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42.1.10 AOAC Official Method 970.

59 Solids (Soluble) in Tomato Products


Refractive Index Method First Action 1970 Final Action 1973 A. Apparatus and Reagents

Table 970.59.

Refractive index correction values Correction 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.9

Natural tomato soluble solids as % sucrose corrected for enzyme 2 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0

(a) Filters.Cut stems off of 75 mm id glass or plastic funnels ca 1 cm from apex at 90 angle and firepolish ends of glass funnels. Set funnels in 150 mL jars, ca 55 mm id. If 150 mL beakers are used, close pouring spout with tape to prevent evaporation. Insert folded paper, Whatman No. 2V, 12.5 cm, or equivalent, in funnel. (b) Refractometer.Readability to 0.0001 n. (c) Ultracentrifuge.Centrifuge should produce force of ca 150 000 g (lesser force may be satisfactory for some products). International Equipment Co. No. B-20A (replacement Model B-22M) is satisfactory. (d) Pectic enzyme.(1) Dry preparation.In diatomaceous earth base, e.g., Klerzyme analytical (Gist-Brocades USA, PO Box 241068, Charlotte, NC 28224-1068, USA), or Spark-L (Bayer, 1127 Myrtle St, PO Box 70, Elkhart, IN 46514, USA) or equivalent. (2) Solution.Prepare 0.41% aqueous solution of (1); mix thoroughly and let settle. Use clear supernate. Liquid preparations are also available commercially; dilute, if necessary, before use. Also available from Presque Isle Wine Cellars (9440 W. Main Rd, North East, PA 16428, USA; http://shop.piwine.com/shopsite/prwc. product54.html).
B. Preparation of Sample

C. Determination

(a) Filtration without dilution.Weigh 100 g test portion at room temperature and add weighed amount (0.21.0 g) dry enzyme preparation. Immediately mix with spoon or spatula to avoid evaporation and transfer to filter. Tamp so test portion is in close contact with paper and cover with Petri dish (top or bottom portion) to form loose seal with top of funnel. Discard tests that do not filter in reasonable length of time (<1 h). Mix 0.21.0 g dry enzyme preparation with 100 g fresh test portion, seal in closed container, and incubate 3060 min at ca 40C. Cool nearly to room temperature before opening container, remix test portion, and transfer to filter. For test samples that still do not filter within 1 h proceed as in (b). (b) Filtration with dilution.[Applicable to test samples containing 35% solids that will not filter when treated as in (a).] Add 100 g enzyme solution to 100 g test portion and immediately mix with spoon or spatula to avoid evaporation. (Mechanical mixer [e.g., Osterizer] with sealed blending container may be used.) Alternately blend and shake to dislodge and break up lumps sticking to container. Examine mixture carefully for lumps and continue mixing until homogeneous. Transfer to filter and cover with Petri dish. (c) Centrifugation.(Applicable to all test samples.) Centrifuge test sample in ultracentrifuge until reasonably clear serum is obtained (serum of some test samples may be slightly turbid and/or red from presence of finely divided particles of pigment). Add dry enzyme as in (a) to decrease centrifuging time. Protect test sample from evaporation during centrifuging and before reading in refractometer.

(a) With filtration.Adjust refractometer for refractive index (nD) of 1.3330 with H2O at 20C. Let test sample filter into jar or beaker until filtrate is clear (some color and turbidity may be tolerated). Quickly remove funnel and transfer large drop of filtrate directly from funnel to refractometer prism. (Tip of funnel may touch refractometer prism but should not scratch prism.) Replace funnel in jar. Read refractometer, preferably at 20C, but if humidity causes condensation of moisture on prism, make measurements at room temperature and correct readings to standard temperature as in 990.36A (see Appendix C). Read n or % sucrose on refractometer. If nD is read, convert to % sucrose from 990.35A (see Appendix C). Let test sample filter several min more. Repeat reading by removing funnel and transferring drop of filtrate to refractometer prism. The 2 readings should agree within 0.0002nD or 0.1% sucrose. If not, repeat readings on successive portions of filtrate until agreement is obtained. Erratic readings indicate evaporation or faulty mixing and/or filtration technique. Read clear supernate of 1% solution of dry enzyme on refractometer and convert to % sucrose. Subtract 1.15 B C from direct reading on test sample (as % sucrose); where 1.15 = correction for insoluble solids in weighed test portion, assuming 12.5% total solids to be insoluble solids; B = % enzyme preparation added to test portion; and C = reading as sucrose obtained on 1% solution. If diluted test sample is used, subtract 0.55 D C from reading on test portion (as % sucrose); 0.55 = correction for insoluble solids, as above, and D = % enzyme preparation added to dilution H2O. Multiply corrected reading for diluted test sample by 2 and add additional correction according to Table 970.59. ( b ) With centrifugation .Re move se rum from ro tor or centrifuge tube with pipet or medicine dropper, and transfer to refractometer prism; avoid including solid particles as much as possible. If sharp line is not obtained on refractometer because of suspended solids, increase centrifuging time or speed, or add enzyme to test sample before centrifuging. Calculate soluble solids as above. (c) Correction for added salt.(Use only when test sample contains added salt and R > S.) Correct refractometer reading expressed as % sucrose at 20C for added salt by following formula: S = (R - N) 1.016 = total soluble solids as sucrose exclusive of added salt; where S = refractometer reading as sucrose corrected for added NaCl, R = total soluble solids as sucrose, and N = % total chlorides expressed as NaCl [determined by 939.10B (see 42.1.14) or 971.27 (see 42.1.15)]. References: JAOAC 52, 1050(1969); 55, 809(1972). Revised: March 2002
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