transfer impedances

may be obtained for each machine for each circuit condition (Section

7, Volume I).

MJ'O0W>

rO-WWV '.OD'OW"1D-i

KMM/W nWGGa^-o-i

lo)

C\J' ooooo <*vww'WOO'fPww(z)

(b)

Fig. 4-38. (a) Two synchronous machines connected by an impedance network

with a shunt impedance load, (b) Simplified impedance diagram of two-machine

system.

3. Calculation of torques. The torque angle characteristics for

machines 1 and 2, calculated by Eq. 1-6, are shown in Figs. 4-39 (a)

and 4-39 (b), respectively. These curves are shown separately for

the sake of clearness.

The horizontal lines Ti (Fig. 4-39[a]) and T2 (Fig. 4-39[b]) repre-

sent the mechanical torques on machines 1 and 2, respectively. T\

is positive and T2 negative.

The angle 50 is the initial value of the angle 512 between the volt-

ages E\ and E2. At the instant the fault occurs, the electrical torque

of machine 1 drops from the value Ti, shown by curve AX in Fig.

4-39(a), to the value shown by curve Bi, leaving a net accelerating

torque

E\E2

Tal = Ti - Tel

Ti sin an

12

sin (512 c*i2) [4-23J

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Sec. 16]

83

TWO MACHINES WITH RESISTANCE

acting on the rotor of machine 1. Similarly, the accelerating torque

which will act on the rotor of machine 2 is

Ta2 = T2 Te2 = T2 - sin a22 + sin (512 + ai2) [4-24]

^22 ^12

Angle 812 in degrees

la)

Angle 8|2 In degrees

8,

The torque Tai, which is the difference between Ti and the ordinate

of curve B\ at S0, is positive. It therefore tends to increase the speed

of machine 1. Torque Ta2, which is the difference between T2 and

the ordinate of curve B2 at So, is negative. (The ordinate of curve

B2 at 5o in this particular case

is zero.) It therefore tends to

decrease the speed of machine

2. The relative acceleration of

the two machines is given by

Eq. 4-20. With finite inertia

constants, the relative acceler-

ation will be positive and the

angle 512 between the machines

will increase.

4. Determination of critical

switching angle. If at some

angle St the fault is cleared, the

electrical torque of machine 1

will immediately increase to

the value shown by curve C\

(Fig. 4-39[a]) and that of ma-

chine 2 will be shown on curve

C2 (Fig. 4-39[6]). The electri-

cal torques of machines 1

and 2 are now greater in mag- Fig. 4.39.

nitude than their respective

mechanical torques. Acceler-

ating torque Tai will be nega-

tive, Ta2 positive, and the relative acceleration of the machines.

will become negative and tend to decrease the speed. However,

while the relative acceleration was positive and 512 was increasing

from 50 to 5, the machines acquired a difference in angular velocities.

This positive relative velocity must be overcome if the machines are

to remain in synchronism. In the limiting case, it will be just over-

come and the relative velocity of the machines will become zero just

as the relative acceleration changes from a negative value to zero.

(o) Torque-angle characteristics

of machine 1. (6) Torque-angle character-

istics of machine 2. A. Before the fault.

B. During the fault. C. After the fault.

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84

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

Fig. 4-40. Determination of criti-

cal switching angle by equal-area

method.

In Fig. 4-40 (Tai/Hi Ta2/H2) has been plotted for increasing

values of 512 from 50 to S/ for the conditions which existed with the

fault on the system, and after it had

been cleared from the system. These

curves are designated B and C, re-

spectively. If a vertical line is drawn

through that value of 512 = 5S for

which the area a,\, under curve B be-

tween So and S,, is equal in magnitude

and opposite in sign to the area a2,

under curve C between 5S and 5/, Ss

is the maximum angle between the

machines at which the fault can be cleared from the system with-

out causing instability. In this way Ss, the critical switching angle,

can be determined graphically.

5. Determination of switching time corresponding to the critical

switching angle. The switching time corresponding to the critical

switching angle is a function of the accelerating torques and the iner-

tias of the machines. Unfortunately there is no literal mathematical

solution for this function in the general case, and a step-by-step

method of calculation must be used in order to determine the time

required for the angle between the two machines to equal S, (Sec-

tion 12). In this way, time-angle

curves similar to those shown

in Fig. 4-41 can be drawn and

the time corresponding to the

critical switching angle obtained.

If the actual time of clearing

the fault is less than the time cor-

responding to the critical angle,

the system will be stable for the

given load and operating conditions; if it is greater, the system will

be unstable. Instead of calculating and plotting the angular posi-

tions of both machines with respect to a reference axis as in Fig. 4-41,

one curve giving angle between machines (512) versus time can be

used.

Sequential Switching. When the fault is cleared by sequential

opening of breakers (one line breaker opening before the breaker at

the other end of the line), a curve for (Tai/Hi Ta2/H2) corre-

sponding to the conditions existing with one breaker open must be

added to Fig. 4-40. If such values of Si2 (Ssi and Ss2) can be found

that the sum of the areas under the three curves is zero, the system

Fig. 4.41.

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Sec. 17] SUDDENLY APPLIED LOADS 85

will remain in synchronism if the breakers are opened at values less

than these angles. Step-by-step calculations will be necessary to

determine switching times corresponding to the angles 5sl and Sa2.

Sustained Fault. Curve B in Fig. 4-40 gives (Tai/Hi Ta2/H2)

for a sustained fault. In this particular case the area under the

curve is entirely positive and the system is unstable. The angle

between the machines will increase until synchronism is lost.

A system will remain in synchronism under a sustained fault if

there is a value of 512 at which the area under the curve (Tai/Hi

Tai/Hz) is zero for the conditions existing with the fault on the

system.

Instantaneous Switching. Curve C in Fig. 4-40 gives (Tai/Hi

T<a/H2) for the conditions existing after the fault is cleared. If the

fault is cleared instantly, the disturbance is the switching out of

service of a portion of the system. The angle S\2 will at first increase.

With increasing values of 512 the area under Curve C in Fig. 4-40

changes from a small positive value to a larger negative value. For

the case shown the system will not lose synchronism on the first

swing of the machines.

17. Suddenly Applied Loads. A transient stability problem of a

somewhat different type arises when it becomes desirable to deter-

mine the maximum load that can be thrown on one of two syn-

chronous machine groups without loss of synchronism. Consider the

comparatively simple case of two synchronous machine groups con-

nected together by a tie line (Fig. 4-42). Suppose a sudden increase

of load, AL2, is thrown on system 2, owing'

either to the loss of an appreciable amount \L) Ci/ al,

of generation or to an actual sudden load

. Etc 4,42

increase. Assume that this sudden load in-

crease does not appreciably affect the transfer impedance of reactance

between machines 1 and 2. This sudden increase in load may, there-

fore, be considered equivalent to a sudden increase of the equivalent

shaft torque of system 2 or of the shaft load of a synchronous motor.

Neglecting resistance, we may write the differential equations for

the motion of the two systems (Eq. 4-1) as follows (assuming system 1

is initially transferring power of amount Tm to system 2):

Hi d% ElE2 .

f-7^ = Tm sin i2 [4.25]

vj at #12

H2d% Ar^l2

*7 dr x12

, = - Tm - AL + -^-i sin 51a [4-26]

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86

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

Equations 4.25 and 4-26 may be written as follows:

d%

Hi

dt2 " " Ial

d% irf

dt2

Ho

o2

where

Tai Tm

EiE2

*12

sin 5x2

Ta2 = Tm AL H sin 512

^12

Subtracting Eq. 4-28 from 4-27, we have

.(Tal Ta2\

d%

dt2

t4-27]

[4-28]

[4-29]

[4.30]

[4-31]

Equation 4.31 is the same as Eq. 4-22, for which the criterion for

stability is

jC(S?S)*"0

[4-32]

where Ta\ and Ta2 are expressed for this case by Eqs. 4-29 and 4-30,

respectively.

In a similar manner as described

previously (Section 16) stability

can be determined by plotting

(Tai/Hi Ta2/H2) as a function

of 512.

Figure 443(a) is a plot of (Tai/

Hi Ta2/H2) against angle for a

particular case which is stable; a2

is larger than a\. The case plotted

in Fig. 43(6) is unstable; a2 is

smaller than a\.

By plotting (Tal/Hi - Ta2/H2)

against 5i2 in the above manner,

it is possible to determine how

much additional load, AL, may be

thrown on one of the systems.

This method of equal areas may in this manner be applied to deter-

mine the maximum shaft load that can be applied suddenly to a

synchronous motor when connected to a system.

H1*

'S^gi^>'

(b)

Fig. 4.43.

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REFERENCES 87

REFERENCES

Progress in the Study of System Stability," by I. H. Summers and J. B.

McClure, A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 49, 1930, pages 132-158.

Solution of the Two-Machine Stability Problem," by H. L. Byrd and S. R.

Pritchard, General Electric Review, February 1933, pages 81-93.

Calculation of Two-Machine Stability, with Resistance," by S. R. Pritchard

and Edith Clarke, General Electric Review, February 1934, pages 87-92.

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CHAPTER 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

18. Multi-Machines Procedure. This chapter will be devoted

to a discussion of the multi-machine problem. When making a

study involving several machine groups it is usually necessary to

neglect those factors which are of secondary importance, and the

following assumptions are usually made:

1. Transient saliency neglected (x = x'd = x'g). (Section 6.)

2. Flux linkages held constant corresponding to the voltage back

of transient reactance (*'). (Section 2.)

3. Damping torques and subtransient effects neglected.

4. Constant mechanical shaft torques of synchronous machines.

5. Loads represented by constant shunt impedances.

6. System network impedances constant, corresponding to normal

frequency.

7. Stability determined by the first swing of the machines includ-

ing those with the longest period.

When more than two equivalent machine groups are to be studied,

considerable work is involved since it is necessary to carry out the

step-by-step calculations until it is apparent that the machine

groups will no longer continue to separate but will return to a smaller

relative angular displacement after reaching a maximum or peak dis-

placement. Thus the procedure is a matter of cut and try to deter-

mine if an assumed switching time for a given set of initial system

conditions is stable or unstable. The exact critical switching time

then is found by interpolation.

The work becomes almost too difficult to do entirely by longhand

calculations when more than three- or four-machine groups are

involved. However, by using an a-c network analyzer for obtaining

the initial conditions and the accelerating torques under the transient

condition, multi-machine problems exceeding twelve-machine groups

have been successfully worked out.

The procedure for the calculation of a multi-machine swing curve

entirely by longhand method is this:

1. Reduce system network to simple equivalent.

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Sec. 18] MULTI-MACHINES PROCEDURE 89

2. Determine transfer and driving point impedances for circuit

conditions of transient (fault on, fault off, etc.).

3. Determine initial conditions and power flow equations for sub-

sequent transient conditions.

4. Determine accelerating torque constant for each machine group.

5. Make up swing curve sheet.

6. Make swing curve calculations for assumed fault clearing time

until it is apparent that system is stable or unstable.

The procedure when using an a-c network analyzer is:

1. Set up on network analyzer system equivalent and initial power

flow conditions.

2. Determine accelerating torque constant for each machine group.

3. Make up swing curve calculation forms.

4. Make swing curve calculation by step-by-step procedure.

Read machine electrical power directly from analyzer, calculate

change in angle and then change phase angle of network

analyzer generator units at each step. Repeat this procedure

step by step.

The network analyzer reduces the amount of work entailed in the

calculation of a swing curve but does not obviate the necessity of

making a step-by-step solution. Because of the work involved in

making swing curve calculations the cases to be worked should be

well selected so that the effect of other faults for different system con-

ditions can be estimated from the results of the selected cases by

physical reasoning. In this way a picture of the system stability

characteristics is obtained.

The step-by-step procedure provides the solution of the following

equations of angular motion of n machines. (Refer to Eq. 3-8.)

Elfh-T -T T

~ , 2 1 * ml J. el

ttj at

Ho d Qo

VflF_ la2_ lm2~ le2 [5.i]

Hn d Sn _

kj at

The electrical torque at normal speed (from Eq. 1.6), for n machines

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90 MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM [Ch. 5

connected to a network, is given by the following set of equations:

Ei . EiE2 . . .

Tei = -= sin an + sin (512 ai2) < < <

Zll '-"" /il2

+ -= sin (5in ain)

t ^2 . EiE2 . .

re2 = -= sin a22 sin (5i2 + u)

^22 ^12

+ -=- sin (S2n - a2n) [5-2]

^2n

F2 Ki F

-* en = ^- Sin ann Sin {8in + <Xin)

E(n-i)En . ~ Sin (8tn-Dn + a(n-Dn)

^(nl)n

Knowing the driving point impedances (Zn, Z22, Znn), the

transfer impedances (Z12, Zi3, Zin Z2z - Z2n, etc.)> the

complements of their impedance angles (an, a22, ann, ai2, an,

a2n, etc.), and the original or initial voltages behind transient

reactance of the connected machines or machine groups (Ei, 21

En), we determine the equations for Tei, Te2, Ten in terms of

the angular displacement of the machines (S12, 813, 523, " " S(n-i)n)'

The relative angular displacement may then be determined by

means of a step-by-step calculation in a manner similar to that out-

lined in Section 12, when the inertia constants of each machine and

their mechanical torque inputs are known.

The following outline is a procedure for the longhand solution of a

three-machine problem. The same method of procedure applies to

any number of machines.

1. Reduction of system network. The first step is to reduce the

problem to as few machine groups as possible, in this case three. The

work involved in an analysis of this nature increases rapidly with an

increase in the number of machines to be studied. In reducing the

network and problem to as few machine groups as possible, the

Y-A and A-Y transformations will be found useful. If a d-c calcu-

'ating board is available, sections of the system may be reduced by its

re very quickly provided resistance may be neglected or constant

ipedance angle of the circuit elements assumed in that section.

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Sec. 18] MULTI-MACHINES PROCEDURE 91

Methods do exist by which it is possible to use a d-c board to make a

study of a network involving resistance and inductance.1 These

methods are not simple in their application and for this reason are not

generally used. When only an occasional study is to be made, the

longhand methods of circuit reduction described in Section 11,

Volume I, may be found sufficient.

In reducing the system to as few machines and as simple a circuit

as possible, it is necessary to retain the identity of points in the

system at which certain operating conditions are known, in order to

define the initial conditions for the swing curve.

2. Determination of circuit impedances. The next step is to cal-

culate the characteristic circuit impedances. They are necessary

for the calculation of electrical torque for three machines by the

following equations:

- Ei . E\E2 . . . -E1-E3 . ,. .

Tti = ^ sin au + sin (5i3-a12) + ; sin (513-a;13)

^11 z12 -^13

E2 E\Ei2 E2IL3

Te2 = sin aa22 sin (S12+a12) + sin (S23-a23) [5-3]

Z22 -^12 ^23

E3 . Ei\Ei% , E2E3

Tez = sin a33 sin (13+a13) sin (523+a23)

-^33 z13 ^23

The circuit impedances should be determined for each of the

different conditions that change the circuit constants. For example,

for a case of sequential switching, they must be calculated when the

fault is on, when the first breaker opens, and when the faulty section

or fault is removed from the system. That is, for the different

circuit conditions the following must be determined: (Zn, Z22, Z33,

212, Z13, and Z23). Also their corresponding impedance angles

hi, #22i <?33> #12. ^13. and 023 must be determined in order to obtain

an, <*22. 33. 12. 13. and a23. (See Section 7, Volume I.)

3. Power flow equations. A study is then made to determine

the relative loadings of the various machine groups, the equivalent

voltages behind transient reactance, and their angular displacements.

That is, this step in the procedure is to determine E\, E2, and 3,

the initial voltages behind transient reactance of the three-machine

groups; 8i, 82, and 53, the initial angular displacements of thesethree

voltages; and Tmi, Tm2, and Tm3, the initial shaft torques on the

three machines. The initial shaft torques are usually taken equal

to the initial electrical torques corresponding to the air gap electrical

torque, and are assumed constant.

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92 MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM [Ch. 5

When the circuit constants and the initial voltages behind transient

reactance have been determined, the equations for torque may be

written from Eqs. 5-3 for the case when the fault is on, when it is

cleared, and for any intermediate circuit condition.

4. Determination of accelerating torque constants. The next step

before setting up the swing curve calculation sheet is to determine

the accelerating torque constants ki, k^, and k3 for each machine,

where kn = from Eq. 3-28.

Hn

5. Swing curve calculation sheet. The swing curve calculation

sheet can now be set up (Table 5-1). The following form is for a

three-machine swing curve, for 0.OS-second time intervals. The

subscripts in parentheses refer to the time interval.

TABLE 51

Swing Curve Calculation Sheet

Time in Seconds 0 0.05

klTal(n-l)

A&l(n-li) = A5i(n-5$) + &iri(n-i)

5l(n) = 5l(n-l) + A&l(n-tt)

k2Ta2(n-l)

A52(n-H) = AS2(i-?i) + ^2^02(n-1)

S2(n) = S2(n-l) + AS2(n-H)

3?a3(n-l)

&h(n-\i) = A53(n-3$) + *3ra3(n-l)

S3(n) = 53(n-l) + ^H(n-Vi)

512 = 5152

513 =5153

523 =52 53

(512 a12)

(512 + 012)

(S13 13)

(5l3 + 13)

(S23 23)

(523 + 23)

sin (512 <*12)

sin (512 + ai2)

sin (513 an)

sin (513 + au)

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Sec. 18] MULTI-MACHINES PROCEDURE 93

TABLE 5-1Continued

Time in Seconds 0 0.05

sin (523 23)

Sin (23 + 2s)

r lJS2 /. ^

T12 = -5 sin (812 0(12)

Z12

1^2 , .

J 21 = sin (612 + <*12j

Z12

1.E3 . , .

Tit = sin (613 013)

^13

E1E3 .... .

Tn = sin (513 + 0:13)

-^13

2^3 . , .

1 23 = Sin (.523 23)

^23

2^3 . ,. . ,

T32 = sin (523 + 23)

Z23

El .

Tai = Tmi sin an Tu Tiz

Zn

El .

Tai = Tmi -r~ Sin a22 + ^21 ^23

/S22

El .

Ta3 = Tmz Sin a33 + T31 + T32

Z33

It should be remembered that for the first interval A5(n-j4) =

A5(n-?4) -f - ro(ni), that is, the accelerating torque ro(n1) is mul-

tiplied by k/2 instead of by k. (See Eq. 3-27.)

6. Swing curve calculations. The step-by-step process is carried

out until the time is reached at which there is a change in the circuit

conditions. At this time another set of circuit constants must be

used. The next increment in the angular displacement of each

machine (AS) is determined by using the average of the accelerating

torques at the time at which the circuit constants are changed, or

.. . . , , Ua(nl)fbefore) T 7a(nl)(after)J

A5(n-V = A5(7>-^) + *

It is well to plot the angular displacement of the machines (6%, 82, 83)

against time (t) as the work proceeds; the shape of these curves will

aid in the detection of errors in the computations. The stability or

instability of the system will be evident as the swing curves are

carried on. For stability the relative angular displacement of the

machine groups must tend to return to or oscillate about a position

of relative equilibrium, i.e., no one machine group should increase

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94

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

indefinitely in relative angular displacement with respect to the

other groups.

19. Multi-Machine Methods. Although the longhand calculation

of a multi-machine problem requires a considerable amount of time,

it is of course possible to obtain just as accurate an answer by these

methods as by an a-c network analyzer, although the work by com-

parison is discouragingly laborious.

As an example, a system will be analyzed for transient stability

following a transmission line three-phase fault, cleared by sequential

clearing of line circuit breakers.

I.I26/-2.T

Fig. 5-1.

The synchronous machines are represented by their transient reactances and

a positive phase sequence system diagram drawn up with a common leva base.

(See Section 12, Volume I, for method.) Equivalent synchronous machine

groups are obtained by connecting together the points back of transient

reactance of the machines of the same group, and reducing the system to the

equivalent of Fig. 51 by Y and A transformation while maintaining the

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Sec. 19]

95

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

identity of points of known voltage and power flow sufficient for establishing

the equivalent load flow. The load flow diagram, with loads represented as

shunt impedance loads, is made up as shown in Fig. 5.1 from which the

voltages back of transient reactance are obtained both in magnitude and

angle. One of the loads which comprises synchronous converters is assumed

H2=7.65

H,-5.5

S $ Fault-

5.33+j 4.83

.154 KW

Unity P. F. converter

load disconnected

with occurence of

fault

to be disconnected from the system with the occurrence of the system fault.

The equivalent inertia constant of each machine group is obtained by summing

up the inertia constants of the individual machines of a given group, all on

the system kva base.

The impedance diagram (Fig. 5-2) for calculation of the impedances between

machine groups with the fault on, first breaker cleared, and second breaker

cleared is drawn up and the impedances calculated. (See Section 7, Volume

I, for method.)

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96

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

3. The power flow equations are calculated.

4. The accelerating torque constants () are calculated.

5. The swing curve sheets are made up from a summary of data (Table 5-2).

6. The swing curve calculations are carried out (see Table 5-3); and the swing

curves plotted (see Fig. 5-3).

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

60

! 50

! 40

i 30

i 2

10

- 10

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60

Fault on

Calculated

Swing Curves

,..,f .. fist breaker 0.2 sec

1.2nd breaker 0.4 sec

.. fist breaker 0. 15 sec

Switching timt: J _t,

^2nd breoker 0. 30 sec

\y

'

n<?

'

&

*2.

'

/>

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Sec. 19] MULTI-MACHINE METHODS 97

TABLE 5-2

Acceleration Constants for At = 0.05 second (Eq. 3-28)

ki = 4.92 k3 = 4.91

kz = 3.53 kt = 5.76

Voltages Back of Transient Reactance

Ei = 1.138

3 = 1.126

E-t = 1.19

4 = 1.125

Initial Angular Displacements

Si = 23.5

h = -2.7

S2 = 19.4

54 - -10.1

Driving Point and Transfer

Circuit Impedances

Three-Phase Fault On:

Zn = 0.880/63.9

Zu = 55.5/90.8

Z22 = 0.311/86.3

Zu = 58.1/86.9

Z33 = 0.587/77.1

Z23 = 8.85/95.7

Z44 = 0.519/75.6

Z24 = 9.25/91.8

Z12 = 1.81/88.5

Z34 = 19.9/92.5

First Line Breaker Opened:

Zn = 0.884/63.8

Z13 = 33.7/91.0

Z22" = 0.330/85.8

Zu = 30.2/87.7

ZS3 = 0.598/76.8

Z23 = 5.36/95.8

Z44 = 0.537/75.1

Z24 = 4.80/92.5

Z12 = 1.73/88.7

Z84 = 10.1/93.0

Fault Completely Cleared:

Z11 = 0.900/63.4

Z13 = 11.03/91.7*

Z22 = 0.443/82.0

Zu = 9.94/89.7

Z33 = 0.663/74.4

22s = 1.76/96.6

Z44 = 0.590/71.5

Zu = 1.58/94.5

Z12 = 1.41/89.2

Z84 = 3.41/95.4

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Fault on:

TABLE 5-3

0.40

2.523

11.241

60.455

1.019

14.634

93.067

-0.017

-1.766

-12.952

-1.086

-9.5*

-54.317

-32.61

73.41

114.77

106.02

147.38

41.37

-34.11

-31.11

74.21

0.*

2.262

8.718

49.214

1.1*

13.616

78.433

-0.048

-1.749

-11.186

-1.013

-8.479

-44.752

-29.22

60.40

93.97

89.62

123.19

33.57

-30.72

-27.72

61.20

SO 61)

0.*

1.920

6.456

40.496

1.441

12.4*

64.818

-0.116

-1.701

-9.437

-1.060

-7.466

-36.273

-24.32

49.93

76.77

74.26

101.09

26.84

-25.82

-22.82

*.73

49. 13

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Sec. 19]

9<

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

<

cc

f^

^c

ro

^o

CN

O 00

CO ro

rs

-r

^O

CN U-3

t*

r^

CM

CO

00

r*

t~

iO

^1

oc

CN 00

- NO

-t-

vO

co

r-

rO

<

iO

00'

00

ic

in

Ov

c-

cc

O Ov

to iO

^H

t>

CN

iO

r<->

0O

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100

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

OS

<

<

ta

i^

IO

-f

-r

vQ

r*)

^^

C N O IO ^O 1

f*5

i^

r-g

rs

-f

CN

-^

0 \ ^ 0 10 1

c"

rs

Cf.

rs

CN

CN

-r

-T

f^

00

TjOOlN|

-*

-r

ro

c3

1/3 CO O IN

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MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

101

vO

\r

rs

vo

NO

Ov

]>-

LO

Th

Ov

Tt<

t- *-.

CN

ro

CN

CO

io

CO

CS CN

t* *-H

Ov

vC

CO

CN

cv

vO

T*

CN

U-v

NO

Ov

CO

t^

ON

~H

00

IO

CN

y~i

00

CN

Ov

CO

Tt*

CN

O t~

CO

+1

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102

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

H 00

CN O

~H CN

CO t^.

to *^.

fO <0

NO ro

t^. Tj<

- io

8S

ro OS

ro

CN 00

IO

io

* vO

gg:

CO

1*) ro

Ov Ov

Ov OO

O Tj"

iO ro

vO

<

t^ -H

oo

oo

oO

oo

o '

t^ r~

t* vO

Ov

Ov

CN CN

11

IO NO

-* 1

co ~H

to *>.

Ov CN

Ov o.

^o

Ov ro

iO -ej*

00 Ov

vO O0

~0 ">

O vO

CN

rN

t- 1^

H r^

vo v2>

io Ov

Ov OO

OO vO

r- CO

O -H

t~

oo

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TABLE 5-3 Continued

First Line Breaker Cleared:

0.30

0.4591

0.3637

-0.*19

-0.2689

0.0208

0.0279

0.0405

0.0415

0.2421

0.2242

0.2772

0.2789

0.0574

0.0455

0.4056

0.0978

0.0567

-0.0001

, .... 2

0.25

0.3919

0.29*

-0.2459

-0.2120

0.0254

0.0244

0.0368

0.0384

0.2246

0.1974

0.2753

0.2701

0.0490

0.0367

0.*67

0.1741

0.0348

-0.0208

* I* U.15

0.20

0.3272

0.2267

-0.17*

-0.1387

0.0226

0.0216

0.0326

0.0347

0.1992

0.1641

0.2541

0.2427

0.0409

0.0203

0.2913

0.2940

+0.0067

-0.0603

0.16

0.2674

0.1*2

-0.0939

-0.0587

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104

plil

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

IT;

t-

E?

<

r~ 00 to

IO Ov

vC

ro 00

3 ro

r^

* m is

Ot

-f

-<* <

vO CO

f)

Ov rC t-

-*

f^)

IO CN

rvi

vo <o

r^

~H O0 *^.

-*

CN

-r

co 10

rc

vC

CS

rC IO I-

JO *

ir,

O <0

3C

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Sec. 19]

105

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

vO

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r^

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106

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

vO

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to to

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H vo CO vo

to

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to Tf

00 I

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CN CN

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Sec. 19]

107

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

NO <0

C*

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oo *-H

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108

[Ch. S

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

<o

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00

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Sec. 19]

109

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

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110 MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM [Ch. S

A-c Network Analyzer Method. The a-c network analyzer method

is similar to the longhand method already described except in some

rather important respects which reduce the time required consider-

ably. These steps are:

1. The synchronous machines are represented by their transient

reactance and a positive phase sequence system diagram drawn

on a common kva base. Equivalent synchronous machine

groups are obtained by connecting together the points back of

transient reactance of the machines known to swing together,

while maintaining the identity of points of known voltage and

power flow required to define the initial conditions of equivalent

network. Y and A transformations are not necessary as re-

quired by the longhand method as the network analyzer gives

the required power flow directly. Faults at different locations

may require a different grouping of machines, which is easily

accomplished by merely changing the plugging of the points back

of transient reactance. The comparative ease with which a rela-

tively large number of machine groups may be considered per-

mits swing curves with the identity of the synchronous machines

maintained where relative swing characteristics are questionable.

Usually after the first few swing curves, many questions as to

how the system will behave for the different fault locations are

determined which may allow for a further grouping and reduc-

tion of machine groups, with a corresponding reduction in time.

The initial load balance is obtained with loads represented as

shunt impedance loads. This balance is obtained by adjusting

the phase angle and magnitude of the voltages back of transient

reactance.

2. The equivalent inertia constant of each machine group is ob-

tained by summing up the inertia constants of the individual

machines, all on the system kva base.

3. The acceleration constants are calculated and recorded on the

swing curve sheet for each machine group such as that shown in

Table 5-4. The swing curve calculation forms (Table 5-4) are

made up with the initial quantities properly recorded. The

initial air gap power, magnitude, and phase angle of the voltage

back of transient reactance are read for each machine and

recorded. In Table 5-4 this is recorded in the line marked

"Before Fault."

4. The swing curve is started. First the fault is applied, (a) With

voltages and angles maintained at their initial values (before

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jj

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t-

<

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3<

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<-sl

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JsS;: *

Sec. 19]

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

aaS ota a'

***s 0-*"'

S39J33p III

-j )U3lU33E[dSIQ

*--aa2a2

ooo'os J,ivu V/Ul

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Sec. 19] MULTI-MACHINE METHODS 113

fault) the air gap power is read for each machine group, (b) The

change in angular displacement for the first time interval is

calculated as shown in Table 5-4. (c) The phase angle of the

voltages back of transient reactance is adjusted and the swing

curve calculation procedure carried on as shown in Table 5-4

and by the sample sheet of Table 5-5.

Circuit changes may be made during the swing curve calculation

corresponding to opening of circuit breakers or restriking of the fault,

etc. With the fault cleared completely by opening all breakers

feeding the faulted circuit, or with the fault only partially cleared as a

result of opening only one breaker, the procedure is the same except

at the time interval immediately following the change in circuit con-

ditions produced by the opening of the breaker. At this point, the

power outputs of all machine groups are read at the time interval for

the change in circuit conditions, before and after the instant of

breaker opening, and the average value used for determining the

accelerating torque for that interval. The calculations are then

continued in the normal manner until another change occurs in the

network conditions or until the swing curve has been carried far

enough to determine whether the machine groups will remain in

synchronism or go out of step.

Plot the swing curve and determine if machines of system are

stable. Figures 5-4(a) and 5-4(6) are representative swing curves

from network analyzer studies. The criterion for stability is whether

or not all the machines return to oscillate around relative angular

displacements or if one or more machines pull out of step with the

other machine groups. This can usually be determined after a time

corresponding to the swing of the machine group having the longest

period.

For involved problems, an a-c network analyzer is advantageous.

On such an analyzer the complete or simplified network can be set up

and the electrical power output of each machine or machine group

read directly from electrical instruments. See Fig. 5-5 and Fig. 5-6

for views of a-c network analyzer and instrument panel for quick and

direct reading of circuit quantities. If the power or torque output is

known, the accelerating torque may be determined and then the

relative angular displacement of the machines at the next instant

changed by adjustment of phase shifters. The solution using a net-

work analyzer, although involving the use of the step-by-step

method, simplifies the results since it is not necessary to calculate the

circuit impedances or the power flow. A network analyzer also

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200

It

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

'/

//

//

s'

^.

//

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o 80

Angula* Displacement in Elect*i

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- 10

-20

-30

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Time in seconds

-50

-60

. -70

-80

-90

-100

-1 10

"

- -

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115

Time

Sec. 19]

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

Fig. 54(6). Calculated swing curves.

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116

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

Fig. 5.5. Network analyzer showing the general arrangement of cabinets.

Fig. 5.6. Central instrument and control panel showing generator units and

instruments with their control switches.

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Sec. 20] SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS 117

makes possible the ready determination of currents and voltages in

the various branches with changes in the relative angular displace-

ments of the machines. Such information is valuable in determining

or checking the setting of relays of the system.

20. Special Considerations. There are many different ways in

which a system may be represented and a swing curve calculation

carried forward. This allows for a full play of ingenuity on the part

of the individuals participating. Some of the special methods which

have been developed will be briefly outlined here. Many other

techniques, however, have been and can be developed.

Change in Time Interval. The time interval may be changed in the

course of a swing curve calculation when, for example, it is evident

a larger time interval will not introduce an appreciable error. In

this way the swing curve calculation time may be reduced. After a

fault is cleared the change in angular displacement for the selected

time interval may be found to be small, and the time interval can be

increased. Usually, the time interval should not be larger than that

which will allow a maximum A5 of 20 for any synchronous machine

group. To double the length of the interval, a value of k, which is

four times the original value, must be used for all succeeding compu-

tations. For the time interval at which this change is made, the

total angular change is calculated by adding the angular change with

the new acceleration constant to the angular change for the two

preceding time intervals. This follows, since the angular change for

the two preceding intervals is in each case for only half as long a time.

From that point on, the calculation proceeds in the normal manner.

The sample swing curve sheet of Table 5.5 shows the manner

in which the time interval was increased (0.05 to 0.10) at 0.30

second.

Representation of Synchronous Condensers. Synchronous con-

densers can be represented in many system studies with good

accuracy by variable shunt capacitors. This may be done for those

synchronous condensers of a system which are known not to pull out

of synchronism. Since a synchronous condenser which does not

pull out of step oscillates in angular displacement with respect to its

terminal voltage, and furthermore since it usually has a relatively

high natural frequency of oscillation compared with the other

machine groups, it can be assumed that its phase angle is equal to

the phase angle of its terminal voltage. This assumption therefore

allows for the representation of the synchronous condenser by a

variable shunt capacitor. This method of representation may be

accomplished on the a-c network analyzer by varying the capaci-

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118

ICh. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

tance until the current to the system satisfies the relation

le =

- ete

*dc

[5.4]

where subscript c indicates synchronous condenser quantities,

Ic = armature current,

e'qc = voltage back of transient reactance,

etc = terminal voltage,

= direc axis transient reactance.

xd

Fig. 5-7. Approxi-

mate network ana-

The synchronous condenser may also be approx-

imately represented2 by a variable shunt capaci-

tance back of its transient reactance adjusted at

each swing curve time interval so that the correct

voltage back of transient reactance is maintained.

(See Fig. 5-7.) The effect of the synchronous

condenser's excitation system can also be included

in this approximate representation by varying e'qc

in accordance with the methods developed in

Section 25.

Negative Sequence Braking Torque. For un-

lyzer representation Daiancecl faults there may develop appreciable neg-

of synchronous con- , , , . , , ,

,' , ative phase sequence braking torques due to the

denser under tran- .... . . _. . .

sient conditions. double-frequency induced rotor currents. This is

particularly true for unbalanced faults close to the

terminals of solid rotor turbine generators or salient pole machines

which have high-resistance amortisseur windings. As shown in Sec-

tion 28, this effect can be taken into account by subtracting from

the difference of the mechanical torque and the air gap electrical

torque a loss torque equal to /i(2?2 -Ro). where

I2 = per unit negative sequence armature current,

2?2 = Per unit negative sequence resistance of the machine,

Ra = per unit armature resistance of the machine.

The accelerating torque acting on the machine 1 rotor is therefore

Tai = Tmi Tei ^2(^2 .Ro) [5-5]

where Tai = accelerating torque,

Tmi = mechanical shaft torque,

Tei positive phase sequence air gap electrical torque.

If this refinement is to be included in the swing curve calculation,

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Sec. 20]

119

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

it will, of course, be necessary to set up the negative sequence imped-

ance network in sufficient detail to determine the negative sequence

currents flowing in the affected machines.

Circuit Changes. The application of unbalanced faults and the

opening of phases of a circuit can be represented by methods devel-

oped from the theory of symmetrical components.3 A summary of

these representations is given in Appendix II. When more than one

unbalance occurs, such as two simultaneous unbalanced faults, the

opening of one phase of a circuit at a time of an unsymmetrical fault,

etc., the equivalent representation becomes more difficult, although

methods have been developed for these cases also.4,5 It is possible

on a network analyzer to avoid this difficulty by representing the

three"phases of a transmisison line as shown in Fig. 5-8, assuming

V-J$

Z C|+j|

->M/ -\SXXLr-

Z" f|+j*l

-M - 1000/-

-pfI M\h

i i i -Y.j^

\MA/ '<QQlr-

-V _

Ttt

IX

=&

L' 3 + J 3 (MM/ yS&J

Fig. 5-8

7-

that the positive and negative sequence impedances of the generating

sources are all equal. To a limited extent this method of representa-

tion may be used for a study of simultaneous unbalances. This was

the type of system representation used for a network analyzer study

of single-phase reclosing (Section 42). In this representation the

grounded transformer banks of the system are represented as actual

three-phase transformers using the 1-to-l mutual transformers of the

a-c network analyzer to provide the grounded points. Neutral

impedance can be placed in these transformer neutrals to represent

the actual system neutral impedance. The voltage bases of the

network analyzer are changed to correspond with the differences in

yoltage bases between the primary or Y and secondary or A sides.

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120 MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM [Ch. 5

Additional Effects. Additional effects such as saliency, damping,

excitation, and governor response can be calculated in as much detail

as is considered necessary. Ordinarily they are neglected in most

studies. They can be introduced by making the proper modification

and additions to the swing curve calculations. How this may be

done and the effect on performance are described and discussed in

detail in Chapter 6. Some of the effects, such as damping and

governor response, depend upon or are related to the instantaneous

speed or slip of the synchronous machine.

Instantaneous Slip or Speed. The speed or slip can be obtained

from the swing curve sheets by the following simple relation:

1 A

S=^fM [5<6]

where 5 = per unit slip, 5 = electrical radians, / = normal frequency

in cycles per second, / = seconds.

If S is expressed in degrees, Eq. 5-6 becomes

5 2*/ 180 At 360/ M l ' J

When A5 is the change in angle from the (re 1) to the reth in-

terval, Eq. 5-7 gives the per unit slip at the (re J^) interval.

This relation may be used to show the magnitude of the change in

per unit speed for what is considered a fairly large rate of change of

electrical angular displacement from a stability standpoint. Take,

for example, the case of a 60-cycle system which during the swing

curve calculation has a A5 = 10 during a time interval At = 0.0S

second. Then, according to Eq. 5.7, the slip from synchronous

speed is

10

5 = = 0.00925

360 X 60 X 0.05

or the speed

5=1-5 = 0.99075

Ordinarily synchronism is either maintained or lost before the syn-

chronous machines involved have changed their speed sufficiently to

make an appreciable change in the mechanical shaft torque either

due to the inherent prime mover torque speed characteristics or the

governor characteristics.

Representation of Loads. The simplest manner to represent a load

is by a constant shunt impedance. It is of course possible to vary

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Sec. 21] SYSTEM VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS 121

this load during the swing more nearly to represent actual conditions.

If the characteristics of the load are known, it is possible to make

a corresponding representation. The loads are, however, not usually

very well known, particularly under transient conditions, so that it

is necessary to approximate their effect. The assumptions usually

used are either (1) constant shunt impedance or (2) constant shunt

impedance during fault with variable impedance after fault is cleared

to give a constant power component of load.

If these two methods of load representation give importantly

different results, then a more complete representation of the loads

may be necessary. Usually, the difference in results obtained by

assumptions 1 and 2 will not be sufficiently great as to necessitate

the inclusion of more complete load characteristics, yet the approxi-

mate effect of a change in load characteristic will have been obtained.

Small Machines Out of Step. Occasionally in making swing

curves it will be found that a small machine, particularly a syn-

chronous motor load, will pull out of step before the major synchro-

nous machine groups have acquired any appreciable angular sepa-

ration. If the machine that falls out of step quickly is relatively

unimportant, it may be desirable to continue the swing curve in order

to see what happens to the major machine groups.

When the small machine has definitely gone out of step and has

acquired an angular displacement of 180 with all the other machine

groups, a reasonably close approach to the effect of this machine

upon the rest of the system may be obtained for the remainder of

the swing curve calculations by disconnecting it from its generator

unit and connecting the machine positive phase sequence reactance

directly to ground.

Additional Information. During the swing curve calculation for

determining stability of the system, additional information may be

obtained by taking readings in the network or making calculations of

current, voltage, and power flow during the swing. Such informa-

tion may be used to check the performance and setting of relays, and

the performance of small loads or machines which have themselves

a relatively small effect on the system and whose identity was not

maintained.

21. Calculation of System Voltages and Currents during Transient

Swing. During oscillations of machine groups it is sometimes desir-

able to determine the currents and voltages existing at certain points

in the network. This may be necessary to check the performance

of relays or equipment at points in the system. It may be accom-

plished by means of the general network equations for real and reac-

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122

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

tive power. Although it is a difficult calculation by longhand

methods, it is relatively simple with an a-c network analyzer. If an

a-c network analyzer is used, voltage and current in any part of the

network being studied may be read directly while the swing curve

is being made. The components of current positive, negative,

and zero phase sequence may be read directly from the corre-

sponding phase sequence networks during circuit unbalances.

The equations for positive phase sequence real and reactive

power for three machines are as follows. (See Volume I, Eqs.

1-46 and 1.49.)

Real Power

t> E? , E1E2 . /. x . -E1.E3 . ,. .

Pi sin an + sin (512 - a12) + sin (5i3 - a13)

^11 ^12 ^13

P2 = -5- sin a22 sin (512 + ai2) + ^f-^sin(523 - "23) [5-8]

^22 ^12 ^23

E3 . E1E3 . E2E3

P3 = -5 sin a33

^33 ^13

sin (S13 + a13) -

^23

sin (523 + "23)

Reactive Power

77^ 77 77 77 77

Qi = -rr- sin dn sin (512 + 0i2) ^- sin (513 + 013)

6\\ Ai2

77^ 77 77

Q2 = -1 sin d22 + -- sin (512 - d12) - ^^ sin (523 + 023) [5-9]

z22 z12

77^ 77 77

Q3 = -^r sin 033 + -^- sin (513 - 013) + :=~ sin (523 - 023)

^33 ^13 ^23

^13

E2E3

^23

E2E3

These are equations for positive phase sequence real and reactive

power at the points where the voltages

Ei, E2, and 3 are maintained. These

equations may, however, be used to de-

termine the positive phase sequence

quantities at points in the network in

the following manner.

Assume that it is desired to determine

the positive phase sequence voltage and

power factor at point a in the network of

Fig. 5-9, having available the results of a swing curve calculation of

the three-machine groups during and following a disturbance.

Fig. 5.9.

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Sec. 21]

123

SYSTEM VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS

In order to have made the swing curve calculations, the equations

for P\ for the different conditions, fault on, first breaker cleared, etc.,

were necessarily obtained. Similarly, the equations for Qi may be

obtained as a function of the relative angular displacements 512

and 823. Since 5l2 and 823 are known at the various time intervals

(obtained from swing curve calculation sheet), the values of Pi and

Qi may be plotted or tabulated as a function of time. (See Fig. 5-10.)

The vector expression for the positive phase sequence current from

machine 1 may be determined by the relation (voltage E\ as reference

vector):

Pi .Ql VpT+Q? / . -!<?!

T - i-i

~J

[5-10]

The positive phase sequence voltage at a is, therefore,

Vol El lal Za

[5-11]

P. (Real Power)

Figure 5-11 is a vector diagram of these quantities.

When balanced conditions exist on the network, when no unbal-

anced fault or loads exist, the

positive phase sequence voltages

are the actual voltages. When

unbalanced faults occur (L-G,

L-L, L-L-G) it is necessary to <

determine the negative and zero

phase sequence components of

current in the various branches

by consideration of the negative

and zero phase sequence imped-

ance network in the fault im-

pedance network. In most cases involving more than two machine

groups or an interconnected network this becomes quite involved,

e, (Reference vector) although it is amenable to

analysis by application of

circuit theory principles.

An a-c network analyzer

is of particular advantage

in handling problems of this

type in which it is desired to

determine the current, volt-

age, and power factor in each

phase of an interconnected group of machines during a disturbance

involving ground. Circuits which connect machine groups during

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124

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

oscillations may be subjected to comparatively high current mag-

nitudes. These values of current and the values of voltage and

power factor that occur simultaneously with them are of particular

importance to relay engineers. Many serious system disturbances

which have been studied were found to be entirely stable and would

have resulted in no-load interruption, except for the unnecessary

tripping of circuits by relays because of the current produced during

the swing and subsequent oscillations.

J 0.2T5

j 0.085 . J 0.483

0.33 +J 0.60 0.41 *j 0.43

0.09+J 0.151

</ 3 0 Foult

g J-49 Q

Fig. 512. Equivalent system diagram.

22. Relay Operation during Swing. This section will describe

briefly a case for which calculations were made to determine the

possible performance of relays of an interconnected system following

a sustained three-phase fault.

Figure 5-12 is an equivalent diagram of the major synchronous

machine groups. The fault location is as shown. Initially power

was flowing from machine groups 6 and 7 toward 5 with a small

amount of power being transferred through bus b toward bus a.

Machine groups 4 and 5 were, except for a small amount of inter-

change, generating power for the loads in their own areas. It was

desired to determine the swing current at relay points b, c, and d

following a sustained short circuit. The breaker at relay point a

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Sec 22]

125

RELAY OPERATION DURING SWING

is assumed to open quickly. For the purpose of calculating this

case it was possible to neglect all line resistance except in the lines

in which the fault currents were large.

Since the breaker at a opened quickly it was possible, for the

defined conditions of initial power transfer, to assume that machines

1, 2, 3, 6, and 7 swing together.

40

30

-JO

5 -50

,-70

-90

Machine Groups #1,2,3,6, and 7

1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Time in Seconds

S^o

i*s

Angular Displacements of Machine Groups

Fig. 5.13. Calculated swing curves.

Figure 5-13 shows the results of a swing curve calculation indi-

cating the system is stable although the fault has not been cleared

at bus b. As shown, machine groups 4 and 5 slow down slightly

because of the decrease in power transfer from the remainder of the

system with the application of the fault and because of the increase

in line losses due to the fault.

By the method of Section 21 it is possible to determine the current

flow during the swing at locations b, c, and d. These results are

shown on Figs. 5-14(a), (o), and (c). In a similar manner the

voltage and power factor can be determined during the swing at any

bus or relay location. See Fig. 5-15 for system conditions slightly

different from those for Fig. 5-14.

The significant part of this study is that the current at d is con-

siderably greater than the current at c during the swing although,

if the swing current had not been considered, the current at c could

be expected to be comparable with the current at d.

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126

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

The determination of performance of relays and other equipment

which depend upon the current and voltage existing during and

following a disturbance is an important field for the application of

800

700

600

S. 500

400

300

200

100

Relo

y Se

ting

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2

Time in Seconds

Fig. 5-14(a). Calculated line currents. Current at bus 6.

1100

1000

900

eoo

700

600

~ 500

400

300

200

100

ela

ys

ett

inq

^Initial

Current

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 I.I 1.2

Time in Seconds

Fig. 5-14(6). Calculated line currents. Current at bus c.

the principles of power system stability. Relay and system pro-

tection engineers are required to have a fundamental understanding

of stability principles in order to apply protective equipment properly.

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1400

1300

1200

1100

1000

900

I 800

<

= 700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 l.I

Time in Seconds

Fig. 5-14(c). Calculated line currents. Current at bus d.

Relo

y Set

ting

4_

Initiol Load

Current

1400

1300

1200

MOO

1000

900

eoo

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

-~-

pt

"-

^ Power Fo<

lor - Bus e toward d

11

^5

9r Fqc

tor-e

us d

toward e

Relay Setting

'^.

l1i

Voltage-Bus c

^ II:

'oltag

!-Bu'

70

80 tT

90

100

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128 MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM [Ch. 5

REFERENCES

1. " Load Studies on the D-C Calculating Table," Part I, by W. C. Hahn, General

Electric Review, Vol. 34, No. 7, July 1931, pages 444-445.

"Load Studies on the D-C Calculating Table," Part II, by W. C. Hahn, General

Electric Review, Vol. 34, No. 8, August 1931, pages 482-489.

2. " Capacitors, Condensers, and System Stability," by J. W. Butler, W. Ridg-

way, and T. W. Schroeder, A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 63, 1944, pages

1130-1138.

3. Circuit Analysis of A-C Power Systems Vol. I, Symmetrical and Related

Components, by Edith Clarke, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1943.

4. " Simultaneous Faults on Three-Phase Systems," by Edith Clarke, A.I.E.E.

Transactions, Vol. 50, 1931, pages 919-939.

5. " Experimental Analysis of Double Unbalances," by Edward W. Kimbark,

A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 54, 1935, pages 159-165.

"Network-Analyzer Solution of Multiple Unbalances," by Edward W. Kim-

bark, A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 56, 1937, pages 1476-1482.

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