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This chapter presents basic principles related to eddy current technique interpretations and applications. The depth of presentation is oriented to the eddy current NDT specialists, not to the personnel responsible for the design of initial eddy current testing systems. The reader should realize that each test situation is a separate eddy current design problem. This problem is solved by designing an eddy current testing system for the particular test situation. Once the system is designed and testing procedure are established, the task becomes one of performing eddy current testing in accordance with the established and approved procedures. This is the task of the NDT specialists.
1. DEFINITION OF EDDY CURRENTS
ny eddy current is defined as a circulating electrical current induced in a conducting article by an alternating magnetic field. s the magnetic field alternates, so does the eddy current !reverses". This eddy current flow is limited to the area of the inducing magnetic field. #igure $%& illustrates a typical eddy current induced in an article by a test coil on the surface of the article. Note that eddy current travel parallel to the surface.
Figure 2-1: Eddy Curren ! in Ar i"#e 13
2. SYSTE$ EDDY CURRENT
s shown in figure $%$, eddy current testing is a nondestructive testing system which applies a testing medium to an article and through the article's reaction to the testing medium obtains an output indication.
Figure 2-2: Eddy Curren Sy! e%
&. SYSTE$ ELE$ENTS
The basic elements of such a system, as shown in #igure $%(, are a test coil, a generator, and an indicator.
Figure 2-&: E#e%en ! '( Eddy Curren Sy! e% )ince the NDT specialist is interested primarily in the test coil application and the output indication, we will e*amine these elements more closely.
a. TEST COIL. The basic working of the element of the eddy current sensing system is a test coil. )ome common test coil terns are+ &. $)gne i" (ie#d:s an alternating current flows through the test coil, a corresponding electromagnetic filed is generated. This alternating magnetic filed induces a flow of eddy currents within the article. $. A*!'#u e C'i#:single coil used to measure bulk article characteristics e.g., conductivity, dimension, permeability, etc. (. Di((eren i)# C'i#:- The term applied to the use of two coils !usually", that electrically oppose each other. ,ulk characteristics of the article will cancel out, but small defects will show a difference between coils. -. S+),e:- The test coil's geometry establishes the magnetic field required to give the ma*imum response to the required test. .. Sur()"e "'i# 'r ,r'*e:- The term used for those coils designed to be applied on the surface to the articles. /. In!ide di)%e er "'i#:- The term used for those coils which are designed to be inserted within a specific cavity configuration such as interior of tubing, drilled holes, etc. 0. En"ir"#ing "'i# !feed through"+% The term used for those coils designed to be placed around the article. b. INDICATORS. 1ddy current testing can be divided into three broad area of presentations+ &. $e er:- This method uses the impedance approach. $. C) +'de R)y Tu*e:This method uses the phase analysis approach. (. S ri, Re"'rder:This method uses the modulation analysis approach.
II. FACTORS AFFECTING EDDY CURRENT TESTING 1- GENERAL
The primary problem is eddy current testing, more so than in any other form of non%destructive testing, is the large number of known or unknown variables which appear in the output indication. These variables permit, limit and2or restrict the use of eddy current testing. t the same time they demand the development of the highly specialized eddy current equipment, designed for the separation of variables of interest from all others. The following paragraphs review these variables, identifying their characteristics as related to eddy current testing.
a. Gener)#:- One of the main variables in eddy current testing is conductivity. This variable permits screening of certain materials based upon their, conductivity+ the detecting of changes in chemistry, 3attice distortion and dislocation, heat treatment , hardness, discontinuities, etc. b. De(ini i'n '( C'ndu" i/i y:- 4onductivity is the measure of the ability of electron to flow through the atomic lattice of a material. The higher the conductivity, the greater the number of electrons which can pass through the material in a given amount of time. 1ach element or material has a unique conductivity value, e.g., 4opper, silver and gold have high conductivities, whereas, carbon has a very low conductivity. c. Eddy Curren 0 E#e" ri")# C'ndu" i/i y Re#) i'n!+i,:- n eddy current is a flow of electrons. The amount of electron flow through electrically conductive materials is directly related to the conductivity of that material. 5f the conductivity increases, the flow of eddy current increases. 4onversely if the conductivity decrease, the flow of eddy current decreases. d. C'ndu" i/i y 0 Re!i! )n"e Re#) i'n!+i,:- 6esistance is defined as the opposition to the flow of electrical current !electrons". Often the term resistance is used rather than the term conductivity. One is the reciprocal of the other. #or e*ample one can say that an increase in conductivity is the same as a decrease in resistance. Or a decrease in resistance is an increase in conductivity.
e. C'ndu" i/i y E1,re!!ed in Ter%! '( IACS: % 4onductivity can be e*pressed in terms of the 5nternational nnealed 4opper )tandard !5 4)". This standard is based on a specific grade of high purity 4opper, which is defined as having an electrical conductivity of &77 percent. Other material as defined as a percentage of this standard, e.g., pure aluminum has an 5 4) if //8% alloy this aluminum with copper and the 5 4) will change to an other value, e.g., .78. f. $e)!ure%en '( C'ndu" i/i y:- Direct measurement of electrical conductivity for eddy current is a time consuming task. 5t involves directing an oscillating magnetic filed into a material perpendicular to its surface. This oscillating magnetic filed causes oscillatory motion of the electrons in the material. The number of electrons and the distance they travel during a single cycle is dependent on the electrical conductivity of the article. The moving electrons in turn generate a countering or opposite magnetic filed perpendicular to the article's surface and decreases the intensity of magnetic field. 1lectronic circuitry is provided to measure the change in intensity of the directed magnetic filed. )uch a unit is calibrated to read in units of electrical conductivity. 1ddy currents provide a means for accurately measuring the comparative conductivity of a material. ll other factors being equal, the flow of eddy currents is directly related to the material's conductivity. 5t thus becomes possible to manufacture equipment which contains a scale marked in terms of the 5 4) percentage. )uch conductivity testers provide a means of measuring conductivity directly in terms of this percentage. Test procedure can be written which especially acceptable conductivity by this percentage. g. .)ri)*#e A((e" ing C'ndu" i/i y:- 9any variables affect an article's conductivity. This is both an advantage and a limitation. ctually there are so many variables that affect conductivity that measurement is a problem. n accurate eddy current test requires isolation of the one variable required and elimination of the others from the test indicator. :ariables which affect conductivity are+
ny pure basic element has a conductivity determined by its perfect atomic lattice and thermal motion of the atom. Thermal motion of these
atoms hinders movement of electrons through the material by adding additional obstacles. Different elements are made up of, varying numbers of atoms which are arranged in variety of orders thereby resulting in various types of building block composing the elements, e.g., 4opper, 5ron, 4obalt, etc. This difference between elements 3attices provides the prime variable for determining conductivity.
Figure 2-2: Pure E#e%en L) i"e S ru" ure
ALLOY CO$POSITION0 OR I$PURITY CONTENT
5t is possible to identify base metals by the conductivity of their lattice structure however since base metals are rarely used as such, it is more useful to the various alloys of base metals than to identify the base metals themselves. These alloys are combinations of impurities !other metals chemical elements" and a base metal. ;hen impurities are added lattice structure destroying the normal order and altering the pure conductivity of the base metal. !#igure $%.." 1ach impurity or combination has an individual effect on the conductivity of the base metal. The conductivity of the resultant alloy is a collective value which is directly related to the chemical 2 metallic composition of the alloy. lloy composition of certain alloys may be determined by conduction where alloying elements increases or decreases the conductivity of the alloy.
Figure 2-3: I%,uri y in L) i"e A '%
&-. HEAT TREAT$ENT
During the heat treatment a redistribution of the elements is made in the material as shown in #igure $%/, The degree to which they go into solution is dependent upon the temperature and time. Too low a temperature and too short a time will result in the incomplete solution of the hardening elements in, for e*ample, aluminum. This will in turn result in low physical properties and unsatisfactory aging characteristics. Too high a temperature can cause an equally drastic metallurgical reaction, e.g., e*cessive grain size< these changes can often be monitored by conductivity values which have established for the specific alloy after solidification.
Figure 2-4: He) Tre) A((e" 'n E#e%en !
The most critical aspect of heat treating is the quenching operation. delay in quenching, improper quenching temperature, agitation, etc., can result in the freezing of the desirable elements !constituents" in solution resulting in adverse metallurgical properties.
3- LATTICE DISTORTION0DISLOCATION
During any cold working operation a degree of lattice distortion and dislocation takes place. !#igure $%0", this mechanical process changes the location, size and shape of the grain within the material. )uch dislocation increases the hardness of the material thereby changing the conductivity value for the material being tested.
4- LATTICE DEFECTS
ny defect in the lattice of the article due to hardness, stressing, radiation, etc., directly alters the conductivity of the article, t times this can be used as a basis for measuring 3attice altering conditions.
Figure 2-6: L) i"e Di! 'r i'n
definite relationship e*ists between the temperature and electrical conductivity of a material. s shown by the #igure $%=, a temperature increase will result in an increase !swelling" of the lattice structure. This increased size of the lattice structure and thermal motion of the atoms will decrease the conductivity of the material. ;here the conductivity value is critical and tolerance is small, the temperature of the article and control article should be specified.
Figure 2-7: L) i"e S8e##ing
The flow of eddy current within the article is affected by the conductivity in the area near the test coil. ny discontinuity in this area will alter the eddy current flow. !figure $%>". Discontinuities, such as inclusions, cracks, porosity, affect the eddy current flow in that local area and will cause a decrease in electrical conductivity.
Figure 2-9: Di! 'r i'n '( Eddy Curren :)/e P) ern
). Gener)# 5n performing eddy current testing. 5t is important to know whether the article is magnetic or nonmagnetic. The difference between a magnetic material and a non%magnetic material is the relative ease with which the magnetic domains align themselves and is a factor called ?permeability.@ Aermeability has a much greater effect on the test coil than does conductivity. Therefore, its presence can mask all other measurements. The permeability factor can be suppressed or made constant by applying a D4 bias to maintain alignment of magnetic domains.
*. $)gne i" D'%)in The degree of individual magnetic response will vary widely from nonmagnetic to magnetic materials. 9agnetism occurs at the atomic level. The planetary spin of the electrons around the nucleus, and the off%balance condition in the incomplete shell, together within their specific dimensional characteristics, create a magnetic moment !a measure of the magnetizing force". The movement of the inner atoms is held parallel by quantum mechanical forces, e.g., planetary bodies are held in position because of a like force. The atoms of a metal showing magnetic characteristics are grouped into regions called domains. domain in the smallest knows permanent magnet. 5n nonmagnetic materials an equal number of electrons spin clockwise and counter clockwise about their a*is. This results in no internal motion and no noticeable magnetic domain. 5n magnetic materials more electrons spin in one direction than in the other. The unbalanced condition of electron spin creates a magnetic moment which makes the atom a small magnet. 5n unmagnetized magnetic materials, the domains are randomly oriented and neutralize or produce no observable magnetism. !#igure $%&7, view ". )ubBect ferromagnetic materials to an e*ternal magnetic field and the randomly oriented magnetic domains start to align themselves so that their magnetic moments combine with the applied filed. !#igure $%&7, view ,". 9aterials having a high permeability, such as iron, nickel and cobalt, retain only a small domain alignment when the e*ternal filed is removed. Cowever, materials with low permeability, such as 3N54O !aluminum, nickel, iron alloy" require a stronger e*ternal force to established domain alignment. These materials will retain a much higher percentage of domain alignment after removing the e*ternal force !#igure $% &7, view c".
Figure 2-1<: $)gne i" D'%)in
". De(ini i'n '( ,er%e)*i#i y: Aermeability is the willingness of a material to conduct magnetic flu* lines and is defined as the ratio of the materials flu* density !," to the test coils magnetizing force !C". The symbol mu !D" is used to designate the terms permeability. )ince !," is larger than !C", permeability will be greater than one. !#igure $%&&".
Figure 2-11: Per%e)*i#i y 5t's 5nteresting to note some selected values for permeability. They can range from appro*imately one to many thousand. k%9onel wrought 5ron high silicon steel Note+ )ince &E $,777 >,777 Aermeability of air D F &.7 >,777
;0H F &.7
1- ; INCREASES AS H INCREASES: Aermeability is often
described by the use of a graph as shown in figure $%&$. The horizontal scale represents the coil's magnetizing force C. )ince this force reverses itself !O to C then C to O to C'" the scale is represented by the values C and C'. The vertical scale represents the material's flu* density ,. gain, 25
since the flu* reverse its direction as it reverses the scale is shown as , and ,'. The initial curve O to , represents the initial application of the coil's magnetizing force to the material. s shown by the curve , increases as C increases until the material is magnetically saturated. #or a magnetic material, equal changes in magnetic force !or 4" do not produce equal changes in flu* density !,". This can be seen in #igure $%&$
Figure 2-12: F#u1 Den!i y 5f the magnetizing force increases, the material will be partially magnetized and only a small value of , is developed due to the initial resistance of the domains to align themselves. 5f the force now moves from & to 4,, rises to a large value due to the relative ease with which the domains now align themselves.
2- PER$EA;ILITY IS NOT LINEAR: )ince curve O , is not a
straight line, the ratio of , to C is not constant !not linear". 1qual changes in C do not cause equal changes in ,. ,ecause the material's flu* density , affects the eddy currents, the permeability is introducing a variable into the eddy current testing system. This permeability variable interferes with the eddy current indications.
Figure 2-1&: Une=u)# C+)nge! in F#u1 Den!i y 5n #igure $%&(, the magnetizing force is C and the flu* density is ,. The value O & represents a specific change in the magnetizing force C. This change produces the flu* change O,& 5f now, a second change in magnetizing force is made !e.g., 4" then a change is the #lu* density , will occur. The change & to 4 produces the change ,& to ,$. Note that the flu* change , & to ,$ is greater than the flu* change O to ,&. )ince the magnetizing force change &4 is same as O &, this means that equal changes in magnetizing force produced unequal changes in flu* density.
&- SATURATION: s C is increased, , increases. s shown in curve
O !#igure $%&-" a point is finally reached where further increases of C does not cause further increases in , minus C value. This point is referred to as the saturation point ! ".
Figure 2-12: S) ur) i'n $)gne i" P'in
2- RESIDUAL $AGNETIS$ The coil's magnetic field reverse itself in
accordance with the alternating current and the ma*imum value of C will decrease to zero !point 7" and increase to ma*imum value !C'" in the reverse direction. s C decreases to zero !point 7" and material's flu* density decreases, as shown in #igure $%&., however, this decrease does not follow the initial curve O . ,ecause of residual magnetism, the decrease in , follows the curve 4. ;hen C is at a zero value !point o", flu* density still e*ists within the material. This is defined as the residual magnetism of the material. Gnder this condition, the material may have residual fields like a natural magnet.
Figure 2-13: Re!idu)# $)gne i!% 28
3- COERCI.E FORCE: The magnetizing force required to produce the
material's flu* density to zero is called the coercive force. The coercive force must be applied in the opposite direction to the initial magnetic force. !#igure $%&/".
Figure 2-14: C'er"i/e F'r"e
4- HYSTERESIS LOOP:
periodically reversing magnetic field produces a loop as shown in figure $%&0. The characteristic of the loop are the same in either direction. Thus saturation, residual magnetism and coercive force are terms that apply in both directions. The shape of the loop is used to define the magnetic characteristics of a specific magnetic material. This loop, referred to as a hysteresis loop, can be observed through the use of a cathode ray tube.
Figure 2-16: Hy! ere! ! L'', d. coil's magnetic field is viewed as a distribution of lines of force around the coil. The number of lines in a unit area is defined as the flu* density. This flu* density represents the coil's magnetizing force. The letter !C" is used to denote this force !#igure $%&=". The :alue of C depends on the number of turns, diameter, length, etc., of the coil and the amount of current applied to the coil.
C'i#>! $)gne i?ing F'r"e:
Figure 2-17: C'i#! $)gne i?ing F'r"e
e. F#u1 Den!i y in N'n%)gne i" $) eri)#: ;hen a test coil's magnetizing force is applied to an article, the coil's flu* density enters and becomes established within the article. This causes the flow of eddy currents. The amount of current is directly related to the coil's magnetizing force. 5n nonmagnetic materials !#igure $%&>" the article does not generate any additional flu* density due to the absence of magnetic domains. The only flu* density within the articles is that which is supplied by the test coil's magnetic filed. Gnder these conditions, it can be said that any changes to eddy current are caused by the article's conductivity or by the coil's flu* density induced in the article.
Figure 2-19: F#u1 Den!i y N'n%)gne i" (.
F#u1 Den!i y ' $)gne i" $) eri)#: ;hen a coil's magnetizing
force is applied to a magnetic material, the amount of flu* density in the material is greater than the flu* density supplied by the test coil !#igure $%$7".This is due to additional flu* densities generated by magnetic domains. )uch is the nature of a magnetic material. The total flu* density in a magnetic material is designated by the letter ,. The letter , refers the flu* density generated in the material< The letter C refers to the magnetizing force of the test coil to which the material is subBected.
Figure 2-2<: F#u1 Den!i y $)gne i" g. Ferr'%)gne i" $) eri)#: 5t is convenient to classify materials as magnetic or nonmagnetic. 9ost magnetic materials are called (err'%)gne i" which means of or relating to a class of substance characterized by abnormally high magnetic permeability, definite saturation point, and appreciable residual magnetism and hysteresis.@ )ince all materials e*hibit some magnetic effects, the difference between a magnetic or nonmagnetic material is one of degree. #or 1*ample, #igure $%$& shows two hysteresis loops. The loop for the nonmagnetic materials is small and little residual magnetism e*ists. ,y contrast, a magnetic material as a large loop with considerable residual magnetism.
Figure 2-21: Re!idu)# $)gne i!% @ $)gne i" )nd N'n%)gne i" $) eri)#!
+. E((e" '( Per%e)*i#i y '( Eddy Curren !: 1ddy currents are induced by flu* changes within an article and are directly related to the density of the flu*. )ince a material with a high permeability provides a greater amount of flu* than a material with a low permeability, it can be e*pected that permeability has a definite effect on the amount of eddy current increases. This effect is more pronounced than any conductivity effect. i.
E((e" '( Per%e)*i#i y 'n Ou ,u Indi") i'n!: The presence
of permeability introduces a variable into the output indication. 5nternal stresses and lattice impurities which can vary within an article, affect the permeability and will be reflected in the permeability variable.
$)Bing Per%e)*i#i y ) C'n! )n : The permeability variable can
be made a constant value by using direct current coil to maintain domain alignment in addition to the regular test coil. The direct current coils establish a magnetic field which causes the flu* density generated by the magnetic material to remain saturated. Gnder this condition, the only flu* changes within the article will be caused by the test coil. This technique removes the permeability variable from the output indication by making the permeability value negligible.
B. He) ing E((e" ! in $)gne i" $) eri)#!: ;hen a magnetic material is subBected to an alternating magnetic field, heating effects e*ist within the material. This is caused by the work required to reduce the residual magnetism to zero and by the realignment of the magnetic poles associated with a magnetic material. )uch heating can be eliminated by the use of the saturation technique. 5t should be realized that complete saturation is sometimes not possible in a few materials+ thus, the heating effect may be present. This heating effect may influence the conductivity of the material.
N' e : This effect is noted with older type eddy current testing
equipment and not applicable to present day equipment.
2- $AGNETIC COUPLING
). Gener)# 5n eddy current testing the article is coupled to the test coil by the coil's magnetic field, all informative interaction in through this coupling. The strength of the coil's field decrease with distance from the coil. The closer the article to the coil, the greater the strength of the applied magnetic field. Therefore, the density of eddy current in the article varies as the distance between the coil and article. The strength of this field is also dependent on the coil's geometry, i.e., size and shape. *. $)gne i" (ie#d! 5n a straight wire !#ig.$%$$" the magnetic filed assumes a circular shape, e*panding outward from the surface is concentric clock wise circle. To determine the direction of current and magnetic field flow the right hand rule applies. This can be done by grasping a wire conductor in the right hand, the thumb would point in the direction of current flow while the fingers wrapped around the wire determine the magnetic filed.
Figure 2-22: $)gne i" Fie#d in ) S r)ig+ C'ndu" 'r 5f this straight wire is now formed into a single circular loop !#igure $% $(", the magnetic fields no longer assume the concentric circular pattern about the wire. The magnetic field will not cut the plane of the wire loop at right angles and at the centre of the loop the direction of the magnetic field follows the a*is of the loop. Cere again by grasping the coil, the fingers will point in the direction of the current while the thumb will point in the direction
of the magnetic field. !#igure $%$-". 5t is quite obvious that a change in wire geometry greatly altered the magnetic field from the original straight wire.
Figure 2-2&: $)gne i" Fie#d in ) L'', ". $)gne i" Fie#d In en!i y starting with the straight wire, we have a field intensity at a given point of C. if this same wire is formed into a single loop the field intensity is increased over the straight wire by the factor H !pi".
Figure 2-22: $)gne i" Fie#d in ) S'#en'id 5f we add several loops close together into a flat coil !probe", the intensity is increased by N !number of turns" times the intensity of our single loop. The intensity may be further increased in a solenoid, #igure $%$., where the length of a coil is greater than the diameter of the turns.
,y adding a soft iron core to the solenoid, the number of lines of force hence, the flu* density can be greatly increased without increasing the magnetizing force applied to the solenoid.
Figure 2-23: $)gne i" Fie#d 8i +in S'#en'id 8i + Ir'n C're LIFT-OFF The term ?lift%off' is used in application of surface type coils and is defined as the large effect on output indication due to the decrease in flu* density generated within the article as the coil distance from the article surface is increased. #igure $%$/ illustrates this condition.
Figure 2-24: Sur()"e C'i# Li( - O((
!i" SURFACE COIL ON CONDUCTI.E SURFACE when a surface coil is placed on the surface of a conductive material, a certain amount of lift% off effect still e*ists. 3ift%off is a very sensitive effect and a variation of less than one%thousandth of an inch can cause a change in indication. )pecial circuits within the eddy current testing equipment can be used to balance out this effect for some measurement. Often surface coils are spring loaded to maintain contact with the surface to hold lift%off constant. !ii" SURFACE COIL ON NON-CONDUCTI.E SURFACE The use of surface coil on a non conductive surface is a maBor application of eddy current testing. ;hile eddy currents do not e*ist in non%conductive materials. The eddy current lift%off effect can be used measure the thickness of non%conductive coatings on conductive article. ;hen the coil is placed in contact with the non%conductive coating !#igure $%$0" the thickness of this coating directly constitutes lift%off distance. )ince, lift%off has a large effect on indication, non%conductive coating can be measured very accurately.
Figure 2-26: N'n @ C'ndu" i/e Sur()"e d. Fi##-F)" 'r: #or encircling coils !or inside coils" the equivalent of lift%off effect is termed ?fill%factor.@ s shown in #igure $%$= this factor is the ratio of the article cross%section area to the area of the coil opening and can be e*pressed as the ratio of the respective diameters squared. To allow freedom of movement through the test coil, this ratio is always less than one.
Figure 2-27: Fi## - F)" 'r !i" NEED FOR CENTERING ARTICLE IN COIL Due to difference in D& and D$ the fill factor !lift%off" has changed. This produces a maBor change in the output indication. 5t should be noted that a reduction in fill factor also increase fall%off. This increase in fall%off will reduce the established test sensitivity, thereby altering the test conditions. f. Ge'%e ry 5n the design of test coils, the ?fall%off@ of the electromagnetic field due to the coil dimensions must be taken into account. lso, the shaping of such fields by means of magnetic shielding reduces the area of the article covered by the magnetic field. This in turn reduces penetration regardless of the standard penetration depth as selected on the chart. nother effect dependent on coil geometry is ?end effect.@ 1nd 1ffect is e*perienced when the magnetic filed of the coil is near the boundary of article !end" and air. This distorts the magnetic filed so greatly as to mask any measurements data. 1. COIL DI$ENSION EFFECT ON $AGNETIC FIELD s shown in #igure $%$> the e*tension !fall%off" of the magnetic field is a function of the pole size and pole spacing even though lift%off is held constant !surface constant".
Figure 2-29: F)## - O(( 2. COIL SHIELDING EFFECT ON THE $AGNETIC FILED s shown in #igure $%(7 pinching or direction of the magnetic field generally reduces the e*tension of the magnetic filed from the coil. This reduction of the magnetic filed e*tension directly lessens the depth of penetration.
Figure 2-&<: S+ie#ding &. END EFFECT ON $AGNETIC FIELD s shown in #igure $%(& if the coil's magnetic filed is near an article%to%air boundary, a non%uniform field will result due to difference in the ability of the two media to conduct magnetic flu* lines. This distortion masks out most usable measurements. #or this reason, coils are usually designed shorter or smaller than the article depending on the type of coil. ?1nd effect@ is responsible for difficulties in taking measurements any such boundary, i.e., holes, edges, tubing ends, etc.
Figure 2-&1: End E((e"
DIRECTION AND DISTRI;UTION OF EDDY CURRENT IN ARTICLE
To successfully perform eddy current testing, the NDT specialist must be aware of the direction and distribution of eddy currents in the article. The direction is determined by the type of coil used in the testing. 1ddy current distribution in the articles is determined by the frequency used in the testing, the coupling between the coil and the article and the conductivity and permeability of the article. 1ddy current always flow parallel to the surface.
2- EDDY CURRENT INDUCED ;Y ENCIRCLING COIL
s shown in #igure $%($, when an encircling coil is used, the path of the eddy currents is in the same direction as the winding of the coil. Thus eddy currents tend to flow around the outside circumference of the cylinder and a discontinuity such as a crack will disrupt this flow. Iou will also note that the centre portion of a rod has practically no eddy currents since the magnetic field and eddy currents tend to stay near surface. Detection of a discontinuity near the center would be difficult or impossible. ,ecause the encircling coil tests the complete circumference of the cylinder, it is not possible to isolate a discontinuity to a specific point on the circumference. 1ddy currents induced by this coil show the ma*imum effect for discontinuities oriented a*ially.
Figure 2-&2: Dire" i'n '( Eddy Curren P) +! in Cy#inder
&- EDDY CURRENTS INDUCED ;Y INSIDE COIL
3ike the encircling coil of the eddy currents induced by an inside coil is in the same direction as the coil winding< therefore, eddy currents flow around the inside diameter of the cylinder.
2- EDDY CURRENTS INDUCED ;Y SURFACE COIL
#igure $%& illustrates the direction of eddy currents induced in an article by a surface coil placed above the article's surface. The eddy currents will flow in a direction that is parallel to the article's surface.
3- EDDY CURRENTS INDUCED ;Y GAP PRO;E
The gap probe provides a very concentrated magnetic field. This induces eddy current in a small area. The smaller the air gap, the more concentrated is the flu* density between the poles. ny discontinuity within this area greatly alters the magnetic filed produced. This type of probe can also provide location of the discontinuity in the article.
Figure 2-&&: Eddy Curren Indu"ed *y G), Pr'*e
4- DEPTH OF EDDY CURRENT PENETRATION
Aenetrations of the eddy current in an article must be a known factor to interpret indication. 1ddy currents are strongest near the surface and weaken with depth. They often have a penetration depth less than one quarter of an inch is standard cases. This ?skin effect@ is directly affected by the inducing frequency, the higher the frequency the less the depth of penetration. 5n practice, since we cannot achieve uniform induced fields, we resort to a standard depth, defined as the depth where the eddy current is reduced to &2e !appro*imately (08" of the surface current. This concept allows a tabulation of depth based on frequency !time", conductivity and permeability. a. Re#) i'n!+i, *e 8een +e "'i#>! $)gne i" Fie#d ! reng + )nd Eddy Curren Den!i y The eddy current density is related to the strength of the coil's magnetic field. s this field strength decreases, the eddy current density decreases. b. De"re)!e in C'i#>! $)gne i" Fie#d ! reng + in Ar i"#e The test coil magnetic filed strength decreases through the article. This decrease in field strength which is the result of the eddy currents within the test article is mostly caused by the article's opposing magnetic field. c. E((e" '( Fre=uen"y 'n De, + '( Pene r) i'n ;hen a coil is applied to an article, the depth of penetration will vary with the test coil's frequency as the frequency is decreased, the depth of penetration increases. #or deep penetration low frequencies must be used, conversely high frequencies will produce ma*imum eddy current density at the surface. 5t should be realized that for a given article, changing the frequency changes the testing depth in the article. Table $%& illustrates how the depth of penetration varies with frequency for various materials.
d. E((e" '( "'ndu" i/i y 'n ,ene r) i'n The depth of eddy current penetration is related to the conductivity of the article. s the conductivity increases, the depth of penetration decreases. 5t should be noted that with a given test frequency, the depth of penetration will change as the conductivity of the article changes.
e. E((e" '( ,er%e)*i#i y '( ,ene r) i'n ;hen the articles is a magnetic material, the effect of permeability on the depth of penetration must be considered. The depth of penetration decreases as the permeability increases. C'ndu" i/i y CI)"!&77 -$ ($ (0 0.= /.7 (.$.. $.> &7.0
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TEST COIL INFOR$ATION CHARACTERISTIC
&. GENERAL: 5n eddy current testing all information about the article is obtained through the test coil. The characteristics of the coil, therefore, become a key factor in understanding what information can be obtained from the test article and reflected in an output indication. s shown in #igure $%(-, the basic electrical values of the current testing system are the generator's output voltage !v", the current !5" flowing through the coil, and the coil's impedance !z". The coil produces changes which can be defined as impedance changes or phase changes.
Figure 2-&2: Eddy Curren Te! ing Sy! e% E#e" ri")# .)#ue! $. ELECTRO$AGNETIC :A.E: The velocity of electromagnetic waves in air is much greater than in the test article. The slow wave in the article takes a relatively long time to travel to a given depth and return the required information to the test coil. The velocity of the electromagnetic wave in a conductor is e*pressed by the following formula+
V = 4πf 6µ
: phase velocity f frequency N conductivity D permeability
#or e*ample, the velocity of the wave in copper at frequency of &77 cycles is &$ feet2second, at &7,777 cycles it is &$7 feet2second and & megacycle it is &,$77 feet2second.
coil is said to have characteristic called impedance and the impedance value will change as the articles properties changes. This provides the basic for a type of testing which is called impedance testing. a. De(ini i'n '( I%,ed)n"e: 5mpedance is defined as the coils opposition to the flow of an alternating current. The letter J is used to denote this impedance. 5t is necessary to realize that impedance is not the same as resistance !6". straight piece of wire has a resistance !6", and such a resistance will oppose the flow of an electrical current. This is true for either a direct current or an alternating current. ;hen the wire is formed into a coil, the wire will offer more opposition to the flow of an alternating current !there is no change for flow of a direct current". This new opposition to the flow of an alternating current is called impedance. The coil's resistance is still present and included in this impedance. b. E((e" '( I%,ed)n"e "+)nge! 'n Curren : The specific amount of current flowing through the coil is determined by the coil's impedance !z". 5f this impedance changes, the current will change. n increase in impedance decreases the current.
Figure 2-&3: I%,ed)n"e
#igure $%(. shows that when an alternating voltage !:" from the generator is applied across a coil, an alternating current !5" will flow through the coil. The coil's opposition to this current flow is called impedance !z". Onowing the value of J and voltage !:", the actual current value could be calculated by the formula !5F: 2J". c. E((e" '( Ar i"#e C+)nge! 'n I%,ed)n"e: )ince the coil's magnetic field affects the coil's impedance, a change in the field will change the impendence. The coil's magnetic field is changed by the field developed by the flow of eddy currents< this means that the article's properties will, through the eddy currents, change the coil's impedance. 5n #igure $%(/, two sets of coils are being used and the test article is compared against a standard reference specimen. The secondary coils !s& and s$" are connected together in such a way that the output of one coil opposes the output of the other coil. 5f the test article's properties are the same as the standard reference specimen's properties, no output voltage is developed. On the other hand, if the properties are not the same, an output is obtained. This output is related to impedance of coils. 5f the test article properties change, the impedance will change.
Figure 2-&4: C'%,)ri!'n '( Te! Ar i"#e ' S )nd)rd Re(eren"e S,e"i%en d. E((e" '( "'u,#ing "+)nge! 'n I%,ed)n"e coil's magnetic field e*tends outward from the coil as shown in figure $%(0. thus the intensity at point 4 is less than at point ,< and point ,'s intensity is less than point 's.
Figure 2-&6: C'i#>! $)gne i" Fie#d ,ecause of this, the distance between the coil and the test article is a significant factor. 5f the distance varies, the output indication varies. This is true for two conditions+ &. ;hen the coil is placed the test article !3ift%off", and $. ;hen the test article is placed inside the coil !#ill #actor" e. E((e" ! '( Fre=uen"y 'n I%,ed)n"e The alternating current generator provides an alternating voltage at a specific frequency !f". This voltage causes the flow of an alternating current. The generator's frequency is also related to the coil's impedance. To determine the coil's impedance, two things are needed+ !&" the electrical values of the coil and !$" the frequency applied to the coil. The coil's specific impedance depends upon the frequency applied to the coil and this impedance will changes as the frequency is changed. 5ncreasing the frequency will increase the impedance.
2. PHASE CHANGES
The test coil's characteristics not only change the amount of current !5" flowing through the test coil but also changes the phase relationship between the current through the coil and the voltage !:" across the coil. This relationship can be used to separate the :ariables appearing in the
test coil as a result of changes in the test coil as a result of changes in the articles properties. a. De(ini i'n '( ,+)!e: s shown in #igure $%(=, the generator provides and alternating output voltage !:" which will have a definite frequency. The voltage will cause an alternating current to flow through a circuit connected to the generator.
Figure 2-&7: A# ern) ing Ou ,u .'# )ge #igure $%(> illustrates that the current flowing through an e*ternal circuit will be in phase with the voltage applied to the circuit when the circuit contains only resistance !resistor". The current !5" will rise and fall in step with the voltage !:". Gnder this condition, the current is said to be in phase with the voltage.
Figure 2-&9: In P+)!e
$. #igure $%-7 illustrates the condition where the current !5" is not in phase with the voltage !:". The Corizontal scale represents time e*pressed in terms of a circle with (/7 degrees. )ince the current !5" is increasing at a time that is later than the increase in voltage !:". 5t can be said that current lags the voltage. This current lag is caused by the coil's characteristics.
Figure 2-2<: Ou '( P+)!e *. Curren 0/'# )ge P+)!e Re#) i'n!+i,: The phase relationship between the coil's current and the voltage applied to the coil changes as the coil's impedance changes. )ince impedance changes are caused by variations within the article and by the coupling between the coil and the article, a basis e*ists for detecting variations by observing phase changes. This can be displayed with a cathode ray tube. ". De(ini i'n '( Indu" )n"e: 5nductance is the resistance in a coil to the flow of an alternating current. ;hen an alternating current flows around individual turns of a coil the associated magnetic field will induce a current in adBacent turns which flows in the opposite direction to the initial current !3enz 3aw". Gnlike a regular resistor, it only slows down the current flow, it does not reduce it. Thus, the lagging of current behind the voltage in a coil. 5nductance is a magnetic property< resistance is not. straight piece of wire has resistance, which still e*ists when the wire is formed into a coil. 5nductance, on the other hand, only e*ists when the wore is formed into a coil. Gnder this condition, a magnetic field is established and is related to the coil's
inductance. The article through the coil's field affects this inductance. 5nductance !3" is the particular property of the coil which is determined by the number of turns, the spacing between turns, coil diameter, kind of material, type of coil winding, and the overall shape of the coil. 1ach coil has a unique value of inductance !3". d. C'i#>! %)gne i" Fie#d Re#) ed ' indu" )n"e: The coil's inductance is caused by the magnetic field developed around the coil. This field !#igure $%-&" opposes a current change and causes the current to lag the voltage.
Figure 2-21: Indu" )n"e C)u!ed *y $)gne i" Fie#d e. De(ini i'n '( Indu" i/e Re)" )n"e The 4oil's opposition to the flow of current caused by the coil's inductance is a composite term which is referred to as the coil's inductive reactance !#igure $%-$". The symbol M3 is used to denote this term.
Figure 2-22: C'i# Indu" )n"e0Indu" i/e Re)" )n"e 5n eddy current testing, we are not directly interested in the coil's inductance. ;hat we are interested n is the inductance reactance !M 3". This is the coil's opposition to current flow based on the coil's
inductance and is determined by the coil's inductance and the frequency applied to the coil. M 3F /.$= f3+ where fFthe frequency of the alternating current applied to the coil and 3Fthe coil's inductance. The inductive reactance is therefore determined by the frequency as well as by the coil's inductance. )ince the test frequency can be changed for a specific test application. 5t is important to recognize that test frequency as well as the article can change the inductive reactance. (. I%,ed)n"e0Indu" i/e Re)" )n"e Re#) i'n!+i,: 5mpedance is the total opposition to the flow of an alternating current and is composed of two values+ the coil's resistance !6" and the coil's inductive reactance !M3". ,ecause of the voltage relationships of these two values, you can represent the two values in a graph and show that they are >7 degrees apart. The actual impedance of a circuit is some combination of these two values.
Figure 2-2&: I%,ed)n"e0Indu" i/e Re)" )n"e To calculate impedance, use the formula shown in figure $%-(, which is based on the relationships of the sides of a right triangle. nother way is to locate to given value of the inductive reactance on the vertical scale of a graph as illustrated in #igure $%-( and the given value of the resistance on the horizontal scale. The value on the vertical scale is then e*tended to the right while the value on the horizontal scale is e*tended upwards. The intersection of the two e*tensions gives a point. line drawn from this point to the start of the
vertical and horizontal scales !point O" gives the actual value of the 5mpedance. g. Indu" i/e Re)" )n"e0Re!i! )n"e ,+)!e Re#) i'n!+i, coil's characteristics can be divided into inductive reactance effects and resistance effects. s shown in #igure $%--, the coil's current flow through both the coil's inductive reactance and the coil's resistance. The current is thus common to both values. &. ;hen current flows through a resistance !6", a voltage e*ists across the resistance. This voltage is identified as : $ in #igure $%--. The same principles applies to the coil's inductive reactance and this voltage is denoted as :&. The specific value of the voltage is the product of the current !5" and the resistance !6" or inductive reactance !M3". Thus :&F56 and :$ F 5M3. $. The voltage across the inductive reactance !: &" is >7 degrees out of phase with the voltage !:$" across the resistance. These two voltages can be represented in a graph !voltage plane" as shown in #igure $%--. 5t is also possible to speak in terms of an impedance plane since the current is common to both the resistance and the inductive reactance. ,ecause of the voltage relationship between these two values, it is possible to show these two values >7 degrees apart.
Figure 2-22: C'i#>! I%,ed)n"e )nd .'# )ge P#)ne!
+. P+)!e re#) i'n!+i, in !e"'nd)ry "'i#: The out of phase condition between the current !5" and the voltage !:" also e*ists in the secondary coil of an eddy current testing system. 5n figure $%-., the generator causes an alternating current to flow through the primary coil and this develops a magnetic field which induces eddy currents in the article. The field also affects the secondary coil and induces currents in the secondary coil.
Figure 2-23: Curren 0.'# )ge Re#) i'n!+i, in Se"'nd)ry C'i# &. The flow of eddy currents generates a magnetic field which affects the magnetic developed in the secondary coil by the primary coil. The amount of current flow in the secondary coil, therefore, is determined by the eddy currents as well as by the primary coil. $. The voltage output of the secondary coil is not in phase with the current flowing through the coil. 9oreover, the phase relationship between the current and the voltage will change as the secondary coil's impedance is changed by the article's properties. (. Through the use of the cathode ray tube, the shift in phase in the secondary coil can be seen. This factor is used in the eddy current phase analysis testing method. -. 3ike the primary coil, the characteristics of the secondary coil can be divided into resistance effects and inductive reactance. The voltage across the inductive reactance is >7 degrees out of phase with the voltage across the resistance. 54
.'# )ge 'u ,u '( Se"'nd)ry "'i# s shown in #igure $%-/, the secondary coil's output voltage is a composite value made up of the voltage across the inductive reactance !: &" and the voltage across the coil's resistance !:$". This composite voltage value !: (" will lead the current through the coil by some phase angle. The phase angle will change as the coil is affected by the article. .'# )ge 'u ,u '( E1 ern)# "'%,)ri!'n Arr)nge%en : The description above of the voltage output of a secondary coil can also be applied to a method using an e*ternal comparison arrangement as shown in #igure $%-0. 5n this case, the secondary coils are connected so that output of one coils opposes and cancels the output from the other coil. 5f all conditions are equal, no output voltage will e*ist. On the other hand, if the conditions are not the same, an output voltage will e*ists and will be a composite value of the voltage across the inductive reactance and the voltage across the resistance. )ince the voltage is an alternating voltage, an alternating waveform will appear on the cathode ray tube. This voltage will lead the current flowing through the secondary coils and the phase angle will change as the article's properties change.
Figure 2-24: .'# )ge Re#) i'n!+i, in C'i#
PHASE CHANGES PRODUCED ;Y ARTICLE 1- GENERAL
n article's properties are being reflected in the test coil through the coil's impedance. change in impedance denotes a change in the article's properties. The main problem in eddy current testing is to separate the article variables that are being reflected in the coil's impedance. The three main variables are conductivity, permeability, and dimensional changes. The dimensional changes the coupling between the coil and article.
2- CONDUCTI.ITYF PER$EA;ILITTY. AND DI$ENSION .ARIA;LES
Gsing the test system shown in figure $%-0, it can be demonstrated that each of the three main variables can produce a phase change. 1ddy current testing based on the use of these phase changes is called phase analysis.
Figure 2-26: .'# )ge Ou ,u '( E1 ern)# C'%,)ri!'n Arr)nge%en
&- CONDUCTI.ITY PHASE CHANGES
To illustrate how changes in conductivity can produce phase changes, we can use the test system in #igure $%-0. 5f a test article which has properties that are the same as those of the reference standard used in the test system, no output voltage will be obtained. 5f the test article is now replaced by one that has a slightly different conductivity, an output voltage will be obtained and the waveform can be observed on the cathode ray 56
tube. 5f this second test article is replaced by another article with a different conductivity, it can be observed that the waveform on the cathode ray tube will shift phase. Gsing a series of such articles, the direction of this phase change can be defined. #igure $%-= illustrates the direction of phase change produced by the conductivity variable. The symbol !N", pronounced sigma, it used to define the conductivity variable.
2- PER$EA;ILITY AND DI$ENSION PHASE CHANGES
5f the techniques used to detect conductivity phase changes is applied to each of the two remaining variable, permeability and dimension, the two variables will produce phase changes in the same direction. This condition is illustrated in #igure $%-=.
Figure 2-27: C'ndu" i/i yF Per%e)*i#i yF )nd Di%en!i'n P+)!e C+)nge!
3- RELATIONSHIP ;ET:EEN ARTICLE PHASE CHANGES
)eparation of the variables reflected in the coil's impedance by the article's properties is possible because the direction of phase change for the conductivity variables is not the same as the direction of phase change for the permeability and dimension variables. a. T8' Dire" 'r! Are 9< Degree! 'u '( P+)!e: 5n #igure $%-= the directions of phase change are >7 degrees out of phase. This provides the basis for saying that the article's conductivity variable is perpendicular or >7 degrees out of phase with the article's permeability and dimension variables.
b. 5u)#i(i") i'n: ;hen the statement is made that the conductivity variable is perpendicular to the permeability and dimension variable, it is important to realize that this is only true under certain test conditions. Normally these conditions are established when it is desirable to separate the variables. #igure $%-> illustrates a family of curve obtained by holding all variables but one constant and letting the one remaining variable change over a range of values. #or e*ample, curve was developed by holding the permeability and dimension variables constant and letting the conductivity change. The result is a plot of discrete values that form the curve. change from point M to I represents an increase in conductivity. The reader should realize that point M is the output voltage which is a composite of voltages :& and :$ and forms a phase angle as defined in #igure $%-/. ;hen the conductivity changes to point I, this phase angle change to a new value. Thus it can be seen that the curve represents a direction of phase change.
Figure 2-29: F)%i#y '( Cur/e S+'8ing .)ri)*i#i y :i +in $)gne i" Ar i"#e
2. 5f the conductivity is held constant and the permeability is allowed to vary, a set of voltage values is again obtained. The plot of this set of values will be appro*imately perpendicular to the curves covering conductivity. &. #igure $%-> shows that the variables are not always perpendicular. Aoints M and I represent perpendicular points. Through the proper selection of a test frequency, point M or I can be selected for the test situation< therefore, the phases can be said to be perpendicular. #or other points of operation, this will not be true. 2. #igure $%.7 shows both conductivity and Aermeability superimposed on the same curve. 5t is readily seen that permeability is not only in an opposite direction than conductivity, but may times greater. This fact means any permeability present will mask out conductivity effects.
Figure 2-3<: C'ndu" i/i y0Per%e)*i#i y ". I%,'r )n"e '( P+)!e Dire" i'n Di((eren"e: The conductivity variable produces a phase change that is perpendicular to the permeability, and dimension variable can be used to separate this variable from the other variables in the eddy current output indication. This technique will be defined under the phase analysis testing treatment in 4hapter (.
CHAPTER @ 2
EDDY CURRENT PRINCIPLES
LE.EL II @ 5UESTIONNAIRE
1. T+e ! )nd)rd de, + '( ,ene r) i'n i! gi/en )! eG 3<C,0(,-: 'r e G 2C,#(,-HDI 8+ere , G re!i! i/i yF ( G (re=uen"y )nd , G re# ,er%e)*i#i y. T+e di((eren"e *e 8een +e 8' e=u) i'n! i! a" one is for plate and the other for tubing b" one is for thickness in mm, the other in inches c" one is for non%magnetic material the other for magnetic d" -= 2. An e=u)##y #)rge )%,#i ude !ign)# ")n re!u# ('r a" deep small flaws and shallow large flaws b" deep large flaws and shallow small flaws c" neither a or b, large and small flaws always result in different amplitude signals d" both a and b provided the flaw is a pore &. A #)rge ,'re ) ) dee, ,'!i i'n in ) ,#) e ")n *e di!"ri%in) ed (r'% ) !%)## ,'re ne)r +e !ur()"e in !,i e '( !i%i#)r )%,#i ude re!,'n!e 'n +e eddy "urren in! ru%en *y n' ing a" shape of the trace on the impedance plane b" phase lag difference c" separation in approach signal and fly%back d" both a and c 2. T' "+)nge r)di)n uni !F '( en u!ed in ,+)!e %e)!ure%en ! in e#e" ri" ,r'*#e%!F ' degree! y'u %u# i,#y *y a" 7.070 b" &.-&c" .0 d" t$2$ 3. F#)8 de, + de er%in) i'n *y eddy "urren i! %)de ,'!!i*#e *y 8+i"+ ,)r)%e erJ a" resistivity b" phase lag c" magnetic permeability d" material density
4. Indu" )n"e i! )!!'"i) ed 8i + a" the probe coil b" the eddy current test sample c" both a and b d" none of the above 6. T+e uni '( "),)"i )n"e i! +e a" Cenry b" farad c" ohm d" mho 7. T+e i%e de,enden re#) i'n!+i, *e 8een "urren )%,#i ude! in )n AC "ir"ui i! ")##ed a" peak detection b" temporal domain c" the clock circuit d" phase )nd /'# )ge
9. T+e eddy "urren e! !y! e% i! '( en %'de##ed )! ) r)n!('r%er. T+e ,r'*e 8'u#d re,re!en +e '( +e r)n!('r%er. a" primary winding b" secondary winding c" insulator plates d" load 1<. T+e eddy "urren e! !y! e% i! '( en %'de##ed )! ) r)n!('r%er. T+e e! !)%,#e 8'u#d re,re!en '( +e r)n!('r%er. a" primary winding b" secondary winding c" insulator plate d" 4 input 11. C'i# i%,ed)n"e in eddy "urren e! ing i! u!u)##y di!,#)yed )! ) #'"u! C!erie! '( ,'in !- r)"ed 'u )! ) "ur/e. T+e 8' )1e! '( +e gr),+ )re u!u)##y a" resistance !vertical" reactance!horizontal" b" inductance !vertical" reluctance !horizontal" c" resistivity !vertical" lift off !horizontal" d" reactance !vertical" resistance !horizontal" 12. I%,ed)n"e "+)nge! )! de e" ed *y )n eddy "urren "'i# ('r ) gi/en !e '( ',er) ing "'ndi i'n! ")n *e re#) ed ' "+)nge! in a" sample temperature b" sample thickness c" sample conductivity d" all of the above 61
1&. An in"re)!e in re!i! )n"e ' eddy "urren (#'8 %'/e! +e ',er) ing ,'in KKKKKKKKKK +e i%,ed)n"e "ur/e. a" up b" down c" to a point outside of d" to a points inside of 12. :+i"+ '( +e ('##'8ing /)ri) i'n! 8'u#d n' !ur()"e ,r'*eJ a" encircling probe b" spinning probe c" pencil probe d" pancake probe *e "'n!idered )
13. :+en ) re(eren"e "'i# i! %'un ed in )n )*!'#u e ,r'*e i i! a" wound inside the sensing coil b" wound around the outside of the sensing coil c" far enough from the test material so it is not affected by it d" none of the above, reference coils are never used in absolute probes 14. In )*!'#u e ,r'*e!F *ridge nu##ing C*)#)n"ing- i! !i%,#i(ied *y a" operating at resonance frequencies b" a small reference coil mounted in the probe c" spring loading the probe against the test surface d" ensuring the coil is toroidally shaped 16. Di((eren i)# ,r'*e! u!ed in eddy "urren e! ing ,#)"e 2 "'i#! !ide *y !ide '/er +e e! %) eri)#. T+i! end! ' ")n"e# a" gradual material variations b" temperature effects c" lift%off d" all of the above 17. In +e !end-re"ei/er eddy "urren ,r'*e "'n(igur) i'nF +e dri/er "'i# )nd re"ei/er "'i#C!a" are on the same side of the test material b" are on the opposite sides of the test material c" both a and b are possible configurations d" none of the above, there is no such probe 19. P)n")Be y,e !ur()"e ,r'*e! 8'u#d *e in!en!i i/e ' KKKKKKKKK *e")u!e '( +e dire" i'n '( (#'8 '( +e indu"ed eddy "urren !. a" surface breaking cracks b" pores and other subsurface voids c" laminations d" all of the above 62
2<. A +e "en re '( )n eddy "urren ,r'*e "'i#F !en!i i/i y ' de(e" ! i! a" ma*imum b" minimum !zero" c" the average of that under the mean coil radius d" none of the above, sensitivity is constant under the whole area of the probe coil 21. :+en u*e e! ing 8i + in ern)# ,r'*e!F re-in!,e" ing ) 2(9< )( er u!ing (9< +)! +e )d/)n )ge '( *e er di!"ri%in) i'n *e 8een ID )nd OD de(e" !. A! 8e## a" magnetic deposits are discriminated from defects b" sensitivity to dents is increased c" sensitivity to support plates is decreased d" both b and c 22. I( !u((i"ien #y #'8 (re=uen"y i! u!edF !ign)#! (r'% de(e" ! 8i## ),,r')"+ KKKKKKKKK 8+i#e (err'%)gne i" %) eri)# !ign)#! )re ne)r#yKKKKKKKKKKKKK. a" fill factor signals, perpendicular to fill factor b" infinity, invisible c" ma*imum vertical amplitude, minimum vertical amplitude d" ma*imum sensitivity, off the scope display 2&. T+e )%,#i ude '( )n eddy "urren !ign)# (r'% ) de(e" i! ) (un" i'n '( +e de(e" a" length b" width c" depth d" all of the above 22. Ferr'%)gne i!%F di)%)gne i!%F )nd ,)r)%)gne i!% )re L%)gne i" ! ) e!L re!u# ing (r'% a" electron configurations b" strong nuclear forces c" covalent bonding d" triclinic, monoclinic and cubic crystal structures 23. :+en ) %)gne i?ing ('r"e i! ),,#ied ' ) (err'%)gne i" %) eri)# )nd +en re%'/edF +e (#u1 re%)ining in +e %) eri)# i! a" hysteresis b" retentivity c" coercivity d" saturation
24. :+i"+ i! n' ) ()" 'r )((e" ing +e ,er%e)*i#i y '( (err' %)gne i" %) eri)#!J a" prior mechanical processing b" eddy current test frequency c" chemical composition d" internal stresses 26. In +e ,re!en"e '( ) %)gne i" %) eri)# ) "'i#M! %)gne i" (#u1 a" increases b" decreases c" reverses d" both a and c 27. :+en ,#) e e! ing ) %)gne i" %) eri)# i i! n' ,'!!i*#e ' de e" (#)8! *e")u!e a" lift off effects are too great b" permeability and resistivity changes cannot be separated c" ferrite cup probes do not work well on plate d" the skin effect prevents subsurface detection 29. :+) e((e" d'e! in"re)!ed re#) i/e %)gne i" ,er%e)*i#i y +)/e 'n e! (re=uen"yJ a" causes an increase in frequency b" causes a decrease in frequency c" causes and unpredictable change in frequency d" no effect &<. Re#) i/e %)gne i" ,er%e)*i#i y ('r (err'%)gne i" %) eri)#! i! a" P& b" 7 c" Q& d" e*actly equal to & &1. Pu#!ed DC !) ur) i'n i! u!ed in EC e! ing '( %)gne i" %) eri)#! ' a" allow welding to be converted to eddy current machines b" reduce heating effects c" improve response time d" increase permeability of the test coil to match that of the test piece &2. A %)gne i" %) eri)# ),,e)r! n'n-%)gne i" ' eddy "urren ! i( i i! a" magnetically saturated b" de%gaussed c" heat treated d" super%cooled
&&. T+e r) i' '( %)gne i" (#u1 C;- ' +e %)gne i?ing ('r"e CH- i! a" magnetic permeability b" relative magnetic permeability c" dimensionless d" both b and c &2. He) gener) i'n )!!'"i) ed 8i + eddy "urren %) eri)#! i! ) re!u# '( a" dispersion and diffraction b" ohmic or resistive losses c" hysteresis losses d" both b and c e! ing '( %)gne i"
&3. :+) i! +e di((eren"e *e 8een e#e" ri" "urren ! )nd eddy "urren ! 'n +e ) '%i" #e/e#J a" there is no difference b" direction of electron flow c" no magnetic field is associated with electric current d" eddy currents do not occur in semi conductors &4. Curren (#'8ing in +e eddy "urren "'n!idered a" eddy current b" magnetizing currents c" back 19# d" all of the above r)n!du"er 8'u#d *e
&6. :+en ) /'# )ge i! ),,#ied ' )n indu" 'r ) "urren i! %)de ' (#'8. T+i! "urren d'e! n' re)"+ %)1i%u% )%,#i ude 8+en /'# )ge i! %)1i%u%. T+i! i%e di((eren"e i! u!u)##y re(erred ' )! a" phase lag b" delta T c" stroboscopic effect d" permeability &7. In +e !i%,#e )n)#'gy '( +e eddy "urren e! !e u, )! )n )ir "'re r)n!('r%erF +'8 %)ny L urn!L i! +e e! ,ie"e re,re!en ed *yJ a" 7 b" & c" the same number an in the probe d" any number more than the probe
&9. A%,#i ude '( "urren 'r /'# )ge in )n AC "ir"ui i! u!u)##y di!,#)yed )! ) !inu!'id)# 8)/e. T+e +'ri?'n )# di!,#)"e%en i! u!u)##y in uni ! '( i%e 'r a" volts b" amperes c" radians d" normalized resistance 2<. F'r ) gi/en eddy "urren ,r'*eF i ! indu" i/e re)" )n"e 8'u#d *e gre) e! 8+en ',er) ed ) a" $.7 Cz b" $. kz c" &.. 9Cz d" $.7 kCz 21. An eddy "urren ,r'*eM! i%,ed)n"e i! e)!i#y "+)nged *y a" using a rheostat !variable resistor" in the probe b" using a variable inductor in the probe c" changing the operating frequency d" all of the above 22. En"ir"#ing "'i# ,r'*e! 8'u#d *e %'! #iBe#y u!ed ' e! a" sheet metal plates b" aluminium ingots c" tubes and rods d" rivet holes 2&. T' '* )in ) +ig+ degree '( !en!i i/i y ('r +i"Bne!! %e)!ure%en ! 'n +in "') ing! 'n "'ndu" ing !u*! r) e y'u 8'u#d ', ('r ) ,r'*e 8i + a" small diameter and relatively high operating frequency b" small diameter and relatively low frequency c" large diameter and low frequency d" large diameter and high frequency 22. In"re)!ing "'i# (i## ()" 'r i! e=ui/)#en ' a" increasing lift%off b" increasing field coupling c" reducing sensitivity d" all of the above
23. T' '/er"'%e +e di((i"u# y di! ingui!+ing +e !ign)# (r'% ) !ing#e #)rge di!"'n inui y (r'% +) 'rigin) ing (r'% ) gr'u, '( !%)##er di!"'n inui ie! in +e !)%e )re) KKKKKKK 8ere de/e#',ed. a" differential probes b" multicoil probes c" zig%zag probes d" multifrequency probes 24. A ,r'*e i! ',er) ed ) 2<<BH? )nd +e i%,ed)n"e di!,#)y i! )rr)nged !' +) +e ',er) ing ,'in '( +e ,r'*e *)#)n"ed in )ir %'/e! /er i")# 8+en *r'ug+ ne1 ' ) (erri e !)%,#e. S)%,#e! 1 ' 2 8+en "'n )" ed %'/e ' ) ,'in ' +e #'8er rig+ '( +e !"reen )nd !)%,#e 3 %'/e! +e ',er) ing ,'in ' +e u,,er rig+ . S)%,#e 3 i! ,r'*)*#y a" ferro magnetic !RQ&" b" non%conductive !conductivity F 7" c" thicker than all the other samples d" thinner than all the other samples 26. O,er) ing ne)r +e Bnee '( +e "ur/e '( +e i%,ed)n"e #'"u! ,er%i ! %)1i%u% di!"ri%in) i'n '( a" resistivity b" lift%off c" permeability d" density 27. En"ir"#ing ,r'*e! ")nn' *e u!ed 'n a" wire b" square tubing c" he*agonal tubing d" none of the above are restrictions to encircling probes provided the appropriate coil shape is used 29. Tu*u#)r ,r'du" ! ")n *e e! ed u!ing a" surface probes b" absolute encircling or internal probes c" differential encircling or internal probes d" all of the above 3<. T+e re!u# ! '( ) !#ig+ de"re)!e in (i## ()" 'r 8i## *e a" small decrease in near surface defect sensitivity b" large decrease in signal amplitudes c" both a and b d" none of the above, small fill factor changes are not significant
31. In ) di((eren i)# ,r'*eF +e !ign)# (r'% ) de(e" i! di!,#)yed 8i"e Ci( !+'r en'ug+-. T+i! i! due ' a" the defect being given a magnetic north and south pole b" two separate sensing coils being present c" the Sreflection effectS similar to the transmit%receive method d" none of the above 32. :+i"+ '( +e ('##'8ing i! n' rue ('r +e )*!'#u e ,r'*eJ a" immune to temperature drift b" sees abrupt and gradual property and dimensional changes c" very sensitive to probe wobble d" indicated total length of defects 3&. Gr)du)# +inning '( ) +e) e1"+)nger u*e )! ) re!u# '( e1 ern)# er'!i'n i! %'! #iBe#y ' *e %i!!ed i( y'u u!e 8+i"+ y,e '( ,r'*eJ a" surface probe b" absolute probe c" differential probe d" all of the above would be unable to find the flaw 32. Eddy "urren "'i#! )re !en!i i/e ' a" lift%off b" fill factor c" temperature d" any variation that affects conductivity or permeability 33. Eddy Curren a" Travel normal to surface of the obBect b- Travel Aarallel to the surface of the obBect c" Travel Aarallel to the direction of the 9agnetic field d" Travel perpendicular to the direction of the current in the coli. 34. T' De er%ine +e ;u#B "ri eri) C+)r)" eri! i" 8+i"+ "'i# i! u!edJ a" bsolute b" Differential c" )end receive coil d" Aarallel coil 36. T' (ind ) !%)## de(e" 8+i"+ "'i# i! u!edJ a" bsolute b- Differential c" )end receive coil d" Aarallel coil
CHAPTER @ 2
EDDY CURRENT PRINCIPLES
LE.EL II @ ANS:ERS
5.NO. & $ ( . / 0 = > &7 && &$ &( &&. &/ &0 &= &> $7 $& $$ $( $$. $/ $0 $= $> (7 ANS , , , 4 , 4 , D , D D 4 , D 4 4 , D D , , , D 4 5.NO. (& ($ (( ((. (/ (0 (= (> -7 -& -$ -( --. -/ -0 -= -> .7 .& .$ .( ... ./ .0 ANS , D , , 4 4 4 4 , , , D D 4 , 4 D , ,