CHAPTER - 6 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS
Due to rapid technological advances in the space industry, there is an increasing need for the development of methods where by specific types of information can be monitored and obtained. Eddy currents have become one of the major tools for obtaining data on an operating vehicles. A variety of techniques using the favourable characteristics of eddy currents have been developed. Since, eddy currents testing does not require physical contact with the article measurements can be made in hostile environments such as extremely high temperatures, cryogenic temperatures, high pressure, or in an electrically conductive media. uture applications of eddy current may actually ta!e place in space or under simulated space conditions, i.e., vaccum, high and low temperatures, etc. "his chapters is intended to simulate interest in eddy current applications so that similar creativity may be applied to the solution of li!e problems.
DIMENSION MEASUREMENTS 1) NON-CONTACTING
#ne of the main advantage of eddy current testing is that an air gap can be used as the couplant between the probe and the article. "his advantage permits the development of a wide range of tests which were not previously possible. $here the environment is hostile, such as radioactive, high temperature, high pressure, vacuum or ultra low temperature, the test coils can be constructed from special materials and operated remotely. igure %&' illustrates the use of eddy currents to monitor movements in the order of (x ')&% inches. igure %&* illustrates the use of eddy currents in a radioactive, high temperature environment. 194
Figure 6-1: Measureme ! "# Sma$$ M"%eme !
Figure 6-&: E''( Curre ! Measureme ! i Ra'i"a)!i%e E %ir" me !
&) NONCONDUCTI*E THIC+NESS MEASUREMENT
Space and aerospace applications have required the use of numerous nonconductive coatings. "hese coatings may range from micro films to macro deposits. "he use of eddy current testing is being universally used as a nondestructive means for controlling this thic!ness. Such coatings may be produced by vacuum or electroplating, spraying, dipping, cladding, etc. a. Mi)r" )"a!i g Figure %&+ illustrates a very thin coating of a nonconductive material bac!ed by a conductive or magnetic material. Since eddy current measurement is primarily lift off, a high degree of accuracy is possible. b. Ma)r" )"a!i gs igure %&, illustrates the measurements of a thic! nonconductive material by bac!ing with a conductive or magnetic material. "hic!ness up to + inches can be successfully measured- thic!ness greater than this are unreliable due to fall&off the magnetic field.
Figure 6-,: Measuri g T-i N" )" 'u)!i%e C"a!i gs
Figure 6-.: Measureme ! "# T-i)/ N" )" 'u)!i%e C"a!i gs
CONDUCTI*IT0 MEASUREMENTS 1) THIN MATERIALS
As discussed in chapter ,, one of the more common uses of eddy current testing is in the measurement of conductivity. .owever, conductivity in thin gauges /.)') inches and less0 is exceedingly difficult to measure because the measurement becomes sensitive to dimension change when the depth of field penetration exceeds the thic!ness of the material.
igure %&(, vies A, illustrates a commonly used method for measuring the conductivity of materials. 1n this case, however thhe depth of penetration probably exceeds the material thic!ness thus giving inaccurate conductivity measurements. 2iew 3 illustrates a two method for measuring the conductivity of extremely thin gauges of material. "he two coils can be balanced out against a standard, similar to the differentially coil technique. #nce this is accomplished the accurate measurement of conductivity in other gauges of material is possible. "he only disadvantage to this method is the need for access to both sides of the material.
Figure 6-1: Measuri g T-i)/ ess "# T-i Ma!eria$s
&) 2ELDING 3UALIT0 CONTROL
or years other method of non&destructive testing has been used successfully to determine weld quality. .owever, in each situation the weld article must be cooled to ambient temperature before testing. 1n eddy current testing the coil does not have to be in contract with the article. "his enables the design of a system in which the weld quality can be monitored while cooling. "he only limitation is the thic!ness of the weld.
igure %&% illustrates a typical eddy current coil designed for evaluating elements.
Figure 6-6: E''( Curre ! Tes!i g "# 2e$'s
EDGE DISCONTINUIT0 DETECTION 1) EDGE LOCATIONS
"he detection of discontinuities or measurement of properties along the edge of an article has always presented difficulty in eddy current testing due to the edge effects. .owever, a shaped probe coil which rides on the lip or edge of the article /figure %&40 in a fixed relation to the edge, can detect discontinuities in the article since the edge effect would be contant.
Figure 6-4: Tes!i g #"r Dis)" !i ui!ies a! E'ge "# Ar!i)$e
&) INSIDE HOLE LOCATION
Discontinuity detection within holes can become very difficult especially when the location of the discontinuity must be determined. igure %&5 illustrates an eddy current probe designed to swept circularly within the hole. "his type of unit detects and locates the discontinuity within the opening.
Figure 6-5: Tes!i g #"r Dis)" !i ui!ies i si'e H"$e
,) MAGNETIC AND NONMAGNETIC ARTICLES
1t should be reali6ed that eddy current testing of conductive, nonmagnetic articles for discontinuities is fairly straight forward. .owever, detection of discontinuities in magnetic articles can be very difficult as the permeability will mas! measurements. the permeability effect can be reduced by a steady state
magnetic field. "his magnetic field can be provided by a wire wound coil energi6ed by direct current, or it may be sufficient to use a permanent magnet shaped to cover the small area of the article under test. / igure %&70.
Figure 6-6: Use "# Mag e!i) Fie$' !" O%er)"me E##e)!s "# Permea7i$i!(
End effects are so pronounced that they can often be used to detect movements- ma!e measurements, count articles, etc. you will not in igure %&') how the spo!e brea!s the field as the wheel rotates. "his produces the descried end effect. 1f such wheels are mounted within the flow of a liquid, the wheel would rotate in direct proportion the liquid flow. "he reaction of the spo!es on the probe outside the container continuously indicates the number of rotations of the wheel. "he speed of rotation measures the flow. Electronic integrating counters can measure the liquid passing the measuring point.
Figure 6-18: N"!)-e' 2-ee$ C"u !er !" Re)"r' Li9ui' F$":
1) LO2 CONDUCTION MATERIAL
8raphite and certain other semiconductor materials present a problem in measurement of receptivity and purity- however, by proper coil design and experimentation it is possible to assign values to these materials. 9easurements by eddy current techniques removes the necessity for contact with the material and eliminates self testing. 3y proper design of the test coil, extremely small a real be evaluated- however, the frequency should be high so that magnetic field does not completely penetrate the article.
6) CONDUCTI*E LI3UIDS
"he problem of measurements of liquids may be one of nondestructive te,sting, and will be briefly discussed. "hose liquids which conduct electrons can be measured by eddy current.
1) CONCENTRATION OF LI3UID
"he ability of a liquid to conduct electrons is a functions of its conductivity and concentration. 1n a given test area we can measure this conductivity and use this information as an indication of concentration igure %&'' illustrates such a test.
Figure 6-11: N" )" 'u)!i%e Pi;e Se)!i" i Li9ui' F$": S!ream
&) FLUID LE*EL
Eddy current can be used to penetrate a container and observe the level of conductive fluid. "his measurements can be made even under conditions of high temperature or high pressure in the liquid environment. igure %&'* illustrates the measurements of fluid level.
Figure 6-1&: De!ermi a!i" "# F$ui' Le%e$
1t is !nown that gases can be conductive under certain conditions of pressure, temperature, and ion concentration. Since eddy current s can be induced under these conditions, some form of measurements can be made.
9easuring the ability of a gas to carry electrons can be used determine pressure, temperature, or concentration of the gas. "his would serve as a means to control or monitor an ioni6ed gas stream. / igure %&'+.0
Figure 6-1,: C" 'u)!i%i!( Measureme ! "# i" i<e' Gas S!ream
&) =OUNDAR0 LOCATION
Since even a very wea! conductibility of a gas to electrons can be detected by eddy current means, it is possible to detect lift&off changes. "his lift& off measurements can define the boundary of such a conductive gas, e.g., envelope control of plasma / igure %&',0.
Figure 6-1.: ="u 'ar( De!ermi a!i" i I" i<e' Gas
CHAPTER > 6
LE*EL II - 3UESTIONNAIRE
1? C"i$ s;a)i g " 'i##ere !ia$ ;r"7es #"r ge era$ i s;e)!i" !u7i g is usua$$( a0 defect depth b0 wall thic!ness c0 both a and b d0 not important ;ur;"ses "#
&? L" g gra'ua$ 'e#e)!s )a 7e misse' 7( usi g @@@@@@@@@ ;r"7es? a0 encircling b0 differential c0 bobbin d0 absolute ,? 2-i)- "# !-e #"$$":i g is a a'%a !age "# !-e 'i##ere !ia$ ;r"7e )"m;are' !" !-e a7s"$u!eA a0 sensitive to gradual dimensional changes b0 low sensitivity to probe wobble c0 easily interpreted signals d0 all of the above .? E##e)!s "# !em;era!ure 'ri#! are re'u)e' 7( usi g a0 differential probes b0 probe pre&heat c0 liquid nitrogen baths d0 gap probes 1? T-e mai reas" a e''( )urre ! )"i$ )a 'e!e)! su;;"r! ;$a!es i -ea! eB)-a gers :-e !es!i g !u7es #r"m !-e i si'e 'iame!er is a0 support plates are always ferro&magnetic b0 support plates are always the same material as the tube c0 magnetic flux is not restricted by the tube wall d0 support plates act as resonance amplifiers in the circuit 6? A ;r"7e :-"se ";era!i g im;e'a )e is "! 7e!:ee &8 a ' &88 "-ms :i$$ m"s! $i/e$( resu$! i a0 decreased signal to noise ratio b0 decreased signal amplitude c0 both a and b d0 none of the above, probe impedance matching to instrument impedance is not important
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CHAPTER > 6
LE*EL II > ANS2ER
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