A breakdown of the eddy current testing system shows that it is composed of various key-systems which are an integral part of the electromagnetic testing task. This chapter will review these systems analyzing the type of equipment which is required to support that system. It will show how the various items within each system have specific capabilities and how these capabilities can be used in the over- all task of eddy current testing. In eddy current testing, more so than in any other method of nondestructive testing, the testing system is designed to fulfill a particular need. The testing parameters which dictate the choice of one system over another are ust as important as the test system itself. In making an analysis as to the system to be used the !"T specialist must first determine the status of many questions. #ome of which are$ a. Type of material% is it magnetic or nonmagnetic& b. Type of problem% discontinuities, alloy composition, cold working, over aging etc. c. 'ow these properties affect the article% will there be a conductivity change in nonmagnetic materials, or a conductivity and (or permeability change for )erro-magnetic materials. The validity of the eddy currents test rests solely on the capability of the !"T #pecialist to determine which system *equipment+ would be required to resolve the specific problem *task+.


The key element of the eddy current sensing system is the test coil. #ince the article configuration comes in many shapes and sizes, the coils likewise assume these configuration.

Test coil can be arranged in a number of ways. They may be placed around the article, inside the article or on the surface of the article. In each case the coil can be a single winding or a double winding arrangement. ,enerally, the second coil *secondary+ is wound inside the primary coil. -hysically, the coil appears as one single coil. Another type of double wind is the split coil or differential coil. These types of coils are wound side by side. .oil are wound on non-conducting materials, e.g., plastic , phenolic, etc. a. Surface Co ! Arra"#e$e"%& A surface coil '( #ure 3-1) is designed for use on the article surface. )or ma/imum effect, this coil must fit the contour of the surface. The coil can be contacting or non 0 contacting, operator held or automated.

( #ure 3-1& Surface Co !


Although from e/ternal appearance it is not always apparent, the probe may be shielded as shown in )igure 1-2.

( #ure 3-2& S) e!*e* Ga+ Co !

To minimize lift 0 off effects, spring 0 loaded coils *)igure 101 + are often used. This ensures that the coil maintains constant contact with the article3s surface and that this contact has a contact pressure. #uch coils can also be designed to hold the coil at specific distance above the article3s surface.


( #ure 3-3& S+r "# , Loa*e* Surface Co !

)igure 1-4 illustrates the use of a surface coil mounted so that the coil can be rotated about the circumference of the article. 5ftentimes, both the encircling coil and the spinning coil are used to ensure complete coverage of the area of interest. It should be noted that the coil may be stationary and the work rotated and traversed. b. E"c rc! "# Co ! Arra"#e$e"% $ The encircling coil *( #ure 3,-+ is used to enclose an article about one of its a/es to give the ma/imum effect from the article. This coil must be shorter than the article to reduce end effect. 1) SHAPE O( COILS The shape of the coil is not always circular. A coil produces the ma/imum effect if it closely coincides with the surface of the article being tested as in ( #ure 3,./ c. I"0 *e Co ! Arra"#e$e"% & The inside coil, )igure 106, is identical to the encircling coil but placed inside to ma/imize the sought after effects. To localize discontinuities within a tube, inside surface coils can be constructed with remote controls which permit the !"T specialist to position the coil at specific spots on the inside circumference of the tubing.


( #ure 3-1& E2a$+!e of S+ "" "# Co ! Arra"#e$e"%

( #ure 3--& E"c rc! "# Co !

( #ure 3-.& No"c rcu!ar Te0% Co !


( #ure 3-3& I"0 *e Co ! d. Ga+ Pro4e& This is a test coil using magnetic material to purposely shape the magnetic field to enhance the article3s effect on the induced eddy currents *similar to a recording head+, )igure 107. The probes can be either single coil or differential coils. The gaps involved typically are 8.89:; wide by 8.92:; long which allows very small defects to produce a sizeable indication. This probe may also be used to follow varying surfaces of the article, which tends to make it fairly universal for nonuniform shapes.

( #ure 3-5& Ga+ Pro4e


e. (ocu0e* Co !0& The focused coil3s magnetic field is specially shaped or focused by the method of winding *)igure 10<+. =hen this type of coil is used the relation and direction in which the article is presented to the coil must be consistent.

( #ure 3-6& (ocu0e* Co !0 f. 7 *e a"* Narro8 E"c rc! "# Co !0& The width of the coil is a function of the application. =ide coils cover large areas, so they respond mostly to bulk effects. e.g.conductivity% whereas, narrow coils sense small areas and will respond to lesser effects, e.g., discontinuities *)igure 198+. It must also be remembered that the coil must be small enough to avoid end effects.

( #ure 3-19& 7 *e a"* Narro8 E"c rc! "# Co !0 g. D rec% Curre"% Sa%ura% o" Co !0& >ddy current testing uses alternating current% 'owever, when testing magnetic materials, a saturation 76

technique suppresses the permeability. This saturation is accomplished by a direct current coil which surrounds the eddy current coil to maintain domain alignment within the test article. #ince this direct current magnetic field is stationery, there is no effect on the test coil. It can be seen that this direct current has to be free of ripple. This can be accomplished by winding the ". coil on a metal core. The larger the volume of the magnetic material within the test coil, the stronger the ". saturation field must be, usually requiring water cooling. The article tested may contain some residual magnetism after the test, which may be removed by demagnetizing.

( #ure 3-11& D rec% Curre"% Sa%ura% o" Co ! !otice in )igure 1-99 that the magnetizing curve approaches a ma/imum point where further increases in ' will not produce a change in ? 0 ' values. This means that further changes in magnetizing force *'+ will not produce changes in flu/ density when such a condition e/ists, the article is saturated. And under such a condition the permeability is constant. 5ne way to saturate the article is to use a direct current *".+. !ote that a ". coil is positioned on each side of the A. coil used in the rod under test. =hen an article is saturated the magnetic properties of the article will not generate further flu/ changes. The remaining flu/ changes will be caused solely by the test coil.

)igure 1092 illustrates the single absolute coil arrangement. In this arrangement, the same coil is used to induce eddy currents in the article and sense the article3s reaction on the eddy currents. This environment can be used for all three classes, encircling coil, inside coil and surface coil. 77

This single coil will test only the area under the coil and does not compare itself with a reference standard *e/ternal reference+. ?ecause it tests the article without a comparison, we call it @absolute;.

It is also possible to use two coils% one to establish the magnetic field and induce eddy currents into the article, and one to detect the changes in eddy current flow *)igure 1091+. !ote that this secondary coil has the indicating device connected across the coil and is not connected to an A. source. !ormally the secondary coil is located inside the primary coil and the two coils are referred to as double coil.

( #ure 3-12& S "#!e A40o!u%e Co ! Arra"#e$e"% In the double coil arrangement, the primary coil induces eddy currents into the article. The eddy currents, in turn, generate a magnetic field that reacts against the primary coil and also induces a current in the secondary coil. The indicating device presents the changes in eddy current flow.


( #ure 3-13& Dou4!e Co ! 'A40o!u%e)

The differential coil arrangement shown in )igure 1-94 provides a means of balancing out effects that are the same. The two coils are wound and connected so that the output of one coils cancels the output of the other coil when the article properties are the same under both coils. 5nly a slight difference *differential+ in material properties causes an imbalanced output indication.

( #ure 3-11& D ffere"% Co ! Arra"#e$e"%

)igure 1-9: illustrates the techniques of self 0 comparison. This technique uses one area of the test article as a reference standard against which another area on the same article is compared. It is assumed that a discontinuity will not e/tend over both areas or that the discontinuity e/tending over both areas is oriented so that difference will still be developed and reflected in the indication.

The coil arrangement in )igure 1-9A is e/actly the same as the self 0 comparison coil e/cept that it is set up slightly different. A differential coil arrangement can be set up with a carefully chosen, discontinuity 0 free test reference held stationary in one coil while the article being tested is moving through the other coil. 79

'ere, coils -2 0 #2 and the discontinuity 0 free article are set up as a reference standard. As the article being e/amined passes through coils -9 0 #9, a comparison is made with the references standard. !o indication is observed of course unless a discontinuity appears in the test article being e/amined. If a discontinuity passes through coils -9- #9, it causes a change in the coil impedance and thus an indication is e/hibited.

( #ure 3-1-& Se!f Co$+ar 0o" Co !0


( #ure 3-1.& E2%er"a! Co$+ar 0o" Arra"#e$e"%


>ddy current testing can be divided into three broad areas. These are referred to as impedance testing, phase analysis testing, and modulation analysis testing. The following paragraphs will describe the impedance testing% subsequent paragraphs will cover the two other forms of testing.

Testing based on a gross change in the impedance of the test coil when the coil is placed near the article is called impedance testing. )igure 2 0 1: illustrates such a system. In this case, the value of the current is changed by the impedance and this change in the current value provides the basis for an output indication. Bost of the portable conductivity testers and discontinuity detectors use circuits based on gross change in impedance when the test coil is placed near the article.

The testing technique is simple and direct when impedance testing is used. In most cases, the test coil is applied to the article and an observation is made. !ormally, one assumes that certain factors are constant% thus, a change in indication can be assumed to be related to only one variable.

The main advantage of impedance testing is the elimination of the need for e/tensive setup procedures. The technique is generally limited to the static conditions, since a moving system would increase the number of variables appearing in the output indication. )or e/ample, in a moving encircling coil system the presence of dimension changes would make it impossible to separate the conductivity variable from the dimension change in the output indication when impedance testing is used.


The difference in phase between the current flowing through a test coil and the voltage appearing across the coil provides the basis for phase analysis testing.

-hase analysis testing is defined as testing that is based on phase changes that occur in the test coil and the article on these phase changes. Through the cathode ray tube, these phase changes can be detected and used to make decisions about the article. It is also possible to establish conditions so that some variables which produce phase changes can be suppressed and only the variable of interest will be displayed.

-hase analysis testing is identified by three basic methods$ vector 0 point method, ellipse method, and linear time 0 base method. >ach of these provides a means of separating the conductivity variable from the permeability and dimension variables. The permeability and dimension variables produce phase changes in the same direction% therefore, it is not possible to separate these two variables by phase analysis testing unless direct current saturation is used. a. Cector 0 point Bethod $ )igure 1 0 96 illustrates the vector 0 point method. In this method the .DT display is a point of light which represents the composite voltage of the two voltage in a test coil. These two voltages are <8 degrees out of phase, and the composite voltage will be some combination of these two voltages. Through phase shifting circuits and frequency selection it is possible to have voltage C9 be the effects caused by the dimension variable *assume the permeability is constant+ and to have voltage C2 be the effect caused by the conductivity variable. The point of light will represent some combination of the two effects.


9. Through positioning controls it is possible to ad ust the circuits so that the point of light will fall in one of the four <8 degrees apart areas on the .DT screen. )igure 1 0 96 shows the point of light in the first <8 degree area. Ender these conditions a movement in the 5F direction *horizontal direction+ will represent a conductivity change 0 view @A;. Gikewise, a movement in the 5H direction *vertical direction+ will represent a dimension and (or permeability change 0 view @?;. 2. =hen the properties of both articles are the same, no output voltage will be developed% thus the point of light will be centered on the .DT screen. 1. The presence of a variable in the test article that is not the same as that of the reference standard will cause the point of light to move. ?y analyzing this movement *e.g., horizontal movement or vertical movement+ it becomes possible to know which variable *.onductivity or "imension+ is causing the change. =hen both variables are affecting the output indication at the same time, it is also possible to observe the e/tent of the variable3s effect on the output indication. b. E!! +0e Me%)o*& )igure 1 -97 shows in block form, the ellipse method. Gike the vector 0 point method, two articles are used and the test article balanced by the reference standard. !ormal output is a straight horizontal line when a condition of balance e/ists. The phase shifter serves the same purpose for the ellipse method as it did for the vector 0 point method. It positions the display horizontal on the cathode ray tube.


( #ure 3-13& <ec%or-Po "% Me%)o*


( #ure 3-15& E!! +0e Me%)o* 9. The ellipse method is capable of showing two variables at the same time/ 5ne variable is reflected by the position of the ellipse *or straight line+ in the .DT% the other variable is indicated by the size of the ellipse opening *small loop or large loop+. 2. In the normal application under balanced conditions, the .DT display will be a horizontal straight line. The line will assume an angular orientation if a condition of unbalance arises. The significance of the change can be assigned to the conductivity variable or to the dimensional variable, depending upon how the initial conditions are established. 1. The size of the loop provides the information about the second variable and this size can be related to the scales on the .DT screen to obtain quantitative values. 4. when both variables appear at the same time, an ellipse which is oriented at an angle will appear on the .DT. Through the use of the .DT screen scales, the two variables can be evaluated quantitatively. :. The waveform shown in )igure 1 -29 appear on the .DT because a condition of unbalance e/ists between the test article and the reference standard.


( #ure 3-21& U"4a!a"ce 7a=e (or$ The test article has the same permeability and conductivity properties as the reference standard. The only difference between the reference standard and a test article is a change in dimension. Ender these conditions a wave form will appear on the .DT screen. The .DT display can be any of a number of different displays% however, by using the phase control the wave form is ad usted as shown in view A. Ciew ? illustrates the voltage waveform applied to the .DT3# vertical plates. A. As shown in )igure 1 -22, the .DT display may assume a number of indications. The specific indication depends upon where the timing voltage starts the display of the generator output voltage. Any part of the generator wave form can be used as a starting point. This accounts for the number of displays shown. 6. In the linear time 0 base method, a vertical transparent piece with a slit marked on it is used to assist the !"T specialist in evaluating the waveform display. *)igure 1 0 21+. Through a phase control, the waveform can be ad usted so that the value at the slit is at a minimum value shown in )igure 1 0 21. If desired, it is also possible to ad ust the phase control so that the waveform is at a ma/imum value at the slit as shown in )igure 1 0 24.


( #ure 3-22& T>+ ca! L "ear T $e-:a0e Me%)o* I"* ca% o" 7. The significance of the waveform shown on the .DT depends upon how the initial conditions are established. )or e/ample, waveform in figure 1 0 2: represents a dimensional change of the test article dimension which is not the same as that of the reference standard. Ender such conditions an output voltage would be developed and this would be seen on the .DT. <. The purpose of the phase control should be clearly understood by the !"T specialist. The period of the timing voltage is the same as the period of the cycle supplied by the generator% however, the phase of the timing voltage with respect to the generator voltage can be changed. !ote in )igure 1 -2A that the phase control *also called a phase shifter+ is positioned between the generator and the timing voltage circuit. The purpose of this control is to shift the phase of the waveform on the .DT so that the waveform can be positioned properly with respect to the slit. 98. #ince the test coils and the properties of the articles produce phase changes, the waveform applied to the .DT3s vertical plates is out of phase with the generator output waveform. The phase control, using the same generator source, ad usts the timing voltage phase to some


definite phase value. The waveform shown to )igure 1 0 2A represents the condition where the timing voltage is in phase with the waveform applied to the .DT3s vertical plates.

( #ure 3-23& <er% ca! Tra"0+are"% S! %


99. 5nce the waveform shown in )igure 1 0 2A is obtained by setting the phase control, changes in this waveform will be caused by changes in the article3s properties. These property changes produce phase shifts and cause the phase relationship between the input to the .DT3s vertical plates and the timing voltage to change. This produces a change in waveform on the .DT. )or e/ample, the initial waveform can be as shown in view A, )igure 1 0 26. A phase change can then cause this waveform can then cause this waveform to appear as waveform as set up by the phase control. A change in the article3s properties can cause this waveform to change to that shown in view A. It3s all a question of how you establish your initial waveform.

No%e& ?y ad usting the -hase .ontrol, the signal can be moved left or right to the desired position ( #ure 3-21& P)a0e Co"%ro!

( #ure 3-2-& D $e"0 o" <ar a4!e 90

( #ure 3-2.& P)a0e Co"%ro!

( #ure 3-23& P)a0e C)a"#e 92. If the test article used to obtain the display in )igure 1 0 2A is now replaced by an article with a conductivity difference rather than a dimension difference, the .DT waveform will change. )or e/ample, a test article is selected with a dimension property that is not the same for the reference standard. All other variables are the same for both the reference standard and test article. Ender these conditions, an output voltage will appear across the secondary coil3s # 9 and #2 and this will cause a waveform to appear on the .DT screen *)igure 1 0 26+. This waveform can be any of a number of different displays , depending upon the setting of the phase control. Esing the phase control, the waveform is ad usted so that a zero value appears at the slit. This means that the ma/imum value of the wave form is <8 degrees out of phase with the slit. To cause this ma/imum


value to appear at the slit will now require a voltage that is <8 degrees out of phase with the voltage being applied to the .DT3s vertical plates. The test article is now removed from the test coil. If a test article with identical properties to the reference standard is placed in the test coil the .DT display will be straight line. 5n the other hand if an article with a difference in conductivity is placed in the test coil, the waveform in view ?, )igure 1 -26 will be obtained. This represents a <8 degree phase shift and slit value is now indicating a change in conductivity. 91. The use of an article with both a difference in dimension as well as a difference in conductivity should also be understood by the !"T specialist. =hen both variables are present, the value at the slit will represent only the conductivity variable and the dimension variable will be suppressed . This is because the initial setup ad usted the phase so that ma/imum value of the dimension variable was <8 degrees out of phase with the value at the slit. Esing a dimension variable and ad usting the phase control to obtain with the value at the slit. Esing a dimension variable and ad usting the phase so that ma/imum value of the dimension variable was <8 degrees out of phase with the value at the slit. Esing a dimension variable and ad usting the phase control to obtain the display shown in )igure 1 0 22 performed this task. Ender this condition, the dimension variable is not reflected at the slit but at a position <8 degrees out of phase with the slit position. 94. The linear time 0 base method has the capability of separating the two variables, since these two variables produce phase changes that are <8 degrees apart. Through the phase control, either variable can be selected for display at the slit.

The primary advantage of phase analysis is the ability to separate the conductivity variable from the dimension and permeability variables. In doing so, the technique is limited to the frequencies and test conditions which cause the two sets of variable to produce phase changes that are <8 degrees apart. -hase analysis is also limited to the isolation of the conductivity variable as a total variable, since the technique does not provide a means of isolating the various factor which affect the conductivity 92

variable. These factors represent another family of variables within the conductivity variable. -hase analysis is also limited by the !"T specialist ability to use the equipment and perform adequate interpretations of the .DT displays. It should also be noted that only one variable at a time can be suppressed by phase analysis.

5f the three basic approaches to eddy current testing *impedance testing, phase analysis testing, and modulation analysis testing+, the modulation approach provides the separation of more variables.

This technique is basically used for discontinuity analysis, since a discontinuity traveling through test coil magnetic field modulates *changes+ that field. If the coils are narrow and used differentially *i.e., very narrow field+, then the discontinuity has a relatively large signal 0 to p noise ratio and its frequency of modulation is a function of the discontinuity3s transit time through the coil3s magnetic field. As show an in )igure 1 0 27, a modulating devices is placed between a fi/ed frequency generator and an indicating devices. This modulation device will vary the effect indicating device.

( #ure 3-25& Mo*u!a% o" A"a!>0 0 S>0%e$

The modulation analysis testing technique is shown diagrammatically in )igure 1-2< terms of variables that can produce modulation. These are 93

compared on the basis that the article is moving produce an effect on the test coil. a. <ar a4!e0& Bodulation analysis provides the means of removing unwanted variables from the output display. It thus becomes possible to separate the desired variable from the unwanted effects which are producing variations. An electronic filter will pass only certain frequencies through the filter. Thus, by using the proper filter, one can suppress all frequencies e/cept those in a narrow band of frequencies. Esing this technique, the display can then show only very low frequencies, low and very low frequencies, intermediate frequencies, or very high frequencies. b. D ffere"% a! %e0% co ! arra"#e$e"%& To enhance modulation analysis a differential test coil is used. 'ere two ad acent areas of the article are compared and a signal difference can be measured. c. D $e"0 o" c)a"#e0& usually in products to be tested, i.e., tubes, bars, etc, uniformity of dimensions is very good. To state it another way, when comparing dimensions in two closely ad acent areas of the article, the dimension changes slowly, therefore the modulation is very !o8 fre?ue"c>/

d. C)e$ ca! co$+o0 % o"& chemical composition, alloy changes, and heat treat changes are usually slowly changing along the length of the article. Therefore, we have a !o8 fre?ue"c> modulation from these variables. e. La%% ce effec%0& .hanges in the atomic Gattice due to cold working, stress changes. etc., can occur over small areas of the article. These smaller areas in the article do not affect the differential test coils equally% therefore, we have an "%er$e* a%e fre?ue"c> of modulation. f. D 0co"% "u % e0& "iscontinuities of a small size tend to produce a relatively ) #) $o*u!a% o" frequency.

g. U0e& In a normal application which is primarily for discontinuities detection, the measuring instrument has ad ustable frequency filters to allow selection of the information desired *like bass 0 treble control on


hi-fi set+. The discontinuities frequency is a function of discontinuity size, coil design, and the speed that the article moves through the test coil magnetic field.

The modulation analysis approach provides a means of separating the variables to a greater e/tent than other testing methods. A ma or limitation is that the system is based on a moving article. #tatic test situations cannot be used.

( #ure 3-26& Mo*u!a% o" A"a!>0 0 Te0% "#

Gike other forms of nondestructive testing, references material with known characteristics are used as standards. In some cases, the standard is an article with known chemical or alloy composition characteristics and no discontinuities. This reference standard is used as a basis for comparison. In other cases, artificial or natural discontinuities are intentionally added to an article to form a calibration reference. 95

Articles as standards are used for several purposes. As shown in )igure 1 -9A an article can be used as an e/ternal reference. )or this arrangement the article has all the characteristics of an acceptable article. Articles with known variation from the acceptable article may be used in the initial setup of the system to suppress undesirable variables. Deference standards with known discontinuities are also used to verify the sensitivity of equipment as well as the overall performance of a testing system.

It is common practice to specify eddy current testing performance in terms of articles with discontinuities which can described by written procedures and can therefore be duplicated. ?oth artificial and natural discontinuities can be used. a. Ge"era! Re?u re$e"%0& A reference is prepared by selecting an article which is identical in composition, history, and dimensions to the articles being tested. The article should be as free as possible of inherent discontinuities. b. Ar% f c a! D 0co"% "u % e0& Types artificial discontinuities that can be used to simulate article discontinuities are longitudinal notches, circumferential notches, drilled holes, file cuts, pits, diameter, steps, and indentations, several methods e/ist for developing these discontinuities in an article. c. Na%ura! D 0co"% "u % e0& !atural discontinuities can be developed or accumulated. )or e/ample, cracks can be developed by submitting a material to cyclic stress until a natural fatigue crack is generated. This can then be machined to produce surface or hole crack of known depth. !atural discontinuities can also be accumulated over a period of time during routine testing of articles. These natural discontinuities can then be processed to provide reference value of known depths.

Articles can be classified as performance references or calibration references depending upon how the article is used. 96

a. Perfor$a"ce Refere"ce0& A performance reference is used to qualify a test system for a particular test. #uch a reference is normally used at the beginning of the test to ensure that all controls are properly set and that the system performance is normal. The article is prepared with a range of discontinuities to ensure that the system can detect the variables of interest. b. Ca! 4ra% o" Refere"ce0& The purpose of a calibration reference is to ensure that the amplitude and phase characteristic of a test system does not drift during continuous testing. =hen the test equipment is used for e/tended periods of time the calibration of some components may change. -eriodically the calibration reference is passed through the testing system to verify that the equipment is still calibrated and that amplitude and phase are stable. The types of discontinuities and their location in the calibration reference will not be the same as those in the performance reference because their function differs as test references.


1/ A" "crea0e " e!ec%r ca! co"*uc% = %> 0 %)e 0a$e a0 a+ an increase in electrical resistance b+ a decrease in electrical resistance c+ a decrease in electrical resistivity d+ none of the above 2/ Decrea0 "# f !! fac%or 0 e00e"% a!!> %)e 0a$e a0 a+ decreasing lift-off b+ increasing lift-off c+ increasing operating frequency d+ increasing the coil length 3/ 7) c) +ara$e%er $o=e0 %)e o+era% "# +o "% o" a" $+e*a"ce cur=e %o a +o "% o" a "e8 cur=e "0%ea* of u+ or *o8" %)e or # "a! $+e*a"ce cur=e@ a+ lift-off b+ resistivity c+ resistance d+ operating frequency 1/ 7) c) +ara$e%er *oe0 "o% $o=e %)e o+era% "# +o "% u+ %)e $+e*a"ce cur=e 8)e" "crea0e* a+ conductivity b+ tube *or plate+ thickness c+ operating frequency d+ all of the above -/ T)e 0 $+! f e* $+e*a"ce #ra+) re+re0e"%e* 4> %)e 0 $+!e 0e$ c rc!e a!!o80 for a ?ua! %a% =e a"a!>0 0 of +ara$e%er0 4u% *oe0 "o% a!!o8 for a+ skin depth b+ phase lag c+ magnetic permeability d+ all of the above ./ G =e" a co ! 8 %) -9 o)$ re0 0%a"ce a"* -9 $ cro)e"r e0 "*uc%a"ce a"* o+era%e* a% -9 AHBC 8)a% 0 %)e co ! $+e*a"ce@ a+ 92.2 ohms b+ 24.2 ohms c+ :8.2 ohms d+ 2:8 ohms


3/ G =e" a co ! 8 %) 2 o)$0 re0 0%a"ce a"* 29D) "*uc%a"ce 8)a% 0 %)e co ! $+e*a"ce@ a+ 9.:< ohms b+ 2.:: ohms c+ A.: ohms d+ 92.9 ohms 5/ G =e" a co ! 8 %) 29 o)$0 re0 0%a"ce a"* .9 $ cro)e"r e0 "*uc%a"ce a"* o+era%e* a% -9AHBE 8)e" 4rou#)% "e2% %o a" "co"e! 0a$+!e %)e $+e*a"ce 0 33/- o)$0 of 8) c) %)e %o%a! re0 0%a"ce 0 26/3 o)$0E 8)a% 0 %)e re0 0% =e !oa* of %)e 0a$+!e@ a+ <.1 ohms b+ 2A.1 ohms c+ AA.7 ohms d+ not possible to determine with information given 6/ G =e" a +ro4e o+era% "# "e2% %o a 0a$+!e 8 %) a %o%a! $ea0ure* $+e*a"ce of 2- o)$0E f curre"% f!o8 " %)e +ro4e 0 $ea0ure* a0 29$AE 8)a% 0 %)e =o!%a#e " %)e +ro4e@ a+ 8.92: C b+ : C c+ :8 C d+ 92: C 19/ 7)a% 0 %)e %o%a! $+e*a"ce of a +ro4eF0a$+!e c rcu % f %)e =o!%a#e *ro+ acro00 %)e +ro4e 0 -< a"* %)e +ro4e )a0 299$A curre"% f!o8 "# " %@ a+ 8.92: ohms b+ 2.: ohms c+ 2: ohms d+ 92: ohms 11/ I" e**> curre"% %e0% "#E a"> "for$a% o" a=a !a4!e a4ou% %)e %e0% +ar% 0 %ra"0ferre* %o %)e %e0% co ! = a a+ electro-chemical bonds b+ mechanical waves c+ the surrounding magnetic fields d+ none of the above 12/ T)e a!%er"a% "# curre"% re?u re* 4> %)e e**> curre"% %e0% 0u++! e* 4> %)e a+ transformer b+ phase rotator c+ A. to ". converter d+ sine wave oscillator 0


13/ S $+!e DC $e%er cracA *e%ec%or e**> curre"% "0%ru$e"%0 * 0+!a> a+ changes in voltage amplitude of the probe b+ impedance phase changes in the probe c+ crack depth only d+ crack width only 11/ 7)e" a 0 $+!e 8)ea%0%o"e 4r *#e 0 0a * %o 4e G4a!a"ce*G %)e =o!%a#e acro00 %)e $e%er " %)e 4r *#e 0 a+ zero b+ a minimum biased value c+ ma/imum d+ any value depending on the applied e/ternal voltage 1-/ I" a 0 $+!e $e%er-cracA *e%ec%or u0e* " e**> curre"% %e0% "#E %)e +ro4e co ! 0 a+ always wrapped counter clockwise b+ connected directly across the meter c+ one arm of the bridge circuit d+ two ad acent arms of the bridge circuit 1./ T)e 4r *#e c rcu % " %)e $e%er-%>+e cracA *e%ec%or u% ! Be0 a re0o"a"ce c rcu %/ U"! Ae %)e o%)er 4r *#e c rcu %0 u0e* 4> ECT "0%ru$e"%0 %)e0e co"%a " a+ capacitors b+ inductors c+ resistors d+ potentiometers 13/ Pro4e-ca4!e re0o"a"ce 0 a fac%or %o co"0 *er 8)e" o+era% "# a+ at high test frequencies b+ with long probe cables c+ both a and b d+ in noisy environments 15/ T)e #a " co"%ro! o" a #e"era! +ur+o0e e**> curre"% "0%ru$e"% a*Hu0%0 %)e a$+! %u*e of %)e a+ bridge output signal b+ bridge input signal c+ oscillator generator d+ probe current 16/ A"o%)er %er$ u0e* for #a " co"%ro! o" a #e"era! +ur+o0e e**> curre"% "0%ru$e"% 0 a+ power b+ phase control c+ sensitivity d+ none of the above 100

29/ T)e +r $ar> fu"c% o"0 of %)e +)a0e 0) f% co"%ro! o" a #e"era! +ur+o0e e**> curre"% "0%ru$e"% 0 %o a+ permit better discrimination between probe wobble and genuine parameter variations b+ act as a signal filter c+ eliminate support plate signals in heat e/changer inspections d+ eliminate the effect of temperature drift 21/ G =e" %)e effec% of %e$+era%ure o" re0 0%a"ce =ar e0 4> RIRo'1J KT)E f KI-9/1 8)a% 8 !! )a++e" 8)e" +ro4e %e$+era%ure "crea0e0 fro$ 29LC %o 19LC@ ' No%e& T I c)a"#e " %e$+era%ure 4e%8ee" re0 0%a"ce R a% %)e "e8 %e$+era%ure a"* Ro re0 0%a"ce a% %)e refere"ce %e$+era%ure)/ a+ the probe(cable resistance will be reduced to half b+ the probe(cable resistance will double c+ the probe(cable resistance will increase d+ the probe(cable resistance will decrease 22/ Te$+era%ure *r f% re0u!%0 fro$ a+ instrument heating b+ working on chillers c+ probe(cable temperature changes d+ all of the above 23/ T)e +ro4!e$ 8 %) $e%er ou%+u% ECT "0%ru$e"%0 0 a+ no depth can be determined for flaws located b+ no ability e/ists to discriminate real and false indications c+ both a and b d+ none of the above, there is no significant limitations of meter instruments compared to storage .DT type instruments 21/ I" 0o$e 0e"*-rece =e ECT 0>0%e$0E %)e rece =e co ! ca" 4e re+!ace* 4> a+ capacitors b+ piezoelectric elements c+ magnetrostrictive transducers d+ 'all detectors 2-/ T)e $a " * ffere"ce 4e%8ee" #e"era! +ur+o0e $+e*a"ce ECT "0%ru$e"%0 a"* #e"era! +ur+o0e 0e"*-rece =e ECT "0%ru$e"%0 0 a+ size b+ response time c+ ma/imum frequency of operation d+ balancing method


2./ I" $u!% fre?ue"c> "0%ru$e"%0E %8o or $ore fre?ue"c e0 are u0e* 0 $u!%a"eou0!> a+ in the same coil*s+ b+ in separate coils *one for each frequency+ c+ both a and b d+ none of the above 23/ 7) c) 0 a" "0%ru$e"% %)a% ca" 4e u0e* %o recor* e**> curre"% 0 #"a!0 fro$ a #e"era! +ur+o0e ECT "0%ru$e"% a+ F-H recorder b+ )-B tape recorder c+ multi-channel stripchart recorder d+ all of the above 25/ Mo0% #e"era! +ur+o0e ECT "0%ru$e"%0 a!!o8 %)e o+era%or %o e2a$ "e 0 #"a!0 * rec%!> o" %)e ECT "0%ru$e"% 4> $ea"0 of a+ F-H recorders b+ .DT storage monitors c+ strip recorders d+ TTG monitors 26/ S%r +c)ar% recor*er0 are a co$$o" $ea"0 of recor* "# e**> curre"% 0 #"a!0 8 %) re0+ec% %o % $e/ T)e0e recor*er0 +!ace recor* of %)e 0 #"a!0 o"%o c)ar% +a+er 4> $ea"0 of a+ ink b+ heat c+ light d+ all of the above can be used 39/ I" %)e 4a0 c e**> curre"% $ac) "eE %)e o0c !!a%or 0e%0 %)e a+ sensitivity b+ resistance c+ test frequency d+ characteristic frequency 31/ A" e**> curre"% "0%ru$e"%M0 a4 ! %> %o +ro= *e a re! a4!e ou%+u% 0 #"a! a0 a fu"c% o" of %)e "0+ec% o" 0+ee* 0 4a0e* o" %)e "0%ru$e"%M0 a+ frequency response b+ balance mechanism c+ operating frequency d+ internal resonance frequency


32/ Ca! 4ra% o" %u4e0 u0e* for e**> curre"% %e0% "# are $a*e of a+ stainless steel b+ copper or brass c+ the same material as the material to be tested d+ material identical in composition and size to that being tested 33/ 7)e" a" e**> curre"% +ro4e 0 $o=e* %o8ar*0 %)e e*#e of a %e0% + ece +ar% of %)e $a#"e% c f e!* $o=e0 ou%0 *e of %)e $e%a! %e0%e*/ T) 0 re0u!%0 " a+ permeability b+ resonance c+ edge effect d+ ohmic effect 31/ A $ 2%ure of %8o or $ore $e%a!0 $e!%e* or fu0e* %o#e%)er %o for$ a "e8 $e%a! 0 %er$e* a'") a+ weld b+ alloy c+ agglomerate d+ composite 3-/ A** % o"0 of 0$a!! a$ou"%0 of a!!o> "# $e%a!0 %o +ure $e%a!0 re0u!% " a+ increasing conductivity b+ decreasing conductivity c+ increasing conductivity only if the alloying metal is more conductive d+ increasing conductivity only if the alloying metal is less conductive than the base metal 3./ (or $a%er a!0 )a= "# a re!a% =e $a#"e% c +er$ea4 ! %> of o=er 2E co"*uc% = % e0 *e%er$ "e* 4> e**> curre"% $e%)o*0 "o% u0 "# DC f e!* or $a#"e% c 0a%ura% o" %ec)" ?ue0 8 !! 4e a+ inaccurate but within I(- 98J b+ totally unreliable c+ corrected by dividing the value by the Krel d+ corrected by multiplying the value by the Krel 33/ 7) c) of %)e fo!!o8 "# co"* % o"0 cou!* cau0e a" error " %)e e**> curre"% %e0% re0u!%0 for re0 0% = %>@ a+ e/cessive curvature of the test piece b+ pro/imity to the edge of the part c+ metal thickness less than effective depth of penetration d+ all of the above


35/ 7)a% 0 %)e +ro%ec% =e coa% "# +u% o" %)e 0%a"*ar*0 u0e* for e**> curre"% *e%er$ "a% o"0 of re0 0% = %>@ a+ polymethyl methylacrylate *-BBA+ b+ anti-rust primer paint c+ an o/ide film d+ none of the above *no protective coating is used+ 36/ 7) c) of %)e fo!!o8 "# 8ou!* 4e u0e* o" a 0a$+!e u0e* a0 a co"*uc% = %> ca! 4ra% o" 0%a"*ar*@ a+ >"B notches b+ flat bottom holes c+ saw cuts d+ none of the above 19/ Coa% "# %) cA"e00 0%a"*ar*0 are a=a !a4!e " 8)a% for$@ a+ foils *shims+ laid on a substrate b+ actual coatings affi/ed to a substrate c+ both a and b d+ none of the above, coating standards are not available 11/ 7)e" +erfor$ "# 0or% "# %e0%0 u0 "# a" a40o!u%e e"c rc! "# co !E 8)a% 0 re?u re* " 8a> of 0%a"*ar*0@ a+ one magnetic and one nonmagnetic sample b+ one acceptable sample and one unacceptable sample c+ one sample traceable to national standards d+ no standards are required 12/ 7)e" cracA "# 0 a 0 #" f ca"% f!a8 fou"* " %e0% + ece0E 8)a% 0 %)e $o0% cr % ca! a0+ec% of %)e cracA@ a+ length b+ width c+ depth d+ sharpness of its ends 13/ I" ear!> *a>0 of e**> curre"% %e0% "#E 0%a"*ar*0 8ere $a*e 4> *r !! "# )o!e0E %)e )o!e0 * a$e%er0 8ere 0$a!!er %)a" %)e +ro4e * a$e%er a"* *ee+er %)a" %)e e**> curre"% +e"e%ra% o" *e+%)/ 7)a% 8a0 %)e ! $ % %o 0uc) G%ar#e%0G@ a+ there was no sensitivity to holes smaller than coil diameter b+ only amplitude varied with hole size c+ only phase varied with hole size d+ phase and amplitude were constant for all LtargetsL


11/ 7)a% 0 %)e +referre* for$ of 0 $u!a% "# cracA0 " %e0% 0%a"*ar*0 for e**> curre"% %e0% "#@ a+ end milled flat bottom holes b+ side drilled holes c+ longitudinal notches d+ micro-peening of the opposite surface 1-/ T)e 4 ##e0% * 0a*=a"%a#e of u0 "# "a%ura! cracA0 a0 a ca! 4ra% o" 0%a"*ar* 0 a+ its poor duplication of field cracks b+ the e/pense of acquiring such specimens c+ the rate at which the crack faces o/idize d+ detection on the standard 1./ U"*er 8)a% co"* % o"0 8ou!* * # %a! "u$er c * 0+!a> 4e 0u %a4!e "0%ea* of %)e co$+!e2 $+e*a"ce +!a"e 'CRT) * 0+!a>@ a+ for gauging crack depth b+ for gauging coating thickness c+ to discriminate between conductive and ferrite deposits in tube testing d+ to display corrosion in multilayered riveted sheets 13/ 7)a% 0 u0e* " e**> curre"% "0%ru$e"%a% o" %o re$o=e %)e u"8a"%e* effec%0 of "o 0e 0 #"a!0@ a+ resonant circuits b+ filters c+ doughnut coil probes d+ ferrite cups 15/ 7)a% +ara$e%er *oe0 a $e%er * 0+!a> e**> curre"% "0%ru$e"% +ro= *e@ a+ amplitude change b+ phase change c+ both a and b d+ none of the above 16/ A0 co$+are* %o a 0+ "" "# 4o44 " co !E a co"ce"%r c r "# of Ha!! *e%ec%or0 u0e* " "%er"a! "0+ec% o" of c>! "*er0 )a0 8)a% a*=a"%a#e@ a+ continuous circumferential detection b+ depth of penetration c+ size of flaw detected is smaller d+ orientation of defects is not a limit to their detection


-9/ T)e effec% =e 0e"0 "# area of a +ro4e e2%e"*0 4e>o"* Hu0% %)e co ! * a$e%er *ue %o a+ induced permeability b+ magnetic field spreading c+ the edge effect d+ diffraction in the near zone -1/ T)e %)rou#)-8a!! %ra"0$ 00 o" '0e"*-rece =e) %ec)" ?ue of e**> curre"% %e0% "# 0 u0e* %o o=erco$e %)e +ro4!e$0 a00oc a%e* 8 %) a+ penetration of thicker materials b+ depth determination c+ flaw characterization d+ all of the above -2/ 7)a% $u0% 4e A"o8" a4ou% a *efec% %o 4e !oca%e* 4> e**> curre"% %e0% $e%)o*0@ a+ minimum size b+ probable orientation c+ suspected depth d+ all of the above -3/ If a" "* ca% o" 0 o40er=e* o" %)e e**> curre"% 0%ora#e $o" %or *ur "# a" "0+ec% o"E % 0 =er f e* a0 a rea! *efec% or a"o%)er =ar a4!e 4> NNNNNNNNNNNN a"* re- "=e0% #a% "# %)e area/ a+ rotating phase of display b+ increasing sensitivity c+ changing the frequency d+ increasing lift-off -1/ 7)e" $aA "# re0 0% = %> $ea0ure$e"%0 >ou $u0% 4e cau% ou0 of #eo$e%r c effec%0 %)a% $ #)% cau0e erro"eou0 rea* "#0/ T)e0e effec%0 ca" 4e $ " $ Be* 4> a+ probe design *small coil or ferrite cups+ b+ taking measurements on thick samples and away from edges c+ increasing test frequency d+ all of the above --/ T)e occurre"ce of +ro4e-ca4!e re0o"a"ce ca" 4e "o% ce* 4> %)e o+era%or 8)e" a+ a probe and cable which balanced at a low frequency will not balance as frequency is increased b+ the probe begins to feel warm c+ a strange ringing sound is emitted off the probe d+ both b and c occur


-./ T)e a2 0 of a 0urface +ro4e 0 a+ parallel to the test surface b+ perpendicular to the test surface c+ used for calibrating lift-off d+ none of the above -3/ T8o ECT +ro4e0 are 4u !% 8 %) %)e 0a$e * a$e%er a"* 8 re 0 Be 0 c)a"#e* %o e"0ure %)e 0a$e co ! cro00-0ec% o"/ T)e co ! u0 "# 0$a!!er * a$e%er 8 re o4= ou0!> )a0 $ore %ur"0/ T)e "*uc% =e reac%a"ce 8 !! 4e a+ greater for the probe with more turns b+ greater for the probe with fewer turns c+ the same for both probes d+ none of the above -5/ T)e +a r of co"* % o"0 $o0% ! Ae!> %o cau0e +ro4e-ca4!e re0o"a"ce 0 a+ long cable and high operating frequency b+ long cable and low operating frequency c+ short cable and high operating frequency d+ short cable and low operating frequency -6/ 7) c) 0 "o% a +o00 4!e f !!-fac%or =a!ue@ a+ 9.9 b+ 9.8 c+ 8.< d+ 8.9 .9/ Mu!% -+a"caAe co ! +ro4e0 a"* B #-Ba# co ! +ro4e0 are 0o$e% $e0 u0e* a0 "%er"a! %u4e "0+ec% o" +ro4e0 4ecau0e a+ conventional bobbin coils are too sensitive to temperature b+ they have better sensitivity to circumferential cracks c+ they are insensitive to permeability changes d+ they are cheaper to make .1/ Ca! 4ra% o" 0%a"*ar*0 u0e* for co"*uc% = %> %e0% "# are u0ua!!> cer% f e* %o "a% o"a! 0%a"*ar*0/ Ho8 %) cA are %)e>@ a+ 98 mil b+ 98 mm c+ 2 cm d+ LinfiniteL thickness .2/ M " $u$ re0 0% = %> for a 0+ec f c $e%a! occur0 8)e" a+ no alloying metals are added b+ when alloy content is between 8.:J and :J c+ when alloy content approaches :8J


d+ for any amount of alloy provided the alloying material has a lower resistivity than the base metal .3/ 7)a% 0 %)e effec% =e *e+%) of +e"e%ra% o"@ '8)ere O 0 %)e 0%a"*ar* *e+%) of +e"e%ra% o") a+ M b+ 2M c+ 1M d+ 98mm .1/ Pure a""ea!e* co++er )a0 a re0 0% = %> of 1/3211Do)$-c$ a% 29LC/ 7)a% $u0% 4e *o"e %o %) 0 =a!ue %o co"=er% % %o %)e 199P IACS =a!ue@ a+ multiply by 8.89 b+ divide by 988 c+ divide by 8.896249 d+ both a and b .-/ 7)e" "0+ec% "# f ""e* %u4 "# %o 0+ec f ca!!> "=e0% #a%e %)e !a"* area0 u"*er %u4e 0u++or% +!a%e0 for fre%% "# a" a40o!u%e +ro4e 0 of%e" u0e*/ I% 0 o+era%e* a% a !o8er fre?ue"c> %)a" %)e * ffere"% a! $o*e u0e* " %)e f ""e* area/ 7)>@ a+ to reduced effects of larger I" land area b+ to ensure adequate penetration c+ both a and b d+ because absolute mode requires lower frequency for the same penetration ../ 7)> 0 %)e a40o!u%e co ! %e0% +referre* o=er %)e * ffere"% a! for "0+ec% o" of f ""e* %u4 "# !a"* area0 %o e=a!ua%e for fre%% "#@ a+ the probe is small and fits better in the gap b+ the signals are easier to interpret c+ differential probes cannot be balanced in the land areas d+ the operating frequency of absolute probes is higher so more sensitive .3/ 7) c) of %)e fo!!o8 "# $o0% accura%e!> *e0cr 4e0 %)e or e"%a% o" of %)e 0%a"*ar* 0 "#!e co ! +ro4e u0e* for #e"era! +ur+o0e "%er"a! e**> curre"% %e0%0 of )ea% e2c)a"#er %u4 "#@ a+ internal a/ial coil b+ I.". coil c+ bobbin coil d+ inside coil


.5/ A!%)ou#) "crea0 "# co ! !e"#%) "crea0e0 "*uc%a"ce a"* %)ere4> 0e"0 % = %>E 8)> are %)ere u++er ! $ %0 %o +rac% ca! "crea0e0 of "*uc%a"ce 4> "crea0 "# co ! !e"#%) for 0urface %e0% "# e**> curre"% $e%)o*0@ a+ part curvature is the limiting factor b+ regions of the coil remote from the test surface have little effect on the induced eddy currents c+ capacitive effects begin to dominate d+ resistive effects begin to dominate .6/ Ho8 0 %e$+era%ure *r f% a=o *e* 4> * ffere"% a! co !0@ a+ low current draw b+ coils are wound in opposition c+ both coils are at the same temperature d+ both b and c 39/ 7)a% 0 %)e +ur+o0e of 0+r "# !oa* "# 0urface +ro4e0@ a+ reduce coil deterioration b+ minimize lift-off effect c+ smooth out burrs on rough surfaces d+ to activate paint markers on defective areas 31/ S #"a!0 or $ea0ure$e"%0 $a*e 8 %) 0 "#!e 0e"0 "# co ! 8 %)ou% a * rec% refere"ce are a+ absolute b+ differential c+ biased d+ modulated 32/ O"e or $ore %ur"0 of a co"*uc%or 8ou"* +ro*uce a $a#"e% c f e!* 8)e" curre"% +a00e0 %)rou#) %)e co"*uc%or 0 a+ an annular array b+ a bobbin c+ a coil d+ a sensor 33/ A"o%)er %er$ for %)e a""u!ar co ! 0 %)e a+ bobbin coil b+ absolute coil c+ encircling coil d+ comparator coil


31/ :o44 " co !0 are 0o$e% $e0 referre* %o a0 a+ absolute b+ annular coils c+ bucking coils d+ I" coils 3-/ IACS 0%a"*0 for %)e a+ International Annealed .opper #tandard b+ International Association for .onductivity #tudies c+ Industrial Accident .ommission of #afety d+ Inspection Acceptance .riteria and #tandards 3./ 7) c) of %)e fo!!o8 "# *oe0 "o% f %@ a+ feed-through coil b+ encircling coil c+ annular coil d+ bucking coil 33/ A"o%)er "a$e for a" "0er%e* co ! 0 a NNNNNNNNNN co !/ a+ inside b+ bobbin c+ I" d+ all of the above


Q/NO/ 9 2 1 4 : A 6 7 < 98 99 92 91 94 9: 9A 96 97 9< 28 29 22 21 24 2: 2A 26 27 2< 18 ANS . ? A " " . ? A ? . . " A A . A . A . A " . . " " A " ? " . Q/NO/ 19 12 11 14 1: 1A 16 17 1< 48 49 42 41 44 4: 4A 46 47 4< :8 :9 :2 :1 :4 :: :A :6 :7 :< A8 ANS A " . ? ? ? " " " . ? . ? . ? ? ? . A ? A " . " A ? " A A ? Q/NO/ A9 A2 A1 A4 A: AA A6 A7 A< 68 69 62 61 64 6: 6A 66 ANS " A . . . ? A ? " ? A . . " A " "


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