Primary Source Documents: Leopold II, King. "Nairaland Forum." Speech By King Leopold Ii Of Belgium Delivered In 1883. N.p., n.d. Web.

2 Dec. 2013 Document URL: http://www.nairaland.com/248670/speech-king-leopold-ii-belgium This document is a speech Leopold II delivered to missionaries before they go into the Congo Free State. Leopold gives instructions to the missionaries to teach the natives to yield to Leopold. This document will be used as an example of Leopold’s firm rule. 1.Leslie, Frank. "The United States at the Berlin Conference." 19th Century U.S. Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2014. 2. Historical Newspapers. "Historical Newspapers." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. <0-hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/search> Document URL: 0infotrac.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/itw/infomark/32/172/14766342w16/purl=rc1 _NCNP_0_GT3012614091&dyn=5!xrn_14_0_GT3012614091&hst_1?sw_aep=lvccld _main This document is an excerpt of an American news article regarding the Berlin Conference. This offers predictions of the future possibilities of colonizing Africa. The author also gives contributes his own support of the colonization of Africa, giving a perspective of someone other than an explorer or government official. 1. Livingstone, David. "Dr. Livingstone's African Expedition. - EFFECTS OF THE SLAVE-TRADE A PANIC, DROUGHT AND FAMINE THOUSANDS OF LIVES LOST. - NYTimes.com." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. 2. WEISMAN, JONATHAN, and JENNIFER STEINHAUER. "The New York Times Breaking News, World News & Multimedia." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/> Document URL: http://www.nytimes.com/1863/08/17/news/dr-livingstone-s-africanexpedition-effects-slave-trade-panic-drought-famine.html This website has the text of a letter written by Dr. David Livingstone regarding his expedition in Africa. Dr. Livingstone describes the harsh conditions in Africa due to the drought and famine in 1863. This primary source document is reliable because it had been published by the New York Times in 1863. This source will be used as a record of the events leading up to the Berlin Conference. 1.Livingstone, David. "Dr. Livingstone's African Explorations. - NYTimes.com."The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.

2. WEISMAN, JONATHAN, and JENNIFER STEINHAUER. "The New York Times Breaking News, World News & Multimedia." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/> Document URL: http://www.nytimes.com/1860/08/01/news/dr-livingstone-s-africanexplorations.html This website also contains texts written by Dr. David Livingstone as he recounts his journey and expedition in Africa. Dr. Livingstone describes the economy and the wealth of resources in Africa. Dr. Livingstone’s journal entries have been published on New York Times in the 1860s, therefore it is fairly accurate. Dr. Livingstone wrote a subjective account of the wonders and resources of Africa, no doubt spurring action from Europe. The descriptions can be used as evidence as one of the reasons the scramble for Africa began: resources. 1. Livingstone, David. "SOUTH AFRICAN DISCOVERY. - Interesting Letter from David Livingstone, Narrating His Recent Exploration. - NYTimes.com." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. 2. WEISMAN, JONATHAN, and JENNIFER STEINHAUER. "The New York Times Breaking News, World News & Multimedia." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/ Document URL: http://www.nytimes.com/1862/07/20/news/south-african-discoveryinteresting-letter-david-livingstone-narrating-his.html This document is a letter written by Dr. Livingstone in 1862 concerning his discoveries in Africa. Once again, this document gives a broad view of Dr. Livingstone’s expeditions. His explorations and the abundance of resources and potential in Africa had caused the scramble for Africa. This document was mostly objective, although Dr. Livingstone did emphasize the potential of using Africa for trade. This is a reliable source because New York Times had published this collection of letters as they had received them from Africa. This letter will be quoted and used as evidence showing the abundance of resources and opportunities in Africa. 1. Lorch,, Donatella. "Anarchy Rules Rwanda's Capital And Drunken Soldiers Roam City." The New York Times. The New York Times, 14 Apr. 1994. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. 2. WEISMAN, JONATHAN, and JENNIFER STEINHAUER. "The New York Times Breaking News, World News & Multimedia." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/ Document URL: http://www.nytimes.com/1994/04/14/world/anarchy-rules-rwanda-scapital-and-drunken-soldiers-roam-city.html This is a firsthand account of the chaos in Rwanda during the genocide in 1994. It is very descriptive and vivid. I will use this to illustrate the chaos in Africa after the Europeans departure.

1. Lorch,, Donatella. "STRIFE IN RWANDA: EVACUATION; American Evacuees Describe Horrors Faced by Rwandans." The New York Times. The New York Times, 14 Apr. 1994. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. 2. WEISMAN, JONATHAN, and JENNIFER STEINHAUER. "The New York Times Breaking News, World News & Multimedia." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/ Document URL: http://www.nytimes.com/1994/04/11/world/strife-in-rwandaevacuation-american-evacuees-describe-horrors-faced-byrwandans.html?action=click&module=Search&region=searchResults%230&version= &url=http%3A%2F%2Fquery.nytimes.com%2Fsearch%2Fsitesearch%2F%3Faction% 3Dclick%26region%3DMasthead%26pgtype%3DHomepage%26module%3DSearchS ubmit%26contentCollection%3DHomepage%26t%3Dqry96%23%2Frwanda+1994 This article includes different accounts and witness testimonies of the atrocities and genocide in Rwanda in 1994. This was used in my Aftermaths page in addition to the other news article above. 1. Loando, St. Paulde. "DR. LIVINGSTONE. - Ancedotes of the Great Traveler His Characteristics The Esteen in which he is Held by the Portuguese. NYTimes.com."The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. 2. WEISMAN, JONATHAN, and JENNIFER STEINHAUER. "The New York Times Breaking News, World News & Multimedia." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/ Document URL: http://www.nytimes.com/1860/06/15/news/dr-livingstone-ancedotesgreat-traveler-his-characteristics-esteen-which-he-held.html This document is a journal entry of St. Paulde Loando. In this document, St. Paulde Loando speaks privately with Mr. Gabrielle, one of Livingstone’s close friends about Livingstone himself and Livingstone’s character was described with specific examples and praised. This document shows Livingstone’s character not only from his famous adventures, but also on a personal level. This document will be used to characterize Dr. Livingstone in more detail. 1. New York Times. "The Berlin Conference." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. 2. Historical Newspapers. "Historical Newspapers." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. <0-hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/search> Document URL: 0hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/document?set=searchalleras&lasts et=&rendition=x-articleimage&start=1&inmylist=false&urn=urn:proquest:US;PQDOC;HNP;PQD;HNP;PRO

D;x-articleimage;106172053&pagemapurn=urn:proquest:US;PQDOC;HNP;PQD;HNP;PROD This document provides a newspaper article published in January of 1885 discussing American involvement in the Berlin Conference and includes an update of the conference. The document is very objective and diplomatic, containing excerpts from government reports. This information will be used to outline the causes and progress of the Berlin Conference, since the conference took months. This document came from one of the databases from the public library, therefore, it should be reliable and trustworthy 1. New York Times. "Belgians on the Congo." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. 2. Historical Newspapers. "Historical Newspapers." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. <0-hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/search> Document URL: 0hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/document?set=searchalleras&lasts et=&rendition=x-articleimage&start=1&inmylist=false&urn=urn:proquest:US;PQDOC;HNP;PQD;HNP;PRO D;x-articleimage;118492003&pagemapurn=urn:proquest:US;PQDOC;HNP;PQD;HNP;PROD This document is a newspaper article in the early 20th century about the “atrocities” committed in the Congo and its validity. The article states that Great Britain had joined the anti-Congo movement; however, many travelers and officials say that the people in the Congo are treated in a humane manner, and that no extreme abuses were committed. This article gives a different perspective to the Belgian Congo genocide committed by Leopold II. This article will be used to understand the argument that the Congo Free State had not committed genocide. 1. New York Times. "Commerce Freed In Congo." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016 2. Historical Newspapers. "Historical Newspapers." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. <0-hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/search> Document URL: 0hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/document?set=searchalleras&lasts et=&rendition=x-articleimage&start=26&inmylist=false&urn=urn:proquest:US;PQDOC;HNP;PQD;HNP;PR OD;x-articleimage;101873854&pagemapurn=urn:proquest:US;PQDOC;HNP;PQD;HNP;PRO This document is an objective newspaper article published by New York Times in 1909 regarding reforms that took place in the Belgian Congo. Taxes no longer needed to be paid in rubber, and there would have been one year of free commerce within the

state. This document shows that change was being instituted to alleviate the harsh conditions Leopold previously instituted in the Congo Free State. 1. New York Times. "Congo Missionary Acquitted of Libel." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. 2. Historical Newspapers. "Historical Newspapers." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. <0-hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/search> Document URL: 0hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/document?set=searchalleras&lasts et=&rendition=x-articleimage&start=26&inmylist=false&urn=urn:proquest:US;PQDOC;HNP;PQD;HNP;PR OD;x-articleimage;101747531&pagemapurn=urn:proquest:US;PQDOC;HNP;PQD;HNP;PRO This document is a newspaper article about lawsuit against two American missionaries W. H. Sheppard and Rev. William Morrison. The two had disclosed and spoken out about the harsh, unhealthy and dangerous conditions rubber workers and slaves worked in. In response, one of the rubber concession companies charged the two of libel. This is evidence that the abuses were real and the world was starting to find out. 1. New York Times. "DR. LIVINGSTONE'S EXPEDITION. - NYTimes.com." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. 2. WEISMAN, JONATHAN, and JENNIFER STEINHAUER. "The New York Times Breaking News, World News & Multimedia." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/ Document URL: http://www.nytimes.com/1864/08/21/news/dr-livingstone-sexpedition.html This document is a third person account of an encounter with Dr. Livingstone. Dr. Livingstone describes how trade and the plans for Africa were not turning out the exactly as planned. This document was an excerpt from the journal of an unnamed man, simply referred to as the “Poona observer”. This document will be used to show how the colonization of Africa had deviated from its intended course. 1. New York Times. "Leopold to Roosevelt." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. 2. Historical Newspapers. "Historical Newspapers." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. <0-hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/search> Document URL: 0hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/document?set=searchalleras&lasts et=&rendition=x-article-

image&start=1&inmylist=false&urn=urn:proquest:US;PQDOC;HNP;PQD;HNP;PRO D;x-articleimage;101399913&pagemapurn=urn:proquest:US;PQDOC;HNP;PQD;HNP;PROD This document is a message passed from Leopold II to President Roosevelt in 1904 in defense of the Congo Free State. Leopold II claimed that missionaries were only making up stories because they were not permitted access in to the Congo Free State; in fact, he even pushes some of the blame on to Great Britain. This is an interesting document because I am able to see what Leopold has to say to justify or defend his actions. 1. New York Times. "The Question of West Africa." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. 2. Historical Newspapers. "Historical Newspapers." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. <0-hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/search> Document URL: 0hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/document?set=searchalleras&lasts et=&rendition=x-articleimage&start=51&inmylist=false&urn=urn:proquest:US;PQDOC;HNP;PQD;HNP;PR OD;x-articleimage;106169935&pagemapurn=urn:proquest:US;PQDOC;HNP;PQD;HNP;PRO This newspaper article is a summary of the Berlin Conference. It listed all of the partitions of Africa, and reflected upon the fact that the Africans had absolutely no fate in the partitioning of their land. This subjective summary is very precise and helpful. This will be used as a summary of the results of the Berlin Conference where partitions are concerned. 1. New York Times. "Tells of Atrocities in Belgian Congo." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. 2. Historical Newspapers. "Historical Newspapers." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. <0-hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/search> Document URL: 0hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/document?set=searchalleras&lasts et=&rendition=x-articleimage&start=1&inmylist=false&urn=urn:proquest:US;PQDOC;HNP;PQD;HNP;PRO D;x-articleimage;101906232&pagemapurn=urn:proquest:US;PQDOC;HNP;PQD;HNP;PROD This document is a newspaper article published by New York Times in 1909 confirming the “atrocities” committed in the Belgian Congo. A missionary and his family were interviewed as they returned home from the Belgian Congo. During the interview, Dr. Leslie (the missionary) confirmed that natives had hands cut off if they did not produce enough rubber for Leopold II. This document is evidence that the genocide had indeed happened, including an eyewitness.

1. New York Times. "3,000,000 Natives Slain to Get Congo Rubber." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. 2. Historical Newspapers. "Historical Newspapers." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. <0-hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/search> Document URL: 0hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/document?set=searchalleras&lasts et=&rendition=x-articleimage&start=26&inmylist=false&urn=urn:proquest:US;PQDOC;HNP;PQD;HNP;PR OD;x-articleimage;101812415&pagemapurn=urn:proquest:US;PQDOC;HNP;PQD;HNP;PRO This document describes the horrors in the Belgian Congo vividly. The article described the motives, methods, and consequences behind the genocide enacted by Leopold II. It is a resourceful document that I used on my Congo Free State page. 1. Sjoblom. "News From the Old World." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. 2. Historical Newspapers. "Historical Newspapers." Historical Newspapers. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. <0-hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/search> Document URL: 0hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/document?set=searchalleras&lasts et=&rendition=x-articleimage&start=1&inmylist=false&urn=urn:proquest:US;PQDOC;HNP;PQD;HNP;PRO D;x-articleimage;100424667&pagemapurn=urn:proquest:US;PQDOC;HNP;PQD;HNP;PROD This article is a first-hand report of the abuses and atrocities committed in the Congo Free State. The author, Mr. Sjoblom was an American missionary who had described in detail what had been done to workers. This article is yet another primary source that can prove the atrocities and abuses committed by the Congo Free State. Stanley, Henry. "How I Found Livingstone." Glutenberg.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. Document URL: www.gutenberg.org/files/5157/5157-h/5157-h.htm#link2HCH0005 This document is an e-book of Henry M. Stanley’s journals as he searched for Livingstone. This document covers everything from the beginning of Stanley’s mission to Livingstone’s death. Stearns, Peter, Stephen Gosch, and Erwin Grieshaber. "Decades of Imperialism in Africa." Documents in World History. 5 ed. New York: Pearson Education, 2009. 235. Print. This book provides a document with an account of laws written by the European conquerors in regard to the power of tribal chiefs. In this document, the chiefs of Temne write to Governor Caulfield in 1897 about their powers. Governor Caulfield had enacted strict laws that had greatly reduced the power and authority of chiefs. It is

a reliable primary source document because all documents in the book were gathered by one of three historians. The following primary source documents did not include a specific name and/or a single author. "African Slaves." Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2013 Document URL: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/17/AfricanSlavesTransport.j pg/300px-AfricanSlavesTransport.jpg This picture depicts African slaves with chains around their necks. This will be used as a visual of the cruel treatment of slaves. "Atrocities of the Rubber Slavery." Fine Art America. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://images.fineartamerica.com/images-medium-large/atrocities-ofthe-rubber-slavery-everett.jpg This picture is a photograph of an African worker looking at the remains of a worker who was close to him. This will be used as a visual of the atrocities in the Congo. "Berlin Conference: Creating a Better Africa." Pine Crest. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://teacherweb.ftl.pinecrest.edu/snyderd/mwh/projects/munbc/wpe2.gif This document is a photograph of the Berlin Conference. This will be used on my home page. 1."Berlin Conference General Act (1885)."ABC-Clio World History: The Modern Era. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2014. 2. ABC Clio. "World History: The Modern Era - Username." World History: The Modern Era - Username. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <http://worldhistory.abcclio.com/?webSiteCode=SLN_HMOD&returnToPage=%2f&token=5A50B461084623 4892E6F0FCB5DFDE04&casError=False> Document URL: http://worldhistory.abcclio.com/Search/Display/308919?terms=berlin+conference+1884 This website provides an excerpt of the Berlin Conference General Act written in 1885. There are more contributors than simply Otto von Bismarck and Jules Ferry, but those two were the prime leaders in the conference. The information on this website states the rights and freedoms of each country regarding the freedom of trade, slaves, etc. This document will be used to outline the rights of each society involved and later on, the breach of those rights.

"The Butcher of Congo, King Leopold II of Belgium. ." Digital Journal. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://www.digitaljournal.com/img/4/9/8/8/0/7/i/8/5/8/p-large/congohands.jpg This photograph depicts victims of the genocide. It will be used on my website as a visual of Leopold’s cruelty. 1. "Congo Free State 1885 - 1908." Yale University Genocide Studies Program. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. 2. "Belgian Congo | Colonial Genocides | Genocide Studies Program | Yale University." Yale University. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. <http://www.yale.edu/gsp/colonial/belgian_congo/>. Document URL: http://www.yale.edu/gsp/colonial/images/belgian_congo/tapping_tree.jpg This document is a photograph of a worker working with rubber trees in the Congo Free State. This will be used as a visual. 1. "Congo Free State, 1885." World History in Context. N.p., n.d. Image. 24 Nov. 2013. 2 . World History in Context. "Home Page." World History in Context. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <0-ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/home> Document URL: http://0ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWi ndow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=WHIC&windowstate=normal&contentModule s=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&u=lvccld_main&currPage =&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&source=&search_within_res ults=&p=WHIC%3AUHIC&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId =GALE%7CBT2398000727#00110885 This document is a map of the Congo Free State in 1885. It has no cited author or cartographer. It is taken from the website World History in Context, which is a reliable resource. "The Congo Free State: A Latifundium of Terror." The Civilising Mission. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://thecivilisingmission.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/henrymorton-stanley-kalulu-1872.jpg This document is a photograph of explorer Henry Morton Stanley. This will be used on my website as a visual of the famous explorer. 1. "Congo Free State." Yale University Genocide Studies Program. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Oct. 2013.

2. "Belgian Congo | Colonial Genocides | Genocide Studies Program | Yale University." Yale University. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Oct. 2013. <http://www.yale.edu/gsp/colonial/belgian_congo/>. Document URL: www.yale.edu/gsp/colonial/images/belgian_congo/child_victim.jpg This document is a photograph taken of a worker who had his hand and feet cut off. I do not know the photographer of this photograph, nor is it stated in the source I found it from. This photo will be used as evidence of the genocide and as a visual on my website. 1. "Congo Free State." Yale University Genocide Studies Program. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. 2. Yale University. "Genocide Studies Program | Yale University." Yale University. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. <http://www.yale.edu/gsp/> Document URL: www.yale.edu/gsp/colonial/images/belgian_congo/1884_belgian_congo_th.jpg This document is a sketch of the Belgian Congo in 1884. This will be used on my website as a visual. "Congo Free State." Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. Document URL: upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/80/Punch_congo_rubber_cartoon.jpg This document is a political cartoon of Leopold II as a snake as he chokes one of the rubber producers. This cartoon will be used as a visual and an example of the satirical comics commonly found regarding politics. There was no author or artist for this picture that I could find. Also, I did not find any information on Wikipedia; I simply used it to find pictures. "Congo Free State." Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. Document URL: upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/39/Leopold_ii_garter_knight.jpg/2 00px-Leopold_ii_garter_knight.jpg This document is a photograph taken of Leopold II. This will be used on my website as a visual of the imposing yet cruel leader of Belgium. No photographer’s name was found. "David Livingstone." Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d5/David_Livingstone.jpg This document is a photograph of Dr. David Livingstone. This will be used as a visual on my website.

1. "Henry Morton Stanley in search of Livingstone." Image. The Illustrated London News Picture Library. World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABCCLIO, 2013. Web. 16 Oct. 2013 2. ABC Clio. "World Geography: Understanding a Changing World - Username." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World - Username. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldgeography.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/1320533?terms=henry%20morton%20stanl ey&webSiteCode=SLN_WGEO&returnToPage=%2fSearch%2fDisplay%2f1320533% 3fterms%3dhenry+morton+stanley&token=C8B30962AA79B32C298DE2004D16AB B2&casError=False This document is a picture depicting Henry Stanley Morton who went in search of Dr. David Livingstone after Livingstone had disappeared. This will be used on my website as a visual. "Human Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa." Geography 105 - World Regional Geography. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://www.roebuckclasses.com/105/images/subsahara/congo_crime_cov.jpg This document is a photograph of a victim of the genocide. This will be used as a visual on my website to show the horrors and terror that Leopold imposed on the Congo Free State. "Indigenous African Slavery." African History. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0.tqn.com/d/africanhistory/1/7/u/I/IndigenousSlavers002.jpg This document is a photograph of the harsh treatment of workers and slaves in Africa during the time of imperialism and colonialism. "King Leopold's Ghost." Stephen Hicks, Ph.D. . N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://www.stephenhicks.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/mapbelgian-congo.jpg This document is a map of the Congo Free State in 1885. There is no known cartographer. This will be used as a visual on my website. "Monarch Profile." The Mad Monarchist. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-sXNjin4WzFc/T2UdJIEpgI/AAAAAAAAIMU/lSC258iFv6o/s1600/leo2ind.jpg This document is a portrait of Leopold II. It will be used as a visual on my website.

1. "Morton in Africa." Image. Library of Congress. World History: The Modern Era. ABCCLIO, 2013. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. 2. ABC Clio. "World History: The Modern Era - Username." World History: The Modern Era - Username. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <http://worldhistory.abcclio.com/?webSiteCode=SLN_HMOD&returnToPage=%2f&token=5A50B461084623 4892E6F0FCB5DFDE04&casError=False>. Document URL: http://worldhistory.abcclio.com/assets/mediaserver/WorldHistoryModern/3476/347647w.jpg This document is a picture of Henry Morton Stanley fighting off attackers. This picture has no photographer or artist cited. This document was found on ABC Clio, which in turn took this picture from the Library of Congress. This picture will be used in a slideshow on my website. "Slaves Congo 2." Canal Cultura. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://carloscastrom.files.wordpress.com/2013/02/slavescongo2.jpg?w=760 "The 25 Worst People Ever." List 25. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://cdn2.list25.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/leopold.png This document is a portrait of Leopold II. I will use this as a visual on my website. Secondary Sources: 1. LERMAN, KATHARINE ANNE. "Bismarck, Otto von." Europe 1789-1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire. Ed. John Merriman and Jay Winter. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2006. 233-242. World History In Context. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. 2. World History in Context. "Home Page." World History in Context. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. <0-ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/home> Document URL http://0ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/uhic/PrimarySourcesDetailsPage/PrimarySource sDetailsWindow?query=&prodId=WHIC&displayGroupName=PrimarySources&limit er=&source=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&search_within_r esults=&action=2&catId=&activityType=&documentId=GALE%7CCX3446900089& userGroupName=lvccld_main&jsid=c3c73a1f986c354667ae306192f90291 This website gives background about the Otto von Bismarck of Germany, from his humble beginnings to the end of his political career. The author, Katharine Anne Lerman, has a BA First Class Honors in History and a D.Phil in History as well. This information will probably be used to provide background knowledge for my website.

1. Maddox, Gregory H. "The Berlin Conference: Instability in Africa is more systematic than merely the result of boundaries." World History: The Modern Era. ABCCLIO, 2013. Web. 7 Dec. 2013. 2. ABC Clio. "World History: The Modern Era - Username." World History: The Modern Era - Username. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <http://worldhistory.abcclio.com/?webSiteCode=SLN_HMOD&returnToPage=%2f&token=5A50B461084623 4892E6F0FCB5DFDE04&casError=False>. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Analyze/Display/1320380?cid=13&terms=berlin%20confer ence This document is argues that the Berlin Conference had caused some, but not all of the problems in postcolonial Africa. The author is a history professor at Texas Southern University and specializes in African history. Maddox holds a BA from the University of Virginia and a PhD from Northwestern University and is therefore a trustworthy source. 1.Schimmer, Russell. "Belgian Congo | Colonial Genocides | Genocide Studies Program | Yale University." Yale University. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. 2. Yale University. "Genocide Studies Program | Yale University." Yale University. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. <http://www.yale.edu/gsp/> Document URL: http://www.yale.edu/gsp/colonial/belgian_congo/ This author of this article is Russel Schimmer, who has a GSP and is currently at Yale University. The article summarizes the history of the Belgian Congo, from colonization to genocide and the fall of Leopold II. This information in this article will contribute as evidence in arguing the genocide and the breach of rights and responsibilities by Leopold II. 1. Vanthemsche, Guy. "Belgium's African Colonies." Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450. Ed. Thomas Benjamin. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 126-130. World History In Context. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. 2. World History in Context. "Home Page." World History in Context. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016. <0-ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/home> Document URL: http://0ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWi ndow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=WHIC%3AUHIC&windowstate=normal&con tentModules=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&currPage=&di sableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&source=&search_within_results= &action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CCX258730005 5&userGroupName=lvccld_main&jsid=3f23294ab2d6666d2cca9e59b0fd5e6b

This document provides a summary of Belgian Congo as a whole, from its colonization to independence. This document was attained from World History in Context, a trustworthy database. The author, Guy Vanthemsche, is a history professor at the University of Vrije in Brussels, therefore, a reliable source. This document will be used to gain background knowledge on the Belgian Congo. The following sources have no citable author. "African Democracy: A glass half-full." African Democracy: A glass half-full. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2014. Document URL: http://somalilandsun.com/images/map%20of%20africa.JPG This was a very useful map because it shows some of the different governments in Africa, ranging from attempted democracies to authoritative regimes. I used this on my Aftermath page to show the political instability in Africa "African Natural Resources." Schoology. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2003. Document URL: https://www.schoology.com/system/files/attachments/page_embeds/m/2013-01/AfricaNatural-Resources.jpg This document is a map of all of the natural resources in Africa. This will be used to show the abundance of natural resources in Africa. "Africa's economy." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2014. Document URL: http://news.bbc.co.uk/nol/shared/spl/hi/africa/05/africa_economy/img/africa_map416_i incom2.gif This map shows the GDP of each African country in 2003. This was on my Aftermaths page to show the extent of the poverty in Africa and the legacy of imperialism even today. "Africa Political Map 2003." Africa Political Map 2003. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2014. Document URL: http://www.zonu.com/images/0X0/2009-09-17-24/Africa-PoliticalMap-2003.jpg from http://www.zonu.com/detail-en/2009-09-17-24/Africa-PoliticalMap-2003.html This map shows all of the current African borders (drawn during the Berlin Conference). I used this on my site as information and data for the viewer. 1. "The Berlin Conference: Need To Know." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. 2. ABC Clio. "World Geography: Understanding a Changing World - Username." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World - Username. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. http://worldgeography.abc-

clio.com/?setcustomercontext=3030&webSiteCode=SLN_WGEO&returnToPage=%2f %3fsetcustomercontext%3d3030&token=5A50B4610846234892E6F0FCB5DFDE04 &casError=False Document URL: http://0-worldgeography.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Analyze/Display/1320407?cid=20&terms=scramble+for+af rica This document is a background essay of the Berlin Conference. It is useful because it gives important background information all from one source. This was also found from ABC Clio, and once again, no author could be identified. "Commentary: Exemplifying the Horror of European Colonization: Leopold's Congo." Commentary: Exemplifying the Horror of European Colonization: Leopold's Congo. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/COMM.7.1.03.HTM This website provides the estimated death tolls in the Congo Free State during the reign of Leopold II. This will be used on my website to demonstrate the horrors of the genocide. "Congo." Creative in College. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2013 Document URL: http://creativeincollege.weebly.com/uploads/5/9/1/3/5913253/3376186.jpg?472 This document is a political cartoon of Leopold’s greed. This will be used on my website as a visual. "Daily Kos." What's the Matter with Africa?. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2014. Document URL: http://walkerw.casdracast.com/blogimages/Africa_OTFord.jpg This map categorizes Africa’s governments into four general groups. This shows some of the struggles Africa is still overcoming as it recovers politically from imperialism. 1. "David Livingstone." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 17 Oct. 2013 2. ABC Clio. "World Geography: Understanding a Changing World - Username." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World - Username. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. http://worldgeography.abcclio.com/?setcustomercontext=3030&webSiteCode=SLN_WGEO&returnToPage=%2f %3fsetcustomercontext%3d3030&token=5A50B4610846234892E6F0FCB5DFDE04 &casError=False Document URL: http://0-worldgeography.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/1320417?terms=livingstone

This document is an overview of David Livingstone’s life and expeditions. This secondary source is taken from ABC Clio, a trustworthy database. Unfortunately, no author of the article could be found. 1. "European Imperialism in Africa (Overview)." World History: The Modern Era. ABCCLIO, 2013. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. 2. ABC Clio. "World History: The Modern Era - Username." World History: The Modern Era - Username. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. <http://worldhistory.abcclio.com/?webSiteCode=SLN_HMOD&returnToPage=%2f&token=5A50B461084623 4892E6F0FCB5DFDE04&casError=False>. Document URL: http://worldhistory.abcclio.com/Topics/Display/1185786?cid=41&terms=congo+free+state This document is, as its title suggests, an overview of imperialism in Africa. This document is a very good summary and serves as an accurate timeline of Africa during the 19th century and in to the 20th. This article does not have a citable author. However, the source, ABC Clio, is a trustworthy source. "Future of Africa in a Globalising World? War & Conflict." Future of Africa in a Globalising World? War & Conflict. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2014. Document URL: http://www.thehack.co.uk/africaindmap.gif This map shows all of the years when each African country gained Independence. I used this on my Aftermath page to show just how little time Africa has had to recuperate and recover from European domination. "Geographic Travels." : Map of Foreign Owned African Farmland. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2014. Document URL: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/JyM1Z2JtF30/UHTB2C8LXhI/AAAAAAAABnA/ERQA_gVH8hE/s1600/africafood map.jpg This map is a map of Africa and all foreign owned farmland. This is used on my Aftermaths page to show the influence of foreign powers on Africa’s economy even today. "How Long Will Africa's Golden Harvest Last?." Vig World. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://www.vigworld.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/arica-gold.jpg This document is a photograph of the gold produced in Africa. This will be used as a visual of some of the resources in Africa. "The Hutu's and the Tutsi's and Belgium Stereotyping." Media's Influence on the Rwandan Genocide. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Dec. 2013.

Document URL: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_BZ8RH7O2PL8/TQgYCKVCMI/AAAAAAAAAAM/f-FVjBkBqkE/s1600/quadro_etnico_tutsi_hutu_twa.jpg This document is a picture of the Hutus and Tutsis. This will be a visual as I explain the conflicts in modern Africa. "Imperialists Divide Nigeria and South Africa." AP Imperialism Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://apimperialismproject.wikispaces.com/file/view/al_conf_berlin_99_1.jpg/569314 16/al_conf_berlin_99_1.jpg This document is a political cartoon of imperialism in Europe. This will be used as a visual on my website. 1. "International Association of the Congo." World History: The Modern Era. ABCCLIO, 2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. 2. ABC Clio. "World History: The Modern Era - Username." World History: The Modern Era - Username. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. <http://worldhistory.abcclio.com/?webSiteCode=SLN_HMOD&returnToPage=%2f&token=5A50B461084623 4892E6F0FCB5DFDE04&casError=False>. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/311945?terms=international+african+associ ation This document is a brief history of the International Association of the Congo, which has given good information about how the Belgian Congo was created. This information provides insight in to Leopold II and his ambitions. This article has no citable author, but it was found on the database ABC Clio, which is a trusted source. 1. "Leopold II." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 16 Nov. 2013 2. ABC Clio. "World History: The Modern Era - Username." World History: The Modern Era - Username. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2013. <http://worldhistory.abcclio.com/?webSiteCode=SLN_HMOD&returnToPage=%2f&token=5A50B461084623 4892E6F0FCB5DFDE04&casError=False>. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/314913?terms=belgian+congo This document is a brief biography of Leopold II of Belgium. This document is useful because it provides information on Leopold’s background as well as his contributions to history. Even though there is no author for this biography, ABC Clio is a trustworthy database. "Les Images Vivantes and Le Cinématographe Enfantin." The Wheel of Life. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2013.

Document URL: http://www.stephenherbert.co.uk/Congo.gif This political cartoon depicts Leopold holding a bag of gold coins while thinking of the workers and slaves in the Congo Free State. This will be used on my website as a visual. "Natural rubber." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Mar. 2014. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. Document URL: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/49/Latex__Hevea_-_Cameroun.JPG This is a picture of a rubber tree. This will be used on my website as a visual example of some of the trade items and natural resources that the Europeans sought (especially Leopold). "South Africa Economy Watch." South Africa Economy Watch. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2014. Document URL: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_ngczZkrw340/TTMcbdUHPHI/AAAAAAAAR3w/kRoeJfpBFg/s1600/GDP%2Bquarterly%2Bannualised.png This picture is a graph of South Africa’s GDP from 2000 to 2010. This is used on the Aftermath page to show the slow recovery of Africa today. "Statistics | Survivors Fund." Statistics | Survivors Fund. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://survivors-fund.org.uk/resources/rwandan-history/statistics/ This website provides the death toll and other statistics during the Rwandan genocide. This will be used to illustrate the damage and violence in Africa during modern times. "Unit Two: Studying Africa through the Social Studies." Exploring Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/students/curriculum/m9/activity8.php This website provides basic evidence and reasons for economic underdevelopment in Africa after the departure of Europeans. I will use this on the Aftermaths section of my site. "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UDHR, Declaration of Human Rights, Human Rights Declaration, Human Rights Charter, The Un and Human Rights." UN News Center. UN, n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml This document outlines the basic human rights. I will use this on my website to enumerate the Leopold’s violations of the human rights.

“Value of Maps." Value of Maps. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2014. Document URL: http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/cartocom/gif/africamap.gif This map was very useful because it displayed some of the factors that affect Africa’s economy today. I used this in the Aftermath page. Media/Other: Hochschild, Adam. "King Leopold Ghost : Top Ten Quotes." Novelguide. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. Document URL: http://www.novelguide.com/king-leopold-ghost/top-ten-quotes I used this quote by Adam Hochschild on my Scramble for Africa page. This quote sums up the European perspective of the scramble for Africa. Leopold II, King "King Léopold II." killer file. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. Document URL: http://www.moreorless.net.au/killers/leopold.html I used one of the quotes on this site on my Berlin Conference page. Leopold’s quote gives the Europeans’ justification for colonizing Africa in 1884. I also used two other quotes from the same page on my site. One of them is on my Leopold II page and shows Leopold’s thoughts as he charged Stanley with his task. The other quote is from the Belgian Parliament and was used on my International Attention page to show the Belgian government’s response to the scandal. Morsi, Mohammed. "Mohammed Morsi quote." BrainyQuote. Xplore, n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. Document URL: http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/m/mohammedmo456110.html I used the quote on my Responsibilities page to show the correlation between rights and responsibilities. Rand, Ayn. "Ayn Rand quote." BrainyQuote. Xplore, n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2014. Document URL: http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/aynrand109451.html I used this website’s quote on my Rights page. I used it to demonstrate the importance of protecting an individual’s rights. Rogers, Will. "Will Rogers quote." BrainyQuote. Xplore, n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. Document URL: http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/w/willrogers386200.html I used the quote on my Rights page to show once again emphasize the essentialness of respecting one’s rights.

"Cinematic Music Short: Sad Piano & Strings." YouTube. YouTube, 16 July 2012. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=euHEh5O7xaY I used this music on my website on one of my pages. ""Cold" - Jorge Méndez (Sad Piano & Violin Instrumental)." YouTube. YouTube, 5 July 2013. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. Document URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pUZeSYsU0Uk&feature=youtu.be I used this music on my site. "The Courage of Neighbors: Stories from the Rwandan Genocide." YouTube. YouTube, 11 Aug. 2011. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. Document URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VaX7vQxNAOk&feature=youtu.be I used the interviews from this video on my Aftermath page (after I cut the clip down to 45 seconds). "Emotional piano music - Lake of Tears."YouTube. YouTube, 13 Dec. 2013. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. Document URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tV6JbG5fUiY&feature=youtu.be This sad music was very fitting and appropriate for my site. "Emotional Piano Violin Music - My Beautiful Silence." YouTube. YouTube, 31 Aug. 2013. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. Document URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1h1h1QPHLLA&feature=youtu.be I used this music on my website. "Emotional Sad Music." YouTube. YouTube, 12 May 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oh6NKK8M2VQ This is one of the pieces of music I used on my site. "Far away - Sad Beautiful Piano Violin Film Music (Original)." YouTube. YouTube, 27 Aug. 2010. Web. 4 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DpH1XigoHD8 This is another video I used for the music on my website.

"The Mad Monarchist: Monarch Profile: King Leopold II of the Belgians." The Mad Monarchist: Monarch Profile: King Leopold II of the Belgians. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. Document URL: http://madmonarchist.blogspot.com/2010/05/monarch-profile-kingleopold-ii-of.html This website provided a quote that Leopold had said. I used it on my Leopold II page as Leopold’s public justification/motive. "Mark Twain quotations - King Leopold." Mark Twain quotations - King Leopold. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. Document URL: http://www.twainquotes.com/Leopold.html I used this site to find two quotes that I used. Both quotes condemned Leopold and denounced what he did in the Congo. "Online MP3 Cutter." Online Audio Cutter. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://mp3cut.net This is the website I used to trim my music down to 45 seconds. "Sad Violin." YouTube. YouTube, 11 Dec. 2008. Web. 7 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gIuotFZnBtk I used the music from this video on my website. "Sparrow - Sad Beautiful Piano Music Calm." YouTube. YouTube, 13 Apr. 2009. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. Document URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C9haTFoGcvk&feature=youtu.be I used the audio from this video for my site. "Survivors tell of horror, faith - Immaculee Ilibagiza." YouTube. YouTube, 19 Dec. 2008. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. Document URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MFl89XOud8&feature=youtu.be This interview and account of the events in Rwanda (1994) was very useful. I used this video by cutting two 45-second clips and putting them on my Aftermath page. "VERY SAD PIANO SONG (this will make you cry)." YouTube. YouTube, 11 Nov. 2012. Web. 4 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mnhr7wn0noE

I used the music from this video on my website. "YouTube to MP3 video conversion tool." Free YouTube to MP3 Video Conversion tool. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://www.video2mp3.net/ This is the website I used to extract audio from the YouTube videos. "YouTube Video Converter and Download - ClipConverter.cc." ClipConverter.cc. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. Document URL: http://www.clipconverter.cc/ I used this site to convert YouTube videos to mp4 so I could shorten the videos to 45 seconds.