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CHAPTER 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

fundamental phenomena of stability. Because of its relative sim-

plicity many system problems have been reduced to this form for

connected to a large system, fault conditions which affect the small

motor or generator but which are known not to affect the large

tion may be used to illustrate many fundamental principles of

stability.

The equations of rotor motion for machines 1 and 2, from Eq. 3-8,

can be written as

, ,,2 ~~ * ol ml ** el

kJ lit

H2 d S2 _ _

rj lit

[4-1]

51

machine rotors the mechanical shaft torques do not change from

their constant values, Tm\ = Tm2. This follows since there are

dt2 dt2 HlH2

d 512 ir/

Tal [4-3]

or

dt2 H0

Tai [4-4]

where

H=rk

Since for the case of two machines with no resistance losses in the tie,

the electrical power or torque is given by Eq. 3-1, with #12 being

d%:

dt2

irf ( ElE2 \

= i Tmi sin 512 ) 4-6]

Equation 4-6 is similar to Eq. 3-9 for one machine against an infinite

thoroughly analyzed by Summers and McClure1 and later by Byrd

and Pritchard2 for the case of two changes in circuit conditions, and

the calculations. This case corresponds, for example, to the applica-

tion of a fault and its removal. The solution is given for the maxi-

mum allowable switching time for removal of the fault without loss

of stability. Summers and McClure used a mechanical integrator

to solve Eq. 4-6, and Byrd and Pritchard used long hand step-by-

step methods.

to SS during the fault period, after it is put in a more general form

obtained as follows:

E\E2 E\E2

or

when

d 312 _ jr/

-TT = TT (^ax sin 50 - r\Tm&% sin 512) [4.8]

at 11 q

E\E2 _ *12(before)

* max '1

*12(before) *12(during)

d2S12 TfriTm

dt2 H0

(sin S0 . \ ,

Now, if

or

rf25]2 sin 50

rfr2 r,

sin 512 [4.12]

This equation was solved for 5i2 in terms of r for various values of

T\ and sin S0 by machine integration1 and by step-by-step calcula-

tions.2 The curves of Figs. 4-1 to 4-17, taken from reference 2, give

xi 2 (before)

X\2 (after)

Sin 60-0.I0

55

5.0

5.0

Fig. 4-6.

Sin SQ-0.30

Sin 80n0.25

Sin \$o=0.35

56

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

[Ch. 4

2.0 3.0

Fig. 4.9.

Fig. 4.8.

Sin 6o-0.50

Sin 80 '0.40

0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

57

5.0

5.0

l'0.8

uN0.8

Fig. 411.

Fig. 4.10.

Sin 60-0.60

Sin 80-0.55

Sin 80=0.65

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58

5.0

[Ch. 4

Fig. 413.

Fig. 4-15.

Fig. 4-14.

Sin S0'0.80

Sin 80-0.70

Sin 6on0.75

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

Sec. 14] TWO MACHINESRESISTANCE NEGLECTED

59

Sin 80-0.85

5.0

5.0

These curves represent the solution of Eq. 4-12 for different values

ment reaches the critical angular displacement SS defined by Eq. 3.7.

In this way these solutions give directly the critical switching time in

terms of the system constants and initial loading conditions, with

the exception of one special case. This special case will be described

next, after which the use of these curves will be illustrated in this

section by an example.

Special Case (r\ = 0). The solution of Eq. 4-12 requires a special

cos5s

r.>

[4-13]

dt2

H0

rmax sin 50

[4-14]

rmax [4-15]

or

t = , K [4-16]

IZ

1 max

When Eq. 4.16 is substituted in Eq. 4-14, we have

d%

dp.

2 = sin 50 [4.17]

dp

2(Si2 50)

sin Sn

[4-18]

abscissa.

one-line diagram of the system with an equivalent transient reactance

and inertia constant for each of the two machine groups. Machines

>

Q.

00

61

CO

oo

CNJ

00 f

3 "!S

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62

[Ch. 4

TW6-MACHINE STABILITY

(i and E2) and the initial angular displacements of these voltages

(5l and 82) as the transmitted load is varied. Plot the variation

Ho 0-

yOOQQQi

Hb 0-

-^msusir-

He Q-

-dmSSLr-

a>-

-\00000 r-

-vJMJ&ay-

-^umsu-

iQQOOOj

1 \S&St!llb'

iJUfiy^J

(0)

(b)'

I 'SiSiSiiI

MJ<S&&&Sb|viMfiff./ yjmaiLr(z)

to

Fig. 4-19.

of sin 5o, the sine of the initial angular displacement (512 initial),

against the load transmitted. Also plot EiE2/xi2(be(oTe) against

sin 80. These two plots will be used to determine the transmitted

*12(before)

and

*12(during)

r2 =

^(before)

*12(after)

4-20 determine sin 80 corresponding to r\ and to r2. Refer back to

the plot of sin 80 versus initial power to obtain the power correspond-

Sec. 14] TWO MACHINESRESISTANCE NEGLECTED

63

ing to r\ (the power that can be transmitted if the fault is not cleared)

calculated values of r\ and r2, determine t for the selected values of

sin 50, which, from the curves plotted in accordance with (2), cor-

[4-19]

12(before)

sin 50 as calculated in (2).

If rt =0 for any case, use Fig. 4-18 to obtain p and use Eq. 4-16 to

obtain t.

6. Switching time curve. Plot the results of (4) and (5), initial

1. System Representation. The system represented in Fig. 4-21 will be used to

illustrate the steps in the calculation of the transient stability limits by the method

just outlined. The effect of a fault on one of the parallel transmission lines connect-

0.350

6.6/132

nmwM^

0.165

vicflfififla/

0ftH1H 0.350 f~||hSb-0

0.51. -'5

125.4/33.0

^ fr

Flg. 4-21. System diagram reactances based on 100,000 kva and rated voltages

6.6, 132, and 33 kv. Machine 1 is rated 50,000 kva at 1.0 power factor. Hi = 1.76

and Ha = 14.1.

It will be noted that the turn ratio of the step-down transformers is not the same

as the ratio of the rated voltages of the circuits which they connect. Therefore, if

132 kv, the rated voltage of the high-tension circuit, is chosen as the " unit " or

"base " voltage for the system, the per unit value of the low-tension rated voltage

will be 125.4/132 = 0.95; or the low-tension base voltage will be 34.7 kv. (See

Appendix I, Volume I.) Since the base voltage of the low-tension circuit is greater

H,l.76 0.350

o.i5o r^smsmu-

0.511

-'50 0.116

Fjg. 4-22. System equivalent circuit (base kva = 100,000).

than 33 kv, the rated voltage upon which the reactances are given, the per unit

reactances of this part of the system must be decreased by the ratio (125.4/132 )2 =

(0.95)2 = 0.902. The reactance of the equivalent motor then becomes 0.902 X

0.131 = 0.118, and the reactance of the receiving end transformer becomes 0.902 X

Sec. 14J TWO MACHINES RESISTANCE NEGLECTED

65

The turn ratio of the step-up transformers corresponds to the ratio of the rated

voltages of the circuits; therefore the base voltage on the generating station side

of these transformers will be equal to the rated voltage for that circuit, and no

correction of the per unit reactance of the circuit will be necessary.

The transformers are connected A-Y and solidly grounded on the high sides as

indicated in Fig. 4.21.

1.230

1.210

1.190

1.170

1.150

1.130

1.0

1.110

0.9

0.8

XI

OJ

1.090

1.070

1.050

1.030

1.010

0.7

1-

t 0.6

>

- 0.5

\ 0.4

0.990

'0.3

0.970

0.2

0.950

0.1

0.930

Trnax

Per Unit

Power

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Sin S0

Fig. 4-23. Per unit power and rmax vs. sin So for the equivalent system of Fig. 4.22.

TABLE 4-1

2. Calculation of Initial and Maximum Power Corresponding to Initial Angular

Displacements between the Two Machines. If rated voltages are normally held on

the high-tension side of the step-up transformers and on the low-tension side of the

step-down transformers, the current can be determined for any value of power

transfer. If the current is known, the magnitudes of the voltages E\ and 2 which

exist behind the machine reactances and the angle 50 between them can be cal-

culated.

The magnitudes of the internal voltages and the angle between them for various

values of load are tabulated in Table 4.1 and used to plot the two curves of Fig. 4-23.

One curve shows the relation between the initial power transfer and the sine of the

initial angle 4o between the internal voltages. The other curve shows the relation

H.lfc.2

between the function Tmtx = and sin 5o. E\ and 2 are the internal voltages

of machines 1 and 2, respectively, and X12 is the total reactance between the points

at which these voltages are maintained (see Fig. 4-22) *i2(before) = 0.511 + 0.150 +

0.350

v 0000.0.0.0./^)

0.175 i 0.175

0.150 . 0.118

u.iou U.IIO /^

(0)?

^-. 0.749 0.356

(V)ys&smsu-r-^smsmj@

(b)

0.0438

Fig. 4-24. Reactance diagram with a three-phase fault at the midpoint of one of

the parallel lines of Fig. 4-22.

3. Calculation of Reactances During and After the Fault, (a) Three-phase fault

at the center of one line. The equivalent reactance x/ of a three-phase fault is zero.

Therefore, (b) of Fig. 4-24 can be obtained from (a) by one A-Y transformation.

(0.749 X 0.356)

X\ 2 (before) 1104 _,-,.

r\ = = - = 0.1535

*12<during) 7.192

*12(before) 1104:

r2 = = = 0.863

*12(after) 1-279

(6) Double-line-to-ground fault at the center of one line. The equivalent reactance

Sec. 14] TWO MACHINESRESISTANCE NEGLECTED

67

sequence reactances of the system viewed from the point of fault. Three steps in

*i2(dum) = 0.749 + 0.356 + ^ ^p"'35^ = 2-393

*12(before) 1.104

i = = ~r~^r: = 0.461

*12 (during) 2.393

f2 = 0.863, being the same for all types of faults at one location

0.350

0.118

Xf (L-L-G Foult)

I 7 I__L.

(c)

0.749 0.356

s-\ 0.749

one of the parallel lines of Fig. 4.22.

Note. The assumption is made that the negative sequence reactance of the system is

equal to the positive sequence reactance when viewed from the point of fault; and

that the zero sequence reactance of the transmission lines is equal to 3.5 times their

positive sequence reactance, mutual reactance between the two circuits being negli-

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68

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

TABLE 4-2

Per

Unit

10.95

(n-0.1535

Switching

Time,

Sin 5o

Power

.1 max

?ll max

Vr^ma*

r2 = 0.863)

Second

0.825

0.995

0.80

0.933

1.177

0.1807

4.65

0.127

0.0273

0.75

0.843

1.134

0.1741

4.57

0.2365

0.0518

0.70

0.763

1.097

0.1684

4.49

0.353

0.0784

0.65

0.690

1.067

0.1638

4.43

0.450

0.1016

0.60

0.623

1.041

0.1598

4.38

0.554

0.1265

0.55

0.560

1.020

0.1566

4.33

0.666

0.1538

0.50

0.500

1.001

0.1537

4.29

0.783

69

TABLE 4-3

Per

Unit

Power

10.95

Switching

Time,

Second

Sin Jo

-* max

fl* max

vVi7.max

(n = 0.461

r2- 0.863)

0.825

0.995

0.80

0.933

1.177

0.5426

8.07

0.353

0.0437

0.75

0.843

1.134

0.5228

7.92

0.702

0.0886

0.70

0.763

1.097

0.5057

7.79

1.01

0.1297

0.65

0.690

1.067

0.4919

7.68

1.32

0.1719

0.60

0.623

1.041

0.4799

7.59

1.671

0.2202

0.55

0.560

1.020

0.4702

7.51

2.081

0.2771

0.50

0.500

1.001

0.4615

7.38

2.574

0.3460

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70

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

Data for switching time curves for a number of loads have been determined by

use of the curves of Fig. 4-23 and the master curves (Figs. 4-1 to 4-17) and are

tabulated in Tables 4-2 and 4-3.

From the data given in Tables 4.2 and 4-3, the switching time curves shown in

Fig. 4-26 (by the full lines) were plotted. The dotted curve is for a three-phase

fault on one of the parallel lines very near the sending end high-tension bus. The

calculations for this case of r\ = 0 and rj = 0.863 are summarized in Table 4.4,

based on the solutions of Fig. 4-18.

~ -.0

0.9

8 8

8,0.7

! 0.6

& 0.5

* 0.4

fe0.3

5 0.2

.s

I 0.1

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Switching Time in Seconds

Fig. 4.26. Permissible fault duration versus initial power transfer for the system

given by Fig. 4.22. Note. Full load on machine 1 of Fig. 4.21 is 0.5 per unit power.

Curve

-L-G

ine

L_

<

It

Sec. 15]

71

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY ANALYSES

severe than those at the center of a line. See Fig. 4-27 for a com-

the center of one of the high-voltage circuits as compared with those

for a three-phase fault located near the high-tension bus. The bus

faults or faults near the buses, because they are more severe, are in

general considered in greater detail than faults along the line. There-

fore, any method which will decrease the severity of faults near the

1.4

1.3

i,

=J

"-;

Fig.

0>

o.89 nrvi)

Hi = 56 H2 = I90

'30

,Fou*-Lo

COtic

nA

Sg^ou

Lto

i^tVo

le_

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Switching-Time-in Seconds

0.8

0.9

1.0

4-27. Switching time curves for three-phase faults near center of line and

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72

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

These curves are based on simultaneous opening of line breakers

to clear the faulty circuit. The use of a high-tension bus allows for

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.2

I.

o 0.

Q.

|0.

Fig.

oil

IJl-o cHj

fro

Gen. i i

iT Gen. 3

3x

"-Fault

* Vault

Low-Tension Bussing versus High-Tension Bussing

111

Lot

LEf^nJSussing

_ High-Tension Bussing

0.1

0.2

0.3

Switching Time in Seconds

0.8

0.9

1.0

4.28. Switching time curves for double-line-to-ground faults with low- and

high-tension bussing.

In low-tension bussing it may be possible to obtain simultaneous

clearing of the fault at both ends of the circuit with balanced relays;

transient stability limits for sequential clearing of faults will be less

than for simultaneous clearing if the time for the first breaker to

Sec. 15]

73

portance of the type of relaying is emphasized. Figure 4-29 has a

switching time curve (c) for sequential opening of the line breakers

(it was assumed that the second breaker and relay required as much

time to clear as the first breaker and relay after the opening of the

1.2

i.o

0.9

0.8

I -7

s.

.* 0.6

fc0.5

a.

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

^^

^^

^^

^5

Switching Time in Seconds For First Breoker To Open

0.8

0.9

Fig. 4-29. Switching time curves for three-phase faults at generator high-tension

high-tension bus requires even smaller switching times in order to

realize fully the possible increase in the transient stability limit made

available by the additional bus. Therefore, there is an optimum

number of high-tension bussing stations for a given line and for given

switching times. The most reasonable design depends upon the

number and types of faults expected as well as upon the breaker and

best design. This information may be obtained from experience.

Valuable data from automatic oscillographs have been and are being

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74

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

l.l

i.o

0.9

0.8

0.7

| 0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

O.I

0.35 J>0J^55_cH_D0134_t:, 0 03

Vault

-8_

"*

--^

~-'

0.1

0.2

Switching Time in Seconds

Fig. 4.30. Switching time curves showing gains realized by use of an intermediate

mediate high-tension bus three-phase fault. D. Intermediate high-tension bus

double-line-to-ground fault.

1. When one or more intermediate high-tension buses are used, the

probability for the occurrence of bus faults or faults just off the

amount of power that can be safely transmitted under steady

state conditions are obtained usually with one line out or a sec-

inertias compared to the loads being transmitted, or when the relay

and switching times are long, the intermediate high-tension bus may

lower the average transient stability limits for certain types of faults

and relays.

Sec. 15]

75

station delivering power to a synchronous motor load are shown on

Fig. 4-31. This shows the gain that may be realized by the use of a

1.60

1.50

1.40

1.30

1.20

1.10

1.00

t 0.90

0.80

5 0.70

0.60

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 I.I

Switching Time (Seconds)

Fig. 4-31. Power-switching time curves for various kinds of faults and the effect

of transformer neutral reactance. Synchronous generators delivering power to

Gen.

Mot.

o-

-o

* Fault

'Line-ground fault

(Reactance in neutral = 3 times -

transformer reactance)

Line-ground fault

Double line-ground fault

- Reactance in .neutral

^3-phose fault

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76

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

4.32 shows the gains for particular switching times for different values

of neutral ground reactance for a given system. It should be noted

that as the switching times decrease the gains are decreased, and

2.00

1.80

1.60

.40

1.20

.1.00

<

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

t=0

t = 0.2

t = 0.4

t = 0.6

t = cc

12 3 4 5 6

Fig. 4.32. Power which may be carried through a double-line-to-ground fault

near bus vs. reactance in transformer neutrals. 8 per cent transformer reactance

assumed. / = high-tension switching time in seconds.

that the gains realized for this system by increasing the reactance in

the neutral rapidly drop off above two or three times transformer

reactance.

Sec. IS]

77

limit somewhat the zero phase sequence or ground current in this

manner. Figure 4-33 shows the gains realized as the switching time

transformer terminals only. High-reactance transformers will in

general decrease the transient stability limit for the other types of

2.2

2.0

1.8

1.6

w 1.4

= 1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

* 12% Reoctonce

^^8% Reactance

^"^4% Reactance

x0% Reactance

0.1

0.2

0.6

0.7

0.8

of transformer reactance for a double-line-to-ground fault near transformer high-

tension bus.

fault and fault locations rather than increase it, so that a more

voltage or over a large number at a lower voltage. For example,

one 220-kv line will have approximately the same reactance as four

110-kv lines in parallel or three 132-kv lines in parallel. When more

than two circuits are used, the switching out of one line does not

two parallel circuits.

Figure 4-34 shows the relative transient stability limits for a system

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78

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

parallel circuits at a lower voltage. The parallel line reactance of the

lower voltage circuits for this case equals the parallel reactance of the

two higher voltage circuits. The system having lower voltage cir-

cuits without high-tension bussing is, for the case considered, the

3.

2.

2.

2,

2.

?.

!1.

Q.

I,

I.

0.

oajrj \ iSjoqfep

1111

I3#-

*6- .9

-5J^

^.6 .9 ^.

s&

1 .9

**7

All Lines In

-0-

3 ,9 &

** >

-i

-o-iJ

6 .9

4i^o-

S6

, .9

B 2L .9 *is

6 .9

5.F

1 .9

^""i "u ""J

"r

.9

<>.6

A--

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1

Sec. IS]

79

An increase in generator inertia will make it possible to clear the

fault before the generator rotor has reached as great an angular dis-

3.0

2.8

'1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

o-f

0.

0000000

0.I ,

1 ti b Infinite

o]-i|-p bus

H = 2.60u - 0.3

TT5OTWr

I line fault

* Double line -to ground faults

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.9 1.0 I.I

Switching Time (seconds)

Fig. 4-35. Comparison of stability limits for faults on stub feeder against faults

on one of the two parallel transmission lines.

system. That is, a 100 per cent increase in the inertia of a generator

crease in maximum switching time in order to transmit a given load

of 41 per cent. Figure 4-36 shows the gains that can be realized by

gains obtained by a change in the influencing factors.

Figure 4-37 shows the gains realized in the transient stability limit

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80

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

I,

I.

5 i.

i '<

i o,

0,

1 0.3

H 3.38

[7

H-2.60

0.2

Fig. 4-36. Effect of increasing generator inertia 30 per cent.

2.2

2.0

1.8

1.6

- 1.2

5 1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Switching Time (seconds)

Fig. 4-37. Switching time curve showing the effect of change in ucj on transient

stability.

0.

0000000

0.3 0

| K Infinite

^nreflnonn ^

I K bus

Vj

straightforward although not so simple as for the case when resistance

can be neglected.

Sec. 16] TWO MACHINES WITH RESISTANCE 81

For this case, we can again start with the equation of motion of the

d2(h ~ h) d2S12

-/Tal Ta2\

[4.20]

dt2 dt*

d/dd\2 dS/d2S\

This equation states that the relative angular velocity dSi2/dt is

zero when

,5,

mS%)

This is the general form of the equal area criterion and applies when

F.i is not equal to Ta2.

This criterion may be applied for the case of two machines when

1. Calculation of voltages behind transient reactances for the given

operating conditions.

maintained.

used if it were a generator or a condenser. From known voltages,

currents, and power factors which existed in the system before the

fault occurred, the magnitudes and angles of the voltages behind the

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S2

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

culating transfer and driving point impedances before the occurrence

of the fault and after the fault has been cleared (Section 2, Volume I)

fault impedance Z/ which depends upon the character and location of

the fault (Section 10). The driving point and transfer impedances

may be obtained for each machine for each circuit condition (Section

7, Volume I).

MJ'O0W>

rO-WWV '.OD'OW"1D-i

KMM/W nWGGa^-o-i

lo)

(b)

system.

3. Calculation of torques. The torque angle characteristics for

machines 1 and 2, calculated by Eq. 1-6, are shown in Figs. 4-39 (a)

and 4-39 (b), respectively. These curves are shown separately for

is positive and T2 negative.

The angle 50 is the initial value of the angle 512 between the volt-

ages E\ and E2. At the instant the fault occurs, the electrical torque

torque

E\E2

Tal = Ti - Tel

Ti sin an

12

Sec. 16]

83

^22 ^12

la)

Angle 8|2 In degrees

8,

The torque Tai, which is the difference between Ti and the ordinate

angle 512 between the machines

will increase.

4. Determination of critical

will become negative and tend to decrease the speed. However,

while the relative acceleration was positive and 512 was increasing

to remain in synchronism. In the limiting case, it will be just over-

come and the relative velocity of the machines will become zero just

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84

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

method.

In Fig. 4-40 (Tai/Hi Ta2/H2) has been plotted for increasing

values of 512 from 50 to S/ for the conditions which existed with the

is the maximum angle between the

machines at which the fault can be cleared from the system with-

out causing instability. In this way Ss, the critical switching angle,

method of calculation must be used in order to determine the time

required for the angle between the two machines to equal S, (Sec-

tions of both machines with respect to a reference axis as in Fig. 4-41,

one curve giving angle between machines (512) versus time can be

used.

opening of breakers (one line breaker opening before the breaker at

the other end of the line), a curve for (Tai/Hi Ta2/H2) corre-

sponding to the conditions existing with one breaker open must be

added to Fig. 4-40. If such values of Si2 (Ssi and Ss2) can be found

that the sum of the areas under the three curves is zero, the system

Fig. 4.41.

Sustained Fault. Curve B in Fig. 4-40 gives (Tai/Hi Ta2/H2)

for a sustained fault. In this particular case the area under the

A system will remain in synchronism under a sustained fault if

there is a value of 512 at which the area under the curve (Tai/Hi

Tai/Hz) is zero for the conditions existing with the fault on the

system.

Instantaneous Switching. Curve C in Fig. 4-40 gives (Tai/Hi

T<a/H2) for the conditions existing after the fault is cleared. If the

fault is cleared instantly, the disturbance is the switching out of

service of a portion of the system. The angle S\2 will at first increase.

With increasing values of 512 the area under Curve C in Fig. 4-40

changes from a small positive value to a larger negative value. For

the case shown the system will not lose synchronism on the first

somewhat different type arises when it becomes desirable to deter-

mine the maximum load that can be thrown on one of two syn-

. Etc 4,42

Neglecting resistance, we may write the differential equations for

the motion of the two systems (Eq. 4-1) as follows (assuming system 1

Hi d% ElE2 .

vj at #12

H2d% Ar^l2

*7 dr x12

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86

[Ch. 4

TWO-MACHINE STABILITY

d%

Hi

d% irf

dt2

Ho

o2

where

Tai Tm

EiE2

*12

sin 5x2

^12

Subtracting Eq. 4-28 from 4-27, we have

.(Tal Ta2\

d%

dt2

t4-27]

[4-28]

[4-29]

[4.30]

[4-31]

Equation 4.31 is the same as Eq. 4-22, for which the criterion for

stability is

jC(S?S)*"0

[4-32]

where Ta\ and Ta2 are expressed for this case by Eqs. 4-29 and 4-30,

respectively.

of 512.

H1*

'S^gi^>'

(b)

Fig. 4.43.

REFERENCES 87

REFERENCES

Calculation of Two-Machine Stability, with Resistance," by S. R. Pritchard

and Edith Clarke, General Electric Review, February 1934, pages 87-92.

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CHAPTER 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

frequency.

involved. However, by using an a-c network analyzer for obtaining

the initial conditions and the accelerating torques under the transient

flow conditions.

step by step.

making swing curve calculations the cases to be worked should be

well selected so that the effect of other faults for different system con-

physical reasoning. In this way a picture of the system stability

characteristics is obtained.

equations of angular motion of n machines. (Refer to Eq. 3-8.)

Elfh-T -T T

~ , 2 1 * ml J. el

ttj at

Ho d Qo

VflF_ la2_ lm2~ le2 [5.i]

Hn d Sn _

kj at

The electrical torque at normal speed (from Eq. 1.6), for n machines

Ei . EiE2 . . .

t ^2 . EiE2 . .

^22 ^12

^2n

F2 Ki F

^(nl)n

En), we determine the equations for Tei, Te2, Ten in terms of

the angular displacement of the machines (S12, 813, 523, " " S(n-i)n)'

means of a step-by-step calculation in a manner similar to that out-

lined in Section 12, when the inertia constants of each machine and

study of a network involving resistance and inductance.1 These

methods are not simple in their application and for this reason are not

for the calculation of electrical torque for three machines by the

following equations:

- Ei . E\E2 . . . -E1-E3 . ,. .

E2 E\Ei2 E2IL3

Z22 -^12 ^23

E3 . Ei\Ei% , E2E3

for a case of sequential switching, they must be calculated when the

fault is on, when the first breaker opens, and when the faulty section

or fault is removed from the system. That is, for the different

212, Z13, and Z23). Also their corresponding impedance angles

hi, #22i <?33> #12. ^13. and 023 must be determined in order to obtain

an, <*22. 33. 12. 13. and a23. (See Section 7, Volume I.)

voltages behind transient reactance, and their angular displacements.

That is, this step in the procedure is to determine E\, E2, and 3,

the initial voltages behind transient reactance of the three-machine

groups; 8i, 82, and 53, the initial angular displacements of thesethree

voltages; and Tmi, Tm2, and Tm3, the initial shaft torques on the

three machines. The initial shaft torques are usually taken equal

92 MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM [Ch. 5

When the circuit constants and the initial voltages behind transient

reactance have been determined, the equations for torque may be

written from Eqs. 5-3 for the case when the fault is on, when it is

before setting up the swing curve calculation sheet is to determine

the accelerating torque constants ki, k^, and k3 for each machine,

Hn

5. Swing curve calculation sheet. The swing curve calculation

sheet can now be set up (Table 5-1). The following form is for a

TABLE 51

klTal(n-l)

k2Ta2(n-l)

3?a3(n-l)

512 = 5152

513 =5153

523 =52 53

(512 a12)

(512 + 012)

(S13 13)

(5l3 + 13)

(S23 23)

(523 + 23)

Sec. 18] MULTI-MACHINES PROCEDURE 93

TABLE 5-1Continued

r lJS2 /. ^

Z12

1^2 , .

Z12

1.E3 . , .

^13

E1E3 .... .

-^13

2^3 . , .

^23

2^3 . ,. . ,

Z23

El .

Zn

El .

/S22

El .

Z33

6. Swing curve calculations. The step-by-step process is carried

out until the time is reached at which there is a change in the circuit

torques at the time at which the circuit constants are changed, or

.. . . , , Ua(nl)fbefore) T 7a(nl)(after)J

A5(n-V = A5(7>-^) + *

It is well to plot the angular displacement of the machines (6%, 82, 83)

against time (t) as the work proceeds; the shape of these curves will

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94

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

other groups.

I.I26/-2.T

Fig. 5-1.

The synchronous machines are represented by their transient reactances and

a positive phase sequence system diagram drawn up with a common leva base.

groups are obtained by connecting together the points back of transient

reactance of the machines of the same group, and reducing the system to the

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Sec. 19]

95

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

identity of points of known voltage and power flow sufficient for establishing

the equivalent load flow. The load flow diagram, with loads represented as

shunt impedance loads, is made up as shown in Fig. 5.1 from which the

angle. One of the loads which comprises synchronous converters is assumed

H2=7.65

H,-5.5

S \$ Fault-

5.33+j 4.83

.154 KW

Unity P. F. converter

with occurence of

fault

to be disconnected from the system with the occurrence of the system fault.

the system kva base.

The impedance diagram (Fig. 5-2) for calculation of the impedances between

machine groups with the fault on, first breaker cleared, and second breaker

I, for method.)

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96

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

4. The accelerating torque constants () are calculated.

5. The swing curve sheets are made up from a summary of data (Table 5-2).

6. The swing curve calculations are carried out (see Table 5-3); and the swing

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

60

! 50

! 40

i 30

i 2

10

- 10

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60

Fault on

Calculated

Swing Curves

\y

'

n<?

'

&

*2.

'

/>

TABLE 5-2

Acceleration Constants for At = 0.05 second (Eq. 3-28)

ki = 4.92 k3 = 4.91

kz = 3.53 kt = 5.76

Ei = 1.138

3 = 1.126

E-t = 1.19

4 = 1.125

Si = 23.5

h = -2.7

S2 = 19.4

54 - -10.1

Driving Point and Transfer

Circuit Impedances

Zn = 0.880/63.9

Zu = 55.5/90.8

Z22 = 0.311/86.3

Zu = 58.1/86.9

Z33 = 0.587/77.1

Z23 = 8.85/95.7

Z44 = 0.519/75.6

Z24 = 9.25/91.8

Z12 = 1.81/88.5

Z34 = 19.9/92.5

First Line Breaker Opened:

Zn = 0.884/63.8

Z13 = 33.7/91.0

Z22" = 0.330/85.8

Zu = 30.2/87.7

ZS3 = 0.598/76.8

Z23 = 5.36/95.8

Z44 = 0.537/75.1

Z24 = 4.80/92.5

Z12 = 1.73/88.7

Z84 = 10.1/93.0

Fault Completely Cleared:

Z11 = 0.900/63.4

Z13 = 11.03/91.7*

Z22 = 0.443/82.0

Zu = 9.94/89.7

Z33 = 0.663/74.4

22s = 1.76/96.6

Z44 = 0.590/71.5

Zu = 1.58/94.5

Z12 = 1.41/89.2

Z84 = 3.41/95.4

Fault on:

TABLE 5-3

0.40

2.523

11.241

60.455

1.019

14.634

93.067

-0.017

-1.766

-12.952

-1.086

-9.5*

-54.317

-32.61

73.41

114.77

106.02

147.38

41.37

-34.11

-31.11

74.21

0.*

2.262

8.718

49.214

1.1*

13.616

78.433

-0.048

-1.749

-11.186

-1.013

-8.479

-44.752

-29.22

60.40

93.97

89.62

123.19

33.57

-30.72

-27.72

61.20

SO 61)

0.*

1.920

6.456

40.496

1.441

12.4*

64.818

-0.116

-1.701

-9.437

-1.060

-7.466

-36.273

-24.32

49.93

76.77

74.26

101.09

26.84

-25.82

-22.82

*.73

49. 13

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Sec. 19]

9<

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

<

cc

f^

^c

ro

^o

CN

O 00

CO ro

rs

-r

^O

CN U-3

t*

r^

CM

CO

00

r*

t~

iO

^1

oc

CN 00

- NO

-t-

vO

co

r-

rO

<

iO

00'

00

ic

in

Ov

c-

cc

O Ov

to iO

^H

t>

CN

iO

r<->

0O

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100

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

OS

<

<

ta

i^

IO

-f

-r

vQ

r*)

^^

C N O IO ^O 1

f*5

i^

r-g

rs

-f

CN

-^

0 \ ^ 0 10 1

c"

rs

Cf.

rs

CN

CN

-r

-T

f^

00

TjOOlN|

-*

-r

ro

c3

1/3 CO O IN

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MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

101

vO

\r

rs

vo

NO

Ov

]>-

LO

Th

Ov

Tt<

t- *-.

CN

ro

CN

CO

io

CO

CS CN

t* *-H

Ov

vC

CO

CN

cv

vO

T*

CN

U-v

NO

Ov

CO

t^

ON

~H

00

IO

CN

y~i

00

CN

Ov

CO

Tt*

CN

O t~

CO

+1

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102

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

H 00

CN O

~H CN

CO t^.

to *^.

fO <0

NO ro

t^. Tj<

- io

8S

ro OS

ro

CN 00

IO

io

* vO

gg:

CO

1*) ro

Ov Ov

Ov OO

O Tj"

iO ro

vO

<

t^ -H

oo

oo

oO

oo

o '

t^ r~

t* vO

Ov

Ov

CN CN

11

IO NO

-* 1

co ~H

to *>.

Ov CN

Ov o.

^o

Ov ro

iO -ej*

00 Ov

vO O0

~0 ">

O vO

CN

rN

t- 1^

H r^

vo v2>

io Ov

Ov OO

OO vO

r- CO

O -H

t~

oo

0.30

0.4591

0.3637

-0.*19

-0.2689

0.0208

0.0279

0.0405

0.0415

0.2421

0.2242

0.2772

0.2789

0.0574

0.0455

0.4056

0.0978

0.0567

-0.0001

, .... 2

0.25

0.3919

0.29*

-0.2459

-0.2120

0.0254

0.0244

0.0368

0.0384

0.2246

0.1974

0.2753

0.2701

0.0490

0.0367

0.*67

0.1741

0.0348

-0.0208

* I* U.15

0.20

0.3272

0.2267

-0.17*

-0.1387

0.0226

0.0216

0.0326

0.0347

0.1992

0.1641

0.2541

0.2427

0.0409

0.0203

0.2913

0.2940

+0.0067

-0.0603

0.16

0.2674

0.1*2

-0.0939

-0.0587

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104

plil

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

IT;

t-

E?

<

r~ 00 to

IO Ov

vC

ro 00

3 ro

r^

* m is

Ot

-f

-<* <

vO CO

f)

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f^)

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rvi

vo <o

r^

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-*

CN

-r

co 10

rc

vC

CS

rC IO I-

JO *

ir,

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3C

** *o

rg

fi O

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Sec. 19]

105

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

vO

O0 ov

r^

i^

Ov

v ON

.* o

<*

Ov

CN

>*

IO Ov

IO

t-- *-*

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to

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t r~

T-^H ro

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00

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i O

oo

oo

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co *-

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to

CN

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Generated on 2014-03-17 01:49 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015002900275 Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

106

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

vO

Ov t*

O -<

w CO

CO w

t #

vo vo

CN CN

00 ^H

ro O

CO

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Ov CN

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CO CO CO O

s-< vo

# ro

vo vo

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>o

to

i Tf

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CO iO

vo io

CO CO

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oo

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11

00 CN

vo CO

"O CN

CO *

CN O

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*-< CN

CN vo

ro v

t- vo

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to to

C> -* ^ iO

O0 O O Ov

Tf Ov O t*

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to

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to Tf

00 I

NO to

CN CN

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Generated on 2014-03-17 01:51 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015002900275 Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

Sec. 19]

107

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

NO <0

C*

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Generated on 2014-03-17 01:51 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015002900275 Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

108

[Ch. S

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

<o

*~

-i o

00

00

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ro

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Generated on 2014-03-17 01:51 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015002900275 Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

Sec. 19]

109

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

<o

t^

00

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CO

CN

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^,

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NO

00

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oo

OO

Usually after the first few swing curves, many questions as to

how the system will behave for the different fault locations are

reactance.

3. The acceleration constants are calculated and recorded on the

swing curve sheet for each machine group such as that shown in

Table 5-4. The swing curve calculation forms (Table 5-4) are

made up with the initial quantities properly recorded. The

initial air gap power, magnitude, and phase angle of the voltage

recorded. In Table 5-4 this is recorded in the line marked

"Before Fault."

4. The swing curve is started. First the fault is applied, (a) With

jj

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t-

<

<

<

<

a'

c-

CJ

-h

**

h"

5?

-M

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E3

3S

H II

>

3<

111

<-sl

U ffl

CDF

w if.

5 1*

irpD

gjj-3

JsS;: *

Sec. 19]

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

***s 0-*"'

S39J33p III

-j )U3lU33E[dSIQ

*--aa2a2

ss**

"J V a -

a-02 a

2a0* a

Za02 a

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2*- a

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3-622 a

-a03 a

a*- a

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2 0N aovd

*X1+V*"V-,"(V

*(oi) i(ndn) (ism) (iczw" '".

a*3

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62a a

8a3a +

8*6a -

4-0 a

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04-a a

3aaa1*

*2*a0*

Za*-2*

608*-a*

N0iivinoivo 3 Ay no

".(

62a a

**50"a

0*aa a

0a0a %

a5a +

0-a*a

(nms)

It6'Oa*

24-'aa+v^

--6*-*

--a6a *X

JUCQ I'll.Mill

M.--.>..- V

MX aaO a

N *a1a a

"* a *

'*--a

-V -*a8a *

ff* aiqi

anbioj.

6aa

-aa a

*8aa +

*6a

ttVO +

Sec. 19] MULTI-MACHINE METHODS 113

fault) the air gap power is read for each machine group, (b) The

etc. With the fault cleared completely by opening all breakers

feeding the faulted circuit, or with the fault only partially cleared as a

result of opening only one breaker, the procedure is the same except

ditions produced by the opening of the breaker. At this point, the

power outputs of all machine groups are read at the time interval for

the change in circuit conditions, before and after the instant of

breaker opening, and the average value used for determining the

continued in the normal manner until another change occurs in the

network conditions or until the swing curve has been carried far

period.

and the electrical power output of each machine or machine group

read directly from electrical instruments. See Fig. 5-5 and Fig. 5-6

for views of a-c network analyzer and instrument panel for quick and

200

It

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

'/

//

//

s'

^.

//

>

o 80

oo oooooc

.1

^~.2

~T3

3-

-.4

0.

.5

.6

.7

.6

.90

- 10

-20

-30

-40

^s

Time in seconds

-50

-60

. -70

-80

-90

-100

-1 10

"

- -

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115

Time

Sec. 19]

MULTI-MACHINE METHODS

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116

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

Fig. 5.5. Network analyzer showing the general arrangement of cabinets.

Fig. 5.6. Central instrument and control panel showing generator units and

which a system may be represented and a swing curve calculation

carried forward. This allows for a full play of ingenuity on the part

a larger time interval will not introduce an appreciable error. In

this way the swing curve calculation time may be reduced. After a

fault is cleared the change in angular displacement for the selected

time interval may be found to be small, and the time interval can be

increased. Usually, the time interval should not be larger than that

group. To double the length of the interval, a value of k, which is

four times the original value, must be used for all succeeding compu-

tations. For the time interval at which this change is made, the

total angular change is calculated by adding the angular change with

the new acceleration constant to the angular change for the two

preceding time intervals. This follows, since the angular change for

the two preceding intervals is in each case for only half as long a time.

From that point on, the calculation proceeds in the normal manner.

The sample swing curve sheet of Table 5.5 shows the manner

second.

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118

ICh. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

le =

- ete

*dc

[5.4]

where subscript c indicates synchronous condenser quantities,

Ic = armature current,

xd

Section 25.

lyzer representation Daiancecl faults there may develop appreciable neg-

of synchronous con- , , , . , , ,

which have high-resistance amortisseur windings. As shown in Sec-

tion 28, this effect can be taken into account by subtracting from

the difference of the mechanical torque and the air gap electrical

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Sec. 20]

119

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

V-J\$

Z C|+j|

->M/ -\SXXLr-

Z" f|+j*l

-M - 1000/-

-pfI M\h

i i i -Y.j^

\MA/ '<QQlr-

-V _

Ttt

IX

=&

Fig. 5-8

7-

1 A

S=^fM [5<6]

5 2*/ 180 At 360/ M l ' J

When A5 is the change in angle from the (re 1) to the reth in-

terval, Eq. 5-7 gives the per unit slip at the (re J^) interval.

This relation may be used to show the magnitude of the change in

per unit speed for what is considered a fairly large rate of change of

electrical angular displacement from a stability standpoint. Take,

for example, the case of a 60-cycle system which during the swing

speed is

10

5 = = 0.00925

360 X 60 X 0.05

or the speed

5=1-5 = 0.99075

due to the inherent prime mover torque speed characteristics or the

governor characteristics.

Sec. 21] SYSTEM VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS 121

this load during the swing more nearly to represent actual conditions.

is necessary to approximate their effect. The assumptions usually

used are either (1) constant shunt impedance or (2) constant shunt

curves it will be found that a small machine, particularly a syn-

chronous motor load, will pull out of step before the major synchro-

to see what happens to the major machine groups.

When the small machine has definitely gone out of step and has

groups, a reasonably close approach to the effect of this machine

upon the rest of the system may be obtained for the remainder of

unit and connecting the machine positive phase sequence reactance

directly to ground.

obtained by taking readings in the network or making calculations of

current, voltage, and power flow during the swing. Such informa-

tion may be used to check the performance and setting of relays, and

the performance of small loads or machines which have themselves

a relatively small effect on the system and whose identity was not

maintained.

of relays or equipment at points in the system. It may be accom-

plished by means of the general network equations for real and reac-

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122

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

methods, it is relatively simple with an a-c network analyzer. If an

a-c network analyzer is used, voltage and current in any part of the

network being studied may be read directly while the swing curve

is being made. The components of current positive, negative,

and zero phase sequence may be read directly from the corre-

Real Power

E3 . E1E3 . E2E3

P3 = -5 sin a33

^33 ^13

^23

Reactive Power

77^ 77 77 77 77

6\\ Ai2

77^ 77 77

Q2 = -1 sin d22 + -- sin (512 - d12) - ^^ sin (523 + 023) [5-9]

z22 z12

77^ 77 77

Q3 = -^r sin 033 + -^- sin (513 - 013) + :=~ sin (523 - 023)

^33 ^13 ^23

^13

E2E3

^23

E2E3

These are equations for positive phase sequence real and reactive

Fig. 5.9.

Sec. 21]

123

In order to have made the swing curve calculations, the equations

for P\ for the different conditions, fault on, first breaker cleared, etc.,

obtained as a function of the relative angular displacements 512

and 823. Since 5l2 and 823 are known at the various time intervals

Qi may be plotted or tabulated as a function of time. (See Fig. 5-10.)

The vector expression for the positive phase sequence current from

vector):

T - i-i

~J

[5-10]

Vol El lal Za

[5-11]

P. (Real Power)

e, (Reference vector) although it is amenable to

analysis by application of

An a-c network analyzer

is of particular advantage

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124

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

importance to relay engineers. Many serious system disturbances

which have been studied were found to be entirely stable and would

the swing and subsequent oscillations.

J 0.2T5

j 0.085 . J 0.483

0.09+J 0.151

</ 3 0 Foult

g J-49 Q

Machine groups 4 and 5 were, except for a small amount of inter-

change, generating power for the loads in their own areas. It was

Sec 22]

125

is assumed to open quickly. For the purpose of calculating this

case it was possible to neglect all line resistance except in the lines

40

30

-JO

5 -50

,-70

-90

Time in Seconds

S^o

i*s

Figure 5-13 shows the results of a swing curve calculation indi-

cating the system is stable although the fault has not been cleared

because of the decrease in power transfer from the remainder of the

system with the application of the fault and because of the increase

shown on Figs. 5-14(a), (o), and (c). In a similar manner the

voltage and power factor can be determined during the swing at any

bus or relay location. See Fig. 5-15 for system conditions slightly

siderably greater than the current at c during the swing although,

if the swing current had not been considered, the current at c could

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126

[Ch. 5

MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM

The determination of performance of relays and other equipment

which depend upon the current and voltage existing during and

following a disturbance is an important field for the application of

800

700

600

S. 500

400

300

200

100

Relo

y Se

ting

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2

Time in Seconds

Fig. 5-14(a). Calculated line currents. Current at bus 6.

1100

1000

900

eoo

700

600

~ 500

400

300

200

100

ela

ys

ett

inq

^Initial

Current

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 I.I 1.2

Time in Seconds

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1400

1300

1200

1100

1000

900

I 800

<

= 700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 l.I

Time in Seconds

Relo

y Set

ting

4_

Current

1400

1300

1200

MOO

1000

900

eoo

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

-~-

pt

"-

^ Power Fo<

11

^5

9r Fqc

tor-e

us d

toward e

Relay Setting

'^.

l1i

Voltage-Bus c

^ II:

'oltag

!-Bu'

70

80 tT

90

100

128 MULTI-MACHINE PROBLEM [Ch. 5

REFERENCES

1. " Load Studies on the D-C Calculating Table," Part I, by W. C. Hahn, General

Electric Review, Vol. 34, No. 7, July 1931, pages 444-445.

"Load Studies on the D-C Calculating Table," Part II, by W. C. Hahn, General

1130-1138.

3. Circuit Analysis of A-C Power Systems Vol. I, Symmetrical and Related

Components, by Edith Clarke, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1943.