You are on page 1of 23

FIZIKMOZAC 2010

FORCES & PRESSURE


3.1 PRESSURE 1. Question 3: Teknik 07 Diagram 3.1 shows a man weight of 500 N sitting on 800 nails and feels no pain although the nails exerted pressure to him. Diagram 3.2 shows the surface area of the tip of the nail

2. Question 5: Kelantan 09 Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show two balloons A and B exerted with the same force.

DIAGRAM 3.1

DIAGRAM 3.2

(a) What is meant by pressure? ............................................................... ....................................................... [1 mark] (b) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2, (i) Which balloon will burst easily? ............................................................... [1 mark] (ii) Compare the pressure exerted on the balloon. ............................................................... [1 mark] (iii) Compare the surface area of finger and needle which in contact with the balloon. .......................................................... ......................................................... [1 mark] (iv) Relate the pressure exerted on the balloon with the surface area ........................................................... [1 mark] (v) What happens to the pressure on the balloon if force exerted is increased? ........................................................... [1 mark]

(a) State the SI unit of pressure? .............................................................. [1 mark] (b) Calculate the pressure exerted on the man in Diagram 3.1

[3 marks]
(c) Its easier to cut through a loaf of bread using a sharp knife than a blunt knife. Explain this situation.

.............................................................. .............................................................. .......................................... [2 marks]

FIZIKMOZAC 2010

3. Question 6: Johor 07 A farmer has as two vehicles with the same mass and the same number of wheels.

(d) A manufacturer of car wheels estimates that the area of a car wheel in contact with the road is about the same as the area of a persons shoe in contact with the ground. A car weighs 10 000 N and a driver weighs 500 N. N (i) Calculate the ratio pressure of car on ground : pressure of driver on ground. The car has 4 tyres and a driver has 2 feet)

Diagram 6.1

Diagram 6.2

(a) Based in the Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2: (i) compare the contact area between the wheels in the Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2. ............................................................... ................................................................ ............................... [1 mark] (ii) compare the weight of the vehicle 1 and vehicle 2. ............................................................... ................... ................................................................ ............................... [1 mark] (b) Which vehicle should the farmer use when driving across his fields when the ground is very soft? Give your reasons. ...................................................................... .................................. .................................................................. ...................................................................... [2 marks] (c) Name the physics concept involved. ................................................. ............................................................... [1 mark] Diagram 5.1 Diagram 5.2 3.2 LIQUID PRESSURE 4. Question 5: SBP 07 Diagram am 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 5 show two dams with different shapes.

[2 marks] (ii) Suggest why it might be a good idea to reduce the pressure of the air in car tyres if the car c is to be driven over soft sand. ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ......................................................... [1 mark]

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 (a) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 (i) Compare the dams in Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2. ........................................................... ........................................................... ........................................................ [1 mark] (ii) Compare the pressure at point A and point B in the lake. Diagram 5.3 ........................................................... .......................................................... .......................... ........................................................... [1 mark] (i) Name the apparatus shown in diagram 5.3. ..................................................... [1 mark] (ii) Give a reason why water flows from the beaker to the cylinder as shown in Diagram 5.3. ..................................................... ..................................................... [1 mark] (iii) In Diagram 5.4, mark the water level in the cylinder when water stops flowing from the beaker to the cylinder.

(b) (i) Based on the answer in (a)(ii), which dam is stronger? ............................................... ........................................................ ........................................................ [1 mark] (ii) Explain the reasons for your answer in (b)(i). ........................................................ ....................................................... ........................................ [ 2 marks ] (c) Diagram 5.3 shows an apparatus used to remove water from a beaker to a cylinder.

[1 mark]

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 5. Question 7: SBP 09 Diagram 7.1 shows a concrete water tank filled with water. (i) What is the factor that causes the water to flow from the concrete tank to the .............................................................. [1 mark] (ii) The flow of water from the concrete tank to the house will stop at level P. Explain why the supply stops? Diagram 7.1 .............................................................. (a) State a factor that affects the water pressure in the tank. .............................................................. [1 mark] (b)(i) Compare the water pressure at P and Q .......................................................... [1 mark]
(ii) Calculate the water pressure at Q. (Density of water = 1000 kg m-3 )

.............................................................. [2 mark] (d) (i) Suggest two modifications that can be done to ensure the water flow continously to the house water tank. .............................................................. .............................................................. [2 mark] (ii) Draw a water tank that can withstand high water pressure .

[2 marks]

(c)

Diagram 7.2 shows water flows from the concrete tank to the house water tank.

[1 mark]

Diagram 7.2

FIZIKMOZAC 2010

3.3 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 6. Question 5: Melaka 09 Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show two mercury manometers in a laboratory. The gas supply in Diagram 5.1 has less pressure than diagram 5.2

[2marks] (iii) what is the total pressure at point W

[1 mark] (iii) state the relationship between pressure at W and the gas pressure

[1 mark] (b) Based on the answers in 5(a)(ii) and 5(a)(iii), write words equation that relate between the atmospheric pressure, mercury pressure and the gas pressure.

[1 mark]

(c) (i) The gas supply is taken out. Describe changes on the height of the mercury column in both Diagrams.

[1 mark]

(ii) Give one reason to your answer in (c)(i). (a) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 (i) state similarities about the magnitude and the direction of pressures Magnitude : Directions:

[1 mark]

FIZIKMOZAC 2010

3.4 PASCALS PRINCIPLE 7. Question 2: Melaka Trial 08 Diagram 2 shows a hydraulic brake system of a car. The cross-sectional sectional areas of the main cylinder nder and the small cylinder are 5 x 10 - 4 m2 and 6.0 x 10 - 4 m2 respectively.

8. Question 3: Kedah 08 Diagram 3.1 shows a model of a hydraulic jack. The force F1 applied on the small piston on R is able to support two loads which are placed on piston S and T.

Diagram 2 (a) State the physics principle involved in Diagram 2. .......................................................... [1 mark] (b) On Diagram 2 show the direction of motions of the main cylinder and the small cylinder. [1 mark] (c) State the relationship between the liquid pressure in the main cylinder and the small cylinder. ............................................. ........................................................... [1 mark] (d) The brake pedal is pressed with a force of 15 N. Calculate the force applied to the small cylinder.

(a) Name the principle used in the hydraulic jack. .. [1 mark] (b) (i) If F1 = 5.0 N, calculate the pressure exerted on piston pi R. [1 mark] (ii) Compare the fluid pressure at S and T to the pressure at R. . [1 mark] (iii) Determine the magnitude of o the force F2 [2 marks]

(c) Give one reason why it is more suitable to use a liquid instead of air as the hydraulic fluid. [2 marks]

[2 marks]

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 ........................................................ [1 mark] 3.5 ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE 9. Question 3: MRSM 09 Diagram 3.1 shows a freely floating hydrometer in water. Diagram 3.2 (c) Diagram 3.2 shows an object which has a weight of 0.25 N fully immersed in water. Its apparent weight is 0.22 N. [Density of water = 1000 kg m-3] (i) What is the buoyant buoy force on the object? [1 mark] (ii) Diagram 3.1 A principle states that: When a body is immersed wholly or partially in a fluid, the buoyant forces acting on the body is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces. (a) (i) Name the principle above. ........................................................... [1 mark] (ii) Mark on Diagram 3.1 the direction of the two forces acting on the hyrdrometer. [1 mark] (b) The hydrometer is removed from water, dried and then placed in oil. (i) Predict the length of the hydrometer that is submerged in oil, compared to length in water ........................................................ [1 mark] (ii) Give a reason for your answer in 3(b)(i). [2 marks] Determine the volume of the object.

10. Question 3: Kedah 09 Diagram 3 shows a block of concrete being lowered to the bottoms of a lake. The volume of the block is 2.5 m3 and its weight is 125 000 N. The density dens of the water in the lake is 1 010 kgm-3.

Diagram 3 (a) State the SI unit for pressure. ...................................................... [1 mark]

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 (b) State one factor that affects the pressure at a point below the surface of a liquid. (c) (i) Calculate the he weight of the water displaced by the block. [2 marks] [ 1 mark ] (iii) compare the weight of water displaced by sphere A and sphere B ........................................................... ................................. [ 1 mark ] (iv) relate the weight of sphere and the weight of water displaced (ii) Calculate the tension, T, in the cable. [2 marks] (v) relate the weight of water displaced and upthrust 11. Question 5: SBP 08 Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show two solid spheres A and B with different density place in the water. ......................................................... ........................................................ [ 1 mark ] (c) Name the physics principle involved in Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2. ............................................................ [ 1 mark ] (c) (a) What is meant eant by density? ............................................................ [ 1 mark ] State one application of physics principle in 5 (c). .............................................................. [ 1 mark ] 12. Question 5: Mid Melaka 09 Diagram 5.1 shows three boxes with different density at stationary state. ........................................................... [ 1 mark ]

(b) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.1, (i) compare the density of sphere A and sphere B ........................................................... [ 1 mark ] (ii) compare the weight of sphere A and sphere B ........................................................... Diagram 5.1

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 (c) Based on the answer in 5(b)(ii), name the physics concept involve. [1 mark] 13. Question 5: Trengganu 07 A fisherman finds that his boat is at different levels in the sea and in the river, although the boat carries the same e load. The density of sea water and river water is 1025 kg m-3 and 1000 kg m-3 respectively.

Diagram 5.2 shows the boxes flo float still when placed in a liquid.

Diagram 5.2 (a) Based on the situation in Diagram 5.1 and the situation in Diagram 5.2, (i) State similarities about the volume and the net force of the boxes. Volume: ................................ Net force of the boxes: ............................................... [2 marks] (ii) Compare the weight of the boxes in ascending order. [1 mark] (b) Observe Diagram 5.2 (i) Describe the position of the boxes in the liquid [2 marks] (ii) (ii) Explain your ur answer in 5(b)(i). [2 marks]

Diagram 5.1(a)

Diagram 5.1(b)

Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 illustrate the situation of the boat in the sea and in the river. (a) What is meant t by density?

.............................................................. [1 mark] (b) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 : (i) Compare the level of the boat in the sea water and in the river water. ..................................................... .......................................... ..................................................... [1 mark] Compare the volume of water displaced by the boat in the sea and in the river ..................................................... ..................................................... ............................... [1 mark] (iii) Compare the density of sea water and river water.

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 ..................................................... ..................................................... [1 mark] (c)(i) Relate the volume of water displaced isplaced to the density of water. .............................................................. .............................................................. [1 mark] (iii) Deduce relationship between weight of the boat and the weight of the water displaced. ........................................................... ........................................................... [1 mark] (d) Name the physics principle that explains the situation above. .............................................................. [1 mark] (e) A submarine can sail on the sea surface and under the sea by using the principle stated in (d). How a submarine on the surface of the sea can submerge? .............................................................. .......................................... ............................................................. [1 mark]
14. Question 7: N9 08

(i)

State one function of plimsoll line? ........................................................ What is the buoyant force acts on the boat. ....................................................... [1 mark]

(ii)

(iii) In the Diagram 7.2, mark the

level of water when the boat enter the river Mouth. [1 mark]

(a) Diagram 7.1 show a boat made from steel floating at the sea. The mass of the boat is 7500 kg.

(iv)

Explain your answer in (a)(iii).

..................................................... ............................. [1 mark] (b) Diagram 7.3 shows a hot air balloon floating stationary in the air.

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 (a) (i) Name the science principle involved in the insecticide sprayer. ........................................................... [1 mark] (ii) Which region experiences low lo pressure? In the box below, tick the correct answer. X (i) State the relationship between the weight of air balloon and the upthrust. ..................................................... ........................ [1 mark] What will happen to the air balloon if the load is dropped? ..................................................... [1 mark] Explain your answer r in (b) (ii). ..................................................... ..................................................... [2 mark]

X [1 mark] (b) State one reason for f your answer in 2 (a) (ii). .......................................................... [1 mark] (c) Describe how the instrument produced a fine spray liquid? ........................................................... ..................................................... [1 mark] 16. Question 3: SBP 08 Diagram 3.1 shows a horizontal tube AB with h both of it ends are closed with rubber stoppers. The tube is also fixed with three vertical tubes X,Y and Z. Water is then poured into the horizontal tube AB.

(ii)

(iii)

3.6 BERNOULLIS PRINCIPLE 15. Question 2: Melaka 08 Diagram ram 2.1 shows an insecticide sprayer.

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 (i) Mark the water level in the vertical tube X,Y and Z. [1 mark]

(ii) State one physical quantity that affected the water level in the above diagram. ........................................................... [1 mark]

Diagram 3.2 17. Question 5: Perak 07 The Diagram 5.1 shows before and when air flow through tube. The Diagram 5.2 shows the situation of the roof of a house before and when high wind blows.

(c) A ventury tube AB now is replaced with the ventury tube shown in diagram 3.2. Water flows uniformly from end A to end B of the tube and it is found that the water level of tube P is at Z. (Density of water = 1000 kgm-3) (i) Compare e the water level in the vertical tube P,Q and R. .......................................................... [1 mark] (ii) Name the principal involve in b(i). ........................................................... [1 mark] (iii) By neglecting atmospheri atmospheric pressure, calculate the pressure caused by the water column at point X.

Before air flows

When air flows

Diagram 5.1

Before air flows

When air flows

Diagram 5.2 [2 marks]

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 (a) What is meant by speed? .......................................................... ........................................................ [1 mark] (b) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2: (i) State two similarities for the situations in Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2. 1. ................................. .............................................. ............................................. 2. .............................................. .............................................. [2 marks] (ii) Compare the air pressure above the roof and below the roof in Diagram 5.2. .................................................... [1 mark] (iii) Relate the speed of the air and the pressure of the air. .................................................... [1 mark] (c) Name the principle involved in 5 (b)(iii). ........................................................... [1 mark] Diagram 9.1 Diagram 9.2 18. Conceptual: Kedah 07 Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2 show how water spurts out from m its container when the valve is opened. In Diagram 5.3, (i) Compare the speed of air at Q and at R. .................................................... [1 mark] (ii) Compare air the pressure at Q and R. ..................................................... [1 mark]

When a liquid is held in a container, it exerts pressure on the container. (d) Diagram 5.3 shows an instrument use to spray an insecticide. (a) What is meant by pressure? [1 mark] (b) With reference to Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, compare the depth of the water in both containers, the rate at which water spurts out and the distance travelled by the water that spurts out.

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 Relate the distance travelled by the water that spurts out to the depth of the water. Hence make a conclusion regarding the relationship between the pressure and the depth of the water. [5 marks] 19. Understanding: Kedah 07 A small bubble of air is released from the bottom of a lake. (i) Explain what happens to the size of bubble as it rises to the surface of the water. [2 marks] (ii) Explain how this change affects the upward motion of the bubble. [2 marks] (ii) Explain why places at high altitude the temperature is colder compare to places at low altitude which is more warmer. [4 marks] 22. Understanding: SBP 07

Diagram 11.2 Diagram 11.2 shows rod A and rod B of different densities are immersed in water. Explain why the rods float in water and why B sinks deeper than A. [4 marks] 23. Understanding: Trengganu 07 Diagram 11.1 shows a small aircraft. Diagram 11.2 shows a cross section of the aircrafts wings.

20. Understanding: Trengganu 07 Diagram 9.2 shows the toothpaste flows out of its tube while squeezing at the bottom end.

DIAGRAM 9.2 Explain how the toothpaste flows out and name a physics principle related to it. [4 marks] 21. Understanding: Perak 07 (i) What is meant by pressure? [1 mark] Diagram 11.1

FIZIKMOZAC 2010

Diagram 11.2 (a) Name the shape of the cross sectional of the aircraft wings. [1 mark]

(b) The aircraft obtains its lift when flying due to a difference in pressure of the air between the upper and bottom sides of the wings. (i) Explain n how this difference in pressure is produced. [3 marks] (i) Name the principle involved in your answer to(b)(i) [1 mark]

DIAGRAM 11.1 (i) What is the meaning of buoyant force ? [1 mark ] Explain why the balloon and the load float ? [4 marks ]

(ii)

(c) If the mooring rope cut off, the balloons will rise up. 24. Teknik 07 Diagram 11.1 shows a gas balloon, moored ored with a load at the Book Festival. The mass of the balloon is 5 kg. The balloon and the load float at a certain height and the buoyant force acting on the balloon is 250 N (i) Calculate the resultant force of the balloon (ii) Calculate te the initial acceleration of the balloon (iii) what is your assumption in your calculation in c(ii) [5 marks] Table 11.2 shows the characteristics of four sets, A, B , C and D of balloons, ropes and loads . Set Type of gas filled and density Helium (0.17 kg m-3) Mass of loads /kg 5 Maximum Tension allowed / N 300

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 B C D Hydrogen (0.09 kg/m3) Helium (0.17 kg m-3) Nitrogen (1.25 kg/m3) 20 20 5 250 300 100
M
Large Liquid Large Large Low system

As a supervisor , you are assigned to investigate the characteristics of set balloons, ropes and loads that could be used for the purpose. Base on the table 11.2; (i) Explain the suitable characteristics of the balloons, ropes and loads so that it can be used (ii) Decide which set is most suitable to be used at the festival. (iii) Explain why the others set is not suitable [10 marks] 25. Making decision problem: Perak 07 You are asked to investigate the characteristics of tractors and choose a tractor that can do heavy works, an example of a tractor is shown in Diagram 11.2.

Large

Liquid

Large

Large

High

Large

Gas

Large

Small

High

Q
R

Mediu m Large

Liquid

Large

Mediu m Mediu m

Low

Liquid

Large

High

(i)

(ii)

Explain the suitability of the characteristics of the tractors used to do heavy works. Determine the most suitable tractor and give reasons for you choice. [10 marks]

26. Making decision: SBP 07 Diagram 11.1 shows an apparatus which is used to determine the density of a liquid. These apparatus is an application of Archimedes Principle.

Diagram 11.2
Type of tract or

Characteristics of tractors
Size of tyre Physic al state of fluids used in hydrau lic Mass Base area Cent re of gravi ty

Diagram 11.1

FIZIKMOZAC 2010

You are required to build a hydrometer that can be used to measure densities of concentrated acids. Table 11.1 shows the characteristics of 4 types of hydrometers L, M, N and O.

L M N O

27. Making Descision: Trengganu 07 (a) Table 11 shows characteristic of four design of the aircraft wings.

Hydrometer

Plastic Plastic Glass Glass

Based on the table 11.1; (ii) Explain the suitable characteristics of the hydrometer so that it can be used to measure different densities of acids. (iii) Decide which hydrometer is most suitable and give reasons. [10 marks]

Type of material of hydroeter

Diameter of capillary tube/ cm

Density of shots/ kgm-3

Diameter of bottom bulb/ cm

0.5 2.0 0.5 2.0

1000 1300 9800 8000

1.0 3.0 3.0 1.0

You are requested to choose a suitable wing to be installed with the body of the aircraft. By referring rring to the information given in Table 11, explain lain the suitability of each characteristic and suggest the most suitable wing to be installed with the body of the aircraft. [10 marks] (b) An aircraft ft installation department chooses wing P to be installed with its aircrafts which has maximum mass 800 kg. (i) If the air pressure below the wing is more than the air pressure above the wing by 500 N m-2, calculate the force that exerted from below of the wing. [2 marks]

(ii)

Determine the resultant force and its direction that exerted to the wing of the aircraft. [2 marks]

(iii) Calculate the vertical acceleration of the aircraft. [1 mark]

28. Qualitative problem: Kedah 07

FIZIKMOZAC 2010
Diagram ram 9.3 and Diagram 9.4 show the side view of two different models of a dam made from bricks and concrete.

[10 marks]

Diagram 9.3

Diagram 9.4

30. Quantitative problem: Perak 07 Diagram 11.1 is used to study the effect of altitude on the magnitude of atmospheric. The atmospheric pressure can be measured by a Fortin barometer. The density of the mercury used in the Fortin barometer ometer is 13 600 kg m-3.

(i) Which model is preferable? Explain your answer. [2 marks] (ii) Suggest two uses of the water in the dam. [2 marks] (iii) Explain the modifications that need to be made to the dam to enable it to store more water safely. [6 marks]

29. Qualitative problem : Trengganu 07 Diagram 9.3 shows a hidraulic jack which can lift up a maximum mass of 1 metric tonne.

Diagram 11.1 What is the (i) atmospheric pressure at the sea level in pascal (Pa)? (ii) atmospheric pressure experienced by the aircraft in pascal (Pa)? atmospheric pressure experienced by the satellite in pascal (Pa)? [5 marks]

(iii)

DIAGRAM 9.3 Using suitable physics concepts, explain the modification on that needs to be done to the: i. size of the piston, ii. material of the body, iii. type of liquid used, iv. handle and v. ability to reset the piston position easily of the hidraulic jack to enable it to lift mass of greater quantity. 31. Section B: SBP 08 Diagram 9.1 shows a hot air balloon carry up the loads at a certain height in the morning and diagram 9.2 shows the same hot air balloon carry up the loads at a certain height in the afternoon. a This hot air balloon used helium gas at the same temperature in both situation. In the morning ning In the afternoon

FIZIKMOZAC 2010

By considering the ship in Diagram 9.3, give some suggestion how you would design a submarine that can submerge in a deep sea. In your explanation, emphasise emphasi on the following aspects ( i ) the shape of the submarine. ( ii ) material used for its body. (a) (i) What is meant by density? [1 mark] (ii) Using diagrams 9.1 and 9.2, compare the density of the air, the load that can be carry up by the hot air balloon and the height of the hot air balloon from the ground. Relate the buoyant force with the density of the air to make a deduction regarding the relationship between the density of the air and the weight of the load carry up by the hot air balloon. [5 marks] ( iii) additional component to control its buoyant force and to observe the sea surroundings. ( iv) safety features tures for the crew of the submarine.

[10 marks] 32. Section B: Trengganu 08


(a) Diagram 9.1(a), Diagram 9.2(b) and Diagram 9.2(c) show a rock hung on a spring balance in air, immersed in water and cooking oil respectively. The reading eading of the spring balance for each situation is as shown in Diagram 9.1.

(b) Why does an iron nail sink in water but a cargo ship with a huge mass floats? [4 marks] (c) Diagram 9.3 shows a ship.

FIZIKMOZAC 2010
Using suitable physics concepts, explain the required modification needed in designing a barge that can carry more and heavier goods, move faster and safe in fresh and salt water. You can emphasise on the following aspects in your modification; i. material used ii. iii. plimsoll line shape and size of the barge

(i) What is meant by weight? [1 mark]

(ii) Using Diagram 9.1(a), Diagram 9.1(b) and Diagram 9.1(c), compare the spring balance reading, eading, the weight lost of the rock and the density of the water and the cooking oil. Relating the weight lost and the density, deduce a relevant physics concept. [4 marks] (iii) Name the physics principle that explains the above situations. [1 mark] (b) Diagram 9.2 shows a copper block and a bowl shape copper sheet of same mass. Explain why the copper block sink in water but the bowl shape e copper sheet floats on water. [4 marks]

[10 marks]

33. Section C: Kelantan 08 Diagram 11.1 shows two boats of the same weights floating on the surface of water in the sea and in the river.

(a)(i) What is meant by weight? [1 mark] (iii)Explain Explain why the boat is able to float? [1 mark] (iv)Explain Explain why the sinking levels of the boats are difference in the river and in the sea. [3 marks]
(c) Diagram 9.3 shows a barge used to transport goods from fresh water port to the ship anchored away from the seaside.

(a) If the volume of the boat that sinks in sea water ater is 250 mm3 and the density of sea water is 1 080 kgm-3, calculate (i) Up thrust which acts on the boat. [3 marks] (ii) The volume of water displaced when the boat is in the river. [density of river water = 1 000 kgm-3] [2 marks]

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 (b) Diagram 11.2 shows the specifications of four hydrometers P, Q, R and S Determine the most suitable hydrometer to be used to measure the density of an acid solution. [10 marks] 34. Section C: N9 08 Diagram 11.1 shows a machine controlled by a worker to dump soil. A hydraulic raulic system helps to move the bucket containing soil. (ii)

Long and small stem Glass wall Bulb of diameter 6 cm Lead shoots

long and small stem Plastics wall Bulb of diameter 3 cm vacuum

(a) What is meant by pressure? pressure [1 mark ] (b) Using a concept of pressure in liquid, explain why the hydraulic system in this machine is known as a force multiplier. [4 marks]

Short and small Stem Glass wall Bulb of diameter 6 cm Vacuum

short and small stem Aluminium wall Bulb of di diameter 3 cm Lead shoots

(c) Diagram 11.2 shows a hydraulic jack lifting the back ack portion of the car.

You are asked to measure the density of an acid solution. (i) Study hydrometers P, Q,R and S in diagram 11.2 and explain the suitability of each features to determine the density ensity of acid solution

Table 11.3 shows four type of liquid, K, L, M, and N, with different

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 specifications. You are required to determine the most suitable liquid that can be used as a hydraulic fluid in the hydraulic jack. Study the specifications of all the four types of liqiud from the following aspects: i) Boiling point of the liquid ii) Specific heat capacity of liquid iii) Density of liquid iv) Rate of vaporation of liquid [10 marks] (d) A man of mass 60 kg walks on snow wearing snow shoes. His feet will sink into the snow if the pressure exerted exceeds 500 Pa. (i) What is the weight of the man? (ii) Calculate the minimum area of each snow shoe so that he will not sink into the snow. [5 marks] Hot air balloon P Small balloon, volume = 800 m3
Features - Type of ballon fabric: Synthetic nylon - Temperature of flame: 100C

Hot air balloon Q Large balloon Volume: 2500 m3

Features - Type of ballon fabric: Synthetic nylon - Temperature of flame: 120C

35. Section C: Kedah 08 (a) (i) State Archimedess principle. [1 mark] (ii) Explain why a balloon filled with helium gas rises up in the air. [4 marks] (b) Diagram 11.1 shows four hot air balloon, P,Q, R and S with different textures. You are required to determine the most suitable hot air balloon which is able to carry three or four people to a higher altitude in a shorter time. Study the features of all the four hot air balloons from the following aspects: - The size of the balloon - The number of the burners - The type of the fabric of the balloon - The temperature of the air in the balloon. Explain the suitability of the aspects. Justify your choice.

Hot air balloon R Large balloon Volume: 2500 m3

Features - Type of ballon fabric: Canvas - Temperature of flame: 60C

Hot air balloon S Small balloon Volume: 800 m3

Features - Type of ballon fabric: Canvas - Temperature of flame: 80C

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 [10 marks]

(c) Diagram 11.3 shows a cylindrical glass tube of uniform cross sectional area of 2 cm2. The glass tube contains lead shots and floats upright in water.

36. Quatitative problem: SBP 07 Diagram 11.3 shows a boat which has a safety limit line, L. The volume of the boat under the line L is 4 m3. The mass of the boat is 250 kg. [density of water : 1000 kgm-3]

Diagram (i) Calculate the volume of water displaced by the boat. (ii) What is the maximum load that can be carried safely by the boat? [ 5 marks]

The density of water is 1 g cm (i) Calculate the total mass of the glass tube and the lead shots. (ii) The tube is then placed in another liquid of different density. Determine the minimum density of liquid for the tube to float in it. [5 marks]

-3

[ 5 m a r