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19(1), 89–95, 2008
Characterization of Fe-Cr-Al2O3 Composites Fabricated by Powder Metallurgy Method with Varying Weight Percentage of Alumina
Saidatulakmar Shamsuddin1*, Shamsul Baharin Jamaludin2, Zuhailawati Hussain3 and Zainal Arifin Ahmad3
Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia 2 School of Materials Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Jejawi, Arau, Perlis, Malaysia 3 School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Kampus Kejuruteraan, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia *Corresponding author: email@example.com
Abstract: This study focused on fabricating and characterizing composites of ironchromium alloy reinforced with 5–25 wt. % of alumina particles fabricated using powder metallurgy method. The diffraction patterns of X-Ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the influence of varying weight percentage of alumina. Comparisons on the mechanical properties are also being made on the unreinforced iron matrix (0 wt. %). The compatibility between matrix and reinforcement was indicated from the microstructure examination showing homogeneous distribution of alumina particles in the alloy matrix. Bulk density and porosity of the composites were calculated using standard Archimedean testing. Micro-hardness was measured using micro-Vickers hardness instrument. The data obtained showed that the 20 wt. % alumina produced the highest hardness reading. Keywords: iron, chromium, alumina, composites, powder metallurgy Abstrak: Kajian ini tertumpu kepada fabrikasi dan pencirian komposit aloi besikromium ditetulangi dengan 5–25 peratus berat serbuk alumina. Komposit difabrikasi menggunakan kaedah metalurgi serbuk. Corak pembelauan XRD menunjukkan pengaruh peratus berat alumina yang berbeza. Perbandingan terhadap ciri-ciri mekanikal juga dilakukan bagi matriks besi tanpa tetulang (0 peratus berat). Kesesuaian antara matriks dan tetulang telah diperhatikan dari kajian mikrostruktur yang menunjukkan taburan serbuk alumina adalah homogen di dalam matriks aloi. Ketumpatan pukal dan keliangan komposit dihitung menggunakan ujian Archimedes. Mikro-kekerasan ditentukan menggunakan peralatan kekerasan mikro-Vickers. Data yang diperolehi menunjukkan 20 peratus berat serbuk alumina menghasilkan bacaan kekerasan tertinggi. Kata kunci: besi, kromium, alumina, komposit, metalurgi serbuk
Metal matrix composites of iron reinforced with hard ceramic particles are of interest due to several advantages in terms of mechanical properties and easy fabrication. These materials are used in the aerospace, aircraft, automotive
10 wt. 15 wt. %. The same . XRD-Bruker AXS D8 Advance was used for the identification of phases. % of chromium (Cr) was added as alloying element to give better corrosion resistance. The reinforcement resulted in higher micro-Vickers hardness reading compared to the composite without reinforcement. which is competitive because of its low cost. 2. % alumina. MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS The composites were prepared by powder metallurgy route. HM-114 Mitutoyo Hardness Testing Machine was used to determine the micro-Vickers hardness value. %. %. Iron matrix composites reinforced with alumina particles are interesting candidates as wear resistance materials such as brake disc.4–7 This study aims to fabricate iron matrix composites reinforced with alumina particles and to characterize the properties of the composites. % alumina produced the highest micro-Vickers hardness value. The bulk density and apparent porosity of each of the composites was determined using the Archimedean principle according to ASTM B311-93. The parameters studied were based on varying weight percentage of alumina particles. Scanning elektron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) from JEOL JSM-6460LA were used to reveal the microstructures and the presence elements. % of stearic acid as a binder were blended for 30 min at 250 rpm in a drum shape plastic container to prevent segregation due to free-fall and vibration during mixing. ability to produce composites with high volume fraction.1–3 The technique that has consistently produced higher property composites has been powder metallurgy. The mixed powder was poured into a die of 10 mm diameter and uni-axially pressed at a pressure of 750 MPa. % and 25 wt. 20 wt. it shows that composites reinforced with 20 wt. The prepared green compacts were sintered in vacuum furnace at a temperature of 1100°C for two hours with 10°C/min heating rate. 5 wt. 3. high productivity and possibility to fabricate components with complex geometry. 12 wt. % of alumina particles. the hardness also increased until the optimum value of 20 wt.8 The initial powders of the matrix alloy. Characterizations of raw powders were carried out using SEM analysis to study the surface morphology and particle size of the respective powders. As the weight percentage of alumina is increased. From the experimental results observed in Figure 2. chromium and alumina raw powder and their particles sizes respectively. The samples were prepared based on 0 wt. the reinforcement and 2 wt.Characterization of Fe-Cr-Al2O3 Composites 90 and many other manufacturing and industrial fields. %. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Figure 1 shows the scanning electron micrographs of iron.
A uniform distribution of reinforcement becomes impossible when the content of reinforcement is higher because of inadequate ratio of the surface areas of matrix alloy particles and reinforcement particles. Consequently. For higher reinforcement content. Figure 3 shows the SEM photomicrographs of the composites at different weight percentage of reinforcement. 19(1). (a) (b) (c) Figure 1: SEM micrograph of raw powders and their respective particle sizes.31 μm). (b) chromium powder (24. 2008 91 pattern of experimental results is observed in evaluating the percentage of thickness shrinkage.Journal of Physical Science. Vol. (a) Iron powder (5. % reinforcement as shown in the microstructure of Figure 3(f). . %. It increased correspondingly until 20 wt. 89–95.83 μm). % alumina and then it started to decrease. reinforcement clusters are observed but the distribution of reinforcement is quite homogeneous.9 This phenomenon is obvious in a composite with 25 wt. and (c) alumina powder (13. A sufficient uniform reinforcement distribution is observed when the weight percentage of reinforcement is 5 wt. increasing the weight percentage of alumina resulted in a decreased in the percentage of bulk density but the percentage of porosity is increased.53 μm).
5 3 1 .7 7 4 4 .12 4.2 1 . 5 1 880.12 .81 17.86 0.51 H a r d n e s s (–3 H V) % Bulk Density (gcm ) 6.11 19. 7 2 7 5 .V ic k e rs MicroVickers (HV) 69.8 3 6 0 .6 1. 6of 8 Alumina 1 .1 1 1 9 .5 4 % B u lk D e n s it y 6 .9 6 8 7 .774 4.3 ) Physical Unit Physical Unit % Shrinkage % P o r o sit y % Sh r in k a g e 50. . 3 2 % Porosity 5.53 1 4 .34 86. Al2O3 Cr Cr Fe Fe (a) (a) (b) (b) Figure 3: SEM micrographs of the composites at varying weight percentage of alumina (a) 0%. 9 7 1 91.32 5. (b) 5%. 3 4 86.16 0 .7 1 0 . (d) 15%.96 87. 1 5 3 5 .1 2 1 Percentage .56 89.8 1 1 7 . (c) 10%.54 5 .6 8 8 6 .83 .68 5 .P h y s i cPhysical a l P r oProperties p e r t i e sofoComposites f C o m po s i te s 10 0 100 990 0 880 0 770 0 660 0 550 0 440 0 330 0 220 0 110 0 0 0 A0 A5 A10 A15 A 20 A 25 A0 A5 A10 A15 A20 A25 6 9 .6 15.71 ( gc m .836 14.727 5.1 2 4 .1 6 M ic r Hardness o .2 1 1.8 3 1.153 5.5 6 8 9 .68 8 6 .971 9.8 6 Weight W e i g h t P e rce n ta g e o f A l u m i n a Figure 2: Experimental results of composites properties. (e) 20% and (f) 25%.
19(1). as shown in Figure 2. The peaks have been identified as belonging to the phases of the iron. 2008 93 Al2O3 Fe Cr Al2O3 Cr Fe (b) (c) Al2O3 Al2O3 Cr (d) (d) Fe Fe (e) (e) Figure 3: (continued) (f) (f) The reinforcement clustering depends on the reinforcement concentration. chromium and alumina. chromium and corundum. . The effect of reinforcement clustering on the composite is a decrease in the bulk density and an increase in porosity. 89–95. the optimum concentration of reinforcement is 20 wt. Vol. It was noted that as the weight percentage of reinforcement increases. From the experimental observations. the intensity of corundum’s peak becomes stronger. % of alumina particles. XRD phase analysis of the composite is shown in Figure 5.Journal of Physical Science. Figure 4 shows the EDX analysis of the composites to confirm the existence of iron.
End: 100.000 ° .St Operations: Background 1.A15 .RAW .000.A20 .File: A10.d x by: 1.5406 .0 mm . %.Cr .RAW . 4. Higher weight percentage of reinforcements resulted in clustering of the reinforcement in .5406 .Scale A0 .004 ° .000 ° . The varying weight percentage of alumina particles studied have an effect on the final physical properties of the composites namely the density.File: A5.88 00-010-0173 (I) .WL: 1.Chromium .Start: 10.File: A0.8 01-085-1336 (C) .A5 .a 2.1.End: 100.End: 100.1.d x by: 1.WL: 1.H.000 | Import Y + 10.File: A 25. .004 ° .004 ° . CONCLUSION Composites powders of Fe-Cr-Al2O3 have been fabricated by powder metallurgy route.Type: 2Th/Th locked .1. Experimental data showed that the optimum weight percentage of reinforcement in the matrix is 20 wt.RAW .File: A15.000 ° .000.Y: 2.Y: 11.Start: 10.000.0 mm .Start: 10.Start: 10.000.000 | Import Y + 30.Characterization of Fe-Cr-Al2O3 Composites 94 Figure 4: EDX diffractogram of the composites showing the presence of elements and oxygen.034 Operations: Background 1.RAW . (b) 5%.b 2.88494 .End: 100.034 Operations: Background 1.1. (d) 15%.End: 100.a 2.d x by: 1.RAW .000.5406 .0 mm .Type: 2Th/Th locked .alpha-Fe .25 % .Step: 0.000 | Import Y + 40.004 ° .A 25 .Type: 2Th/Th locked .004 ° .000 | Import Y + 20.RAW .Type: 2Th/Th locked . porosity and hardness.034 ° Operations: Background 1.00 % .1.034 ° .0 mm .000 ° .86700 .Corundum.Ste Operations: Background 1.Step time: 35 Operations: Background 1.A10 .File: A 20.Al2O3 . Cr and Al2O3 in the composite at varying weight percentage of alumina (a) 0%.Type: 2Th/Th locked .1.Y: 74.axes Figure 5: XRD diffractogram showing the phases of Fe.Iron .WL: 1.Cubic .Rhombo. shrinkage.Step: 0.004 ° . .000 ° .Cubic .b 2.000 | Import Y + 50.Step: 0. (e) 20% and (f) 25%. . 111000 10000 9000 8000 Lin (Counts) 7000 11000 10000 9000 8000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 10 Lin (C ounts) 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 10 20 20 30 30 40 40 50 50 60 60 70 70 80 80 90 90 100 2-Theta .Step: 0.End: 100.11 % .000.000 | Import 03-065-4899 (C) . (c) 10%.Start: 10.000 ° . syn .Type: 2Th/Th locked .0 mm .Start: 10.
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