CHAPTER - 5 EDDY CURRENT METHOD CONTROL AND TEST SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

GENERAL
Eddy current testing equipment requires method control for maximum sensitivity. In some cases this can be very simple, such as a specially designed jig, coil or probe. In other application it might be handling and feeding equipment to control certain variables Since you will use nondestructive testing to improve the structural confidence level, it is desirable to build reliability into the non-destructive testing systems. his does not necessarily involve extreme complexity. In many instances it can be !ept very simple. "e sure the entire system is suited to the test to be performed. #ery little is accomplished, for example, if the eddy current equipment used to test cylinder is speed sensitive and the conveying or driving apparatus permits wide speed variations. he basic elements of the eddy current testing system are the coil or sensing unit, the generator, and the indicator. $ormally the generator and the indicator may be considered a piece of standard equipment, which leaves the coil as the element of primary interest. %oils are usually developed for a particular function by selecting a material and coil parameters that will match a particular generator which is to be used.

COIL PARAMETERS 1) GENERAL
he theory behind coil design is very complex, therefore, only a limited coverage of this subject will be presented. &ctually, the design, choice, and application is more of an art than a science since in many cases, the $' specialist involved is not aware of problems caused by certain variables until testing has actually begun. (urther, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to predict what conditions are present in the test article and how they will influence test system response.

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hrough building and testing of probes or coils, !nowledge of eddy currents and their application may be acquired. "y observing the test results, the $' specialist will be able to learn many of the characteristics of properly and)or improperly designed probes or coils.

2) PROBE SIZE
*ne of the major faults in eddy current testing is the use of an oversi+e probe. he probe coil should be no greater than twice the length of the minimum discontinuity of interest.

3) FIELD SPREAD
It also must be reali+ed that the eddy current field in a probe will be confined to an area approximately equal to the diameter of the probe coil. his would mean that in eddy currents the field spread in negligible.

4) FILL FACTOR
,hen designing an inside or encircling coil the -fill factor. /I' of coil *' of article or vice versa0 is the primary consideration.

5) WINDING
In the design of the test probe or coil the actual winding should be as close to the area of interest as possible so that the area will receive the strongest eddy current field.

6) TYPE OF MOUNTING
he type of mounting material for the probe or coil does not have to be elaborate. & well insulated stiff, nonconductor which will support or hold the firmly against or around the article is sufficient.

) WIRE GUAGE
he wire gauge should be no smaller than number 12 /.3340. & larger si+e is permissible.

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!) NUMBER OF TURNS
he exact number of turns for the best results depends on the application. Several examples are5 a. C"#$% (or an article 1)6 inch diameter or less, approximately 43 turns for the coil wound to fit the article. (or article 1)6 to 7 inch diameter, about 14 turns for the coil. he coils may be wound /using the same number of turns0 either with a short axial length, and large radial build up to spread out the eddy currents, or the coils may be wound with a long axial length and small redial build-up to test only a small area, depending on the particular application. b. P&"'(% 8eneral purpose probe5 panca!e 7)6 inch thic! /axial dimension0 wound on a 7)6 inch diameter nonconductive rod with 793 turns of number 14 gauge enameled wire. his type can be used on magnetic or non-magnetic metals. c. I)*#+( C"#$% :anca!e 7)6 inch thic! /axial dimension0 wound on a 3.393 inch diameter ferrite core 4)1; inch long with 7<3 turns of number 12 gauge enameled wire. (errite cores are used primarily to made a small coil diameter possible.

,) EVALUATION
o determine that the proper number of coil wire turns were used chec! the coil in the following manner5 a. :lace the object being tested fully within the coil, the meter indicator pointer should read on-scale of any -(requency. control setting after ma!ing -"alance. and -=ift-off. control adjustments at maximum sensitivity. b. If the conditions cannot be met, remove several turns and try again.

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SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
1) GENERAL
>any types of test system are available. &lthough most test systems are basically impedance bridges of one form or another, they come in a variety of si+es, shapes, and designs. Some systems are used only for magnetic materials, others for non-magnetic materials. Some systems are probe coils, others encircling or inside coils, while still others are designed for use on a variety of materials and use both probe and encircling coils. The question arises as to how the engineer or NDT specialist chooses the proper test system. Perhaps the clearest way to show the process involved in system development is to present and then solve typical test problems.

2) THE SEPARATION OF IMPROPERLY -UENCHED MOLYDENUM-CHROMIUM-VANADIUM STEEL CYLINDERS ./ S0.0(1()0 "2 3&"'$(1
& number of ;4)1; inch diameter cylinder ruptured during dynamic pressure testing. (ailure analysis disclosed that the failure was metallurgical in nature and not mechanical being attributed to improper heat treat with a resulting grain structure of ferrite, bainite and some martensite. he latter causing the failure when the 45$#)+(& was subjected to dynamic pressure testing. Since large volumes of these cylinders were in stoc! and no positive means of identification as to heat, each would require some type of testing to identify heat treat status. he solution required a rapid, economical means of nondestructively screening the properly heated cylinders from improperly heat treated.

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'/ NDT A).$5*#*
(1) (2) The material in question was magnetic eat treatment will change the permeability and conductivity properties in magnetic materials! the change depends upon the stage o" heat treat. (#) (%) $ddy currents can separate and evaluate permeability and conductivity changes. The e""ect o" improper quenching is a gradual change and will not behave li&e a locali'ed discontinuity( not requiring 1))* coverage o" the questionable articles.

4/ NDT A).$5*#*
/70 R(2(&()4( S0.)+.&+ Selected a properly quenched tube for the reference standard /tube0 and verify metallographically for 733? martensitic microstructure. E++5 C6&&()0 S5*0(1 S($(40#") 'ifferential encircling coil system was selected with a test frequency of 23 cps or less for magnetic material. he field strength was ;4 to @4 oersteds. his was determined by obtaining normal induction curves from the articles representing improper quench and properly quenched articles. If such curves are not available, a series of trail and error tests must be conducted to resolve the difference between the articles by varying the field strength.

/;0

+/ R(.+"60
Aeadout in this case could be on either a meter or an oscilloscope /%A 0. (igure 4-7 shows the %A wave pattern for properly quenched tube /view &0 and improperly quenched tube /view "0. with a meter, an improperly quenched tube indicated by a needle detection away from +ero /(igure 4-;0.

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(/ S611.&5
Several observations could be drawn from this problem. Since the article was magnetic both permeability and conductivity would vary according to the heat treat. &n improper quench would lower conductivity by increasing the permeability /opening of hysteresis loop0. his loss would results in a different voltage being developed across the secondary of a coil encircling the tubes with correct and incorrect quenching. he output from the secondary of the test coil would be buc!ed against the secondary voltage obtained from a reference coil containing a 733 percent martensitie.

F#76&( 5-1% CRT P&(*()0.0#")

F#76&( 5-2% M(0(& P&(*()0.0#")

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:roperly quenched tube and the difference between these two voltages would be amplified and displayed in the readout sub-system. he displayed voltage, therefore, could be related to the metallurgical difference between the test tube and the reference standard.

3) SEPARATION OF IMPROPERLY WELDED TITANIUM PRESSURE VESSELS
In many cases the solution to a problem may not require designing a special coil. *ften it is only necessary to prepare a representative standard. Such was the case in the following problem5 a. Statement of problem 'uring the fabrication of a group of titanium alloy, ti-2<7-<#, pressure vessels, an unauthori+ed change in welding procedure resulted in a number of the vessels being welded with commercially pure titanium weld wire which caused embrittled weldments. he records were not sufficient to determine which vessels were properly welded and which were improperly welded. herefore, it was necessary to develop nondestructive testing procedure for sorting the good and bad vessels. & study of the welding process revealed that at some point in the fabrication of the pressure vessels, the approved i-2<7-<# welding wire was replaced with a commericial pure titanium wire. Since these alloys differ in conductively by a ratio of 157 /commercial pure titanium versus alloy titanium0, an eddy current test was selected as the most promising $' tool.

'/ NDT A).$5*#*
7. weld material is nonmagnetic. ;. Impedance /surface probe0 method should be used. 1. here is considerable difference in electrical conductivity of the two filler wires used. <. Aepresentative standards of the two welds must be prepared.

4/ NDT P&"4(+6&(
7. Standard welds were prepared, using each type of wire.

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;. & variable frequency eddy current instrument was selected for the test. 1. he standard probe, supplied with the instrument, and a frequency of approximately 13 !cps were used. <. he sensitivity and balance of the instrument were adjusted to give a minimum on-scale reading when the probe was placed on the weld made within the i-2&I-<#. when the probe /coil0 was then placed on the weld made with the pure titanium wire, the instrument gave a full scale deflection, (igure 4-1. 4. he suspect welds were than tested, with any large, up-scale deflection being considered sufficient for pinpointing the discrepant welds.

F#76&( 5-3% T#0.)#61 P&(**6&( V(**($

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+/ S611.&5
Several meter readings were ta!en at various location on each vessels to eliminate the possibility that the coil may be detecting a crac! and therefore giving a low scale deflection whereby the commercially pure titanium welds could be mista!en for alloy weldments.

4) DETECTION OF GRINDING CRAC8S IN VALVE ASSEMBLY ./ S0.0(1()0 "2 P&"'$(1*
8rinding crac!s in a valve subassembly did not permit a seal to be made. he material was special B-;33 steel with magnetic permeability of 729 in the annealed condition and an electrical resistivity of <3 micro-ohmcm. he part was a <. cube with four 1)6. diameter holes extending ;. into the material /(igure 4-<0. he 1)6. diameter holes were finished with a grinding operation which became the origin of the grinding crac!s. &ll articles that contain grinding crac!s are questionable.

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F#76&( 5-4% V.$9( A**(1'$5

'/ NDT A).$5*#*
:1) :2) :3) 8rinding crac!s are surface crac!s and in this particular problem will only lend themselves to detection by eddy currents. he length of the expected crac!s will be .3334 inch ot .334 inch. he material is ferromagnetic.

4/ NDT P&"4(+6&(
:1) 'ue to the high resistivity of the material and the desired test depth a relatively high frequency may be used. (or this problem, a frequency of ;3 !cps was used. &n inside absolute type of coil must be used. Since the material had a high permeability, an encircling dc coil was used to provide magnetic saturation. he dc coil design is not criticalC however, the field must be strong enough the provide saturation. he saturation point was ta!en from a " and D curve for B-;33 Steel. he coil was wound with 43 turns of number 12 gauge magnet wire. &fter winding the coil was chec!ed for compatibility with the test instrument. his was performed by connecting the coil with the instrument and by balance and -lift-off., determines if the meter remained on the scale. & reference standard was developed using a simulated sample with !nown grinding crac!s. he part was tested by inserting the coil into the holes and sliding the coil along the entire length of the hole while monitoring the meter for a change in out-put indication. %hange in the output indication indicated grinding crac!s and the article is questionable.

:2) :3)

:4)

:5) :6)

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+) S611.&5
*nce a system of this type has been set up and calibrated, rapid testing may be performed. Since several parts were to be tested, periodic chec!s for system drift were made with the standard. Eddy currents in this case provided 733? $ondestructive testing where only destructive sampling was previously possible.

SUMMARY
he use of electromagnetic waves for nondestructive testing outdates even the experimental proof of the reality of these waves. here is no doubt that the electromagnetic method tends to respond sensitively to almost every type of physical change in metals. he extreme sensitivity of the induction balance to many different types of variables, including breathing source of its greatest difficulty. It was and still is, sensitive to many variables other than the one being studied, the results being that the electromagnetic method, not unli!e other methods of nondestructive testing, has not always been quantitative in response. Efforts today are pointed towards developments in this area. he phase sensitive method analysis and multiple- frequency techniques have been developed. Significant improvements have also resulted from speciali+ed coil design. ransistori+ed electromagnetic equipment has resulted in the production of highly complex long trouble free lifetimes, as well as miniaturi+ed highly portable apparatus. -i+ed electromagnetic equipment has resulted in the production of highly complex long trouble free lifetimes, as well as miniaturi+ed highly portable apparatus. %urrently, eddy current testing has been developed to the stage where it provides rapid, accurate, and reproducible nondestructive testing. It is compatible with electronic control circuits and, therefore, suited to automatic or semi-automatic testing on production lines. It has speeded up certain types of tests formerly performed manually and in some cases has offered 733? nondestructive testing, where only destructive sampling was

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previously possible. he preceding examples of eddy current applications indicate the diversity of this field. he $' specialist will be concerned primarily with the testing of hardware but in some cases may participate in the design and development f highly complex systems. he eddy current method should only be used where applicable and not loo!ed upon as a solution to every $' problem. he $' specialist who wishes to expand his !nowledge of eddy currents and their applicable will find sample additional information presented in $' handboo!, journals and reports.

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CHAPTER ; 5
EDDY CURRENT METHOD CONTROL AND TEST SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LEVEL II - -UESTIONNAIRE
1/ I2 0<( &(*#*0.)4( #) . 1 41 $")7 =#&( #* 2 "<1* =<() #0 <.* >/141 +#.1(0(&? =<.0 =#$$ 0<( &(*#*0.)4( '( #) . =#&( "2 0<( *.1( $()70< .)+ 1.0(&#.$ '60 ")$5 >/>541 +#.1(0(&@ a0 7 ohm b0 ; ohms c0 < ohms d0 6 ohms 2/ W<() 0<( (++5 46&&()0 0(*0 *5*0(1 #* &(3&(*()0(+ '5 0<( 0&.)*2"&1(& 0<( *.13$( 4.) '( 4")*#+(&(+ 0<( *(4")+.&5 =#)+#)7 =#0< a0 a single turn b0 73 turns c0 +ero turns d0 none of the above, it is not possible to determine 3/ G#9() . 4"#$ =#0< 5> "<1 &(*#*0.)4( .)+ 5> 1#4&"<()&#(* #)+640.)4( .)+ "3(&.0(+ .0 5> AHBC =<.0 #* 0<( 4"#$ #)+640#9( &(.40.)4(@ a0 3.< ohms b0 7.2 ohms c0 1.9 ohms d0 74.@ ohms 4/ G#9() . 4"#$ =#0< 2 "<1* &(*#*0.)4( .)+ 2> DH #)+640.)4( .)+ "3(&.0(+ .0 2> AHB? =<.0 #* 0<( 4"#$E* #)+640#9( &(.40.)4(@ a0 7.49 ohms b0 ;.47 ohms c0 2.1 ohms d0 73 ohms 5/ G#9() . 4"#$ =#0< 2> "<1* &(*#*0.)4( .)+ 6> 1#4&"<()&#(* #)+640.)4( #) .#& .)+ "3(&.0(+ .0 5> AHB? =<() '&"67<0 )(F0 0" .) #)4")($ *.13$( 0<( 3&"'( #13(+.)4( #* 2!/5 "<1* .)+ #13(+.)4( 3<.*( #* 45G? =<.0 #* 0<( 3&"'(E* #)+640#9( &(.40.)4(@ a0 ;3.; ohms b0 ;3.; microhenries c0 <<.@ ohms d0 not possible to determine with information given.

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6/ G#9() . 3&"'( =#0< 5> "<1* &(*#*0.)4( .)+ 4>DH #)+640.)4(? =<() "3(&.0(+ )(F0 0" . 4"33(& *.13$( .0 2> AHB 0<( 3&"'( #13(+.)4( #* 55 "<1* .)+ #13(+.)4( 3<.*( #* 4>G? =<.0 #* 0<( #)+640#9( &(.40.)4( "2 0<( 3&"'( =<() "3(&.0#)7 ") 0<( *.13$(@ a0 44 ohms b0 <;.7 ohms c0 14.1 ohms d0 4 ohms / I2 7#9() 0"0.$ #13(+.)4( "2 . 3&"'( "3(&.0#)7 ") . 0(*0 *.13$( .)+ A)"=#)7 0<( #13(+.)4( 3<.*( .)7$(? =<.0 (H6.0#") #* 6*(+ 0" +(0(&1#)( 0<( #)+640#9( &(.40.)4( "2 0<( 3&"'(@ a0 Bp E ;pif= b0 Bp E Fp cos G c0 Bp E Fp tan G d0 Bp E Fp sin G !/ V"$0.7( 4<.)7(* .4&"** 0<( 3&"'( +6( 0" . +(2(40 #) 1"*0 (++5 46&&()0 #)*3(40#")* .&( ") 0<( "&+(& "2 a0 7? b0 73? c0 733? d0 7333? ,/ W<() . *#13$( '&#+7( 1.+( 63 "2 4 #13(+.)4( .&1*? 0<( 9"$0.7( #) .+I.4()0 .&1* "2 0<( '&#+7( 16*0 '( (H6.$ #) a0 amplitude b0 phase c0 both a and b d0 no form 1>/ W<() 3(&2"&1#)7 . 06'#)7 #)*3(40#") =#0< . 7()(&.$ 36&3"*( ECT #)*0&61()0 <.9#)7 .) #)*0&61()0 &(*3")*( 2&(H6()45 "2 3>> HB? 1.F#161 *4.))#)7 *3((+ #* .'"60 JJJ 0" +(0(40 .'&630 +(2(40* =#0<"60 +#*0"&0#")/ a0 3.7 m)s b0 3.;4 m)s c0 7.3 m)s d0 ;.3 m)s 11/ A0 <#7< "3(&.0#)7 2&(H6()4#(*? 0<( (22(40#9( 4"#$ +#.1(0(& :*()*#)7 +#.1(0(&) #* .33&"F#1.0($5 (H6.$ 0" a0 3.4 coil diameters b0 the actual coil diameter c0 ; coil diameter d0 the s!in depth

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12/ A 3&.40#4.$ +(30< $#1#0 2"& 2$.= +(0(40#") .)+ $"4.0#") 6*#)7 (++5 46&&()0 0(*0 1(0<"+* #* .'"60 a0 7mm b0 2mm c0 7;mm d0 76mm 13/ W<#4< "2 0<( 2"$$"=#)7 #* )"0 .) .+9.)0.7( "2 0<( (++5 46&&()0 0(*0 1(0<"+@ a0 733? volumetric inspection is possible /within limits0 b0 speed c0 clean smooth surfaces not required d0 no couplant required 14/ E)4#&4$#)7 3&"'(* :"& #)0(&).$ 3&"'(*) .&( $#A($5 0" '( &(3$.4(+ '5 *6&2.4( 3&"'(* 2"& 06'#)7 =#0< . +#.1(0(& 7&(.0(& 0<.) 5>11/ T<( &(.*") 2"& 0<#* #* a0 encircling probes cannot be made bigger b0 fill factor becomes too difficult to regulate for large encircling probes c0 higher defect sensitivity can be achieved using surface probes d0 both b and c 15/ T" #)4&(.*( *()*#0#9#05 0" )(.& *6&2.4( +(2(40* 6*#)7 . '"''#) *05$( 3&"'( 4"#$ $()70< .)+ 0<#4A)(** .&( &(+64(+/ T<#* <"=(9(& &(*6$0* #) a0 reduced frequency range b0 increased probe-cable capacitance c0 decreasing sensitivity to the far surface defects d0 bobbin brea!down 16/ S(3.&.0#") "2 +#.1(0(& .)+ 4")+640#9#05 (22(40* #* '(00(& 4.&&#(+ "60 .0 2&(H6()45 &.0#"* 7&(.0(& 0<.) 4 '(4.6*( a0 greater penetration afforded permits better determination of bul! properties b0 the angle between diameter and conductivity locii is greater c0 the angle between diameter and conductivity locii is 93H d0 none of the above, frequency ratio should be less than < for such wor! 1 / I) 3$.0( 0(*0#)7? 0" 1#)#1#B( (22(40* "2 $#20-"22 9.&#.0#")* 5"6 ="6$+ a0 increase coil to part spacing b0 increase coil diameter c0 decrease coil to part spacing d0 decrease coil diameter

190

1!/ S()*#0#9#05 "2 4")+640#9#05 1(.*6&(1()0 =#0< 0<( 3&"'( 4"#$ #* a0 proportional to the coilIs geometric field gradient b0 a function of the specimen thic!ness c0 a function of the effective coil distance d0 all of the above 1,/ I2 . *<((0 =.* 4"13"*(+ "2 2 1(0.$$#4 $.5(&* =#0< 0<#4A)(**(* D1 .)+ D2 .)+ 4")+640#9#0#(* K1 .)+ K2? =<.0 ="6$+ 0<( (H6#9.$()0 3&"+640 '( =<() 0(*0(+ '5 0<&"67< 0&.)*1#**#")@ a0 J' E J7'7 K J;'; b0 J' E J7J; K '7'; c0 J' E /J7'70 /J;';0 d0 J' E /J7'70L K /J;';0L 2>/ D(0(&1#)#)7 3$.0#)7 0<#4A)(** "2 . 4")+640#)7 )")1.7)(0#4 1.0(&#.$ ") .)"0<(& 4")+640#)7 )")1.7)(0#4 1.0(&#.$ &(H6#&(* a0 a difference in conductivities between the two materials b0 use of a lift-off compensating probe c0 a resonance circuit be used d0 all of the above 21/ T" +#*4(&) 9(&5 *<.$$"= 4&.4A* 6*#)7 . *6&2.4( 4"#$ 5"6 ="6$+ 6*( . &($.0#9($5 <#7< 2&(H6()45-4")+640#9#05 3&"+640 :K2)/ W<#4< "2 0<( 2"$$"=#)7 ="6$+ 0<() '( 0&6(@ a0 angle between crac! direction and lift-off effect increases b0 magnitude of crac! effect decreases c0 lift-off effect increases d0 all of the above 22/ W<() 6*#)7 *6&2.4( 4"#$* 2"& 4&.4A +(0(40#")? *<.$$"= 4&.4A* .)+ $#20-"22 4.))"0 '( *(3.&.0(+ 6)$(** a0 lift-off compensating probes are used b0 frequency is high enough c0 frequency is low enough d0 both a and b 23/ W<() #)*3(40#)7 *3<(&(* =#0< .) ()4#&4$#)7 4"#$? =<.0 #* 0<( (H6#9.$()0 (22(40 "2 #)4&(.*#)7 0<( 4"#$ $()70<@ a0 a frequency increase b0 a frequency decrease c0 an increase in material conductivity d0 a decrease in fill factor

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24/ I2 0<( M#)#161 +(0(40.'$( +#*4")0#)6#05 #* 111? 3&"'( 4"#$ +#. *<"6$+ )"0 '( 7&(.0(& 0<.) a0 3.4mm b0 7mm c0 ;mm d0 1mm 25/ M.F 7.7( )" "2 0<( =#&( 6*(+ 4.) '( a0 12 b0 1@ c0 <3 d0 <;

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CHAPTER ; 5
EDDY CURRENT METHOD CONTROL AND TEST SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LEVEL II ; ANSWER
-/NO/ 7 ; 1 < 4 2 @ 6 9 73 77 7; 71 7< 74 72 7@ 76 79 ;3 ;7 ;; ;1 ;< ;4 ANS ' & ' " & % ' & % " " " % % % " " ' & & ' ' ' % & /=arge si+e, smaller gage no is permissible0

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