You are on page 1of 16

What do the principles mean for children and young people? 1. Challenge and enjoyment.

Children and young people should find their learning challenging, engaging and motivating. The curriculum should encourage high aspirations and ambitions for all.. At every stage, children and young people should experience an appropriate level of challenge, to enable each individual to achieve his or her potential. They should be active in their learning and have opportunities to develop and demonstrate their creativity. There should be support to enable children and young people to sustain their efforts. 2. Breadth. All children and young people should have the opportunities for a broad range of experiences. Their learning should be planned and organized so that they will learn and develop through a variety of contexts within both the classroom and other aspects of school life. 3. Progression. Children and you people should experience continuous progression in their learning from 3 to 18 years. Each stage should build upon earlier knowledge and achievements. Children and young people should be able to progress at a rate which is meets their individual needs and aptitudes. 4. Depth. There should be opportunities for children and young people to develop their full capacity for different types of thinking and learning, exploring and achieving more advanced levels of understanding. 5. Coherence. Children and young peoples learning activities should combine to form a coherent experience. There should be clear links between different aspects of learning. Such links should be discussed with children and young people in order to bring different strands of learning together. 6. Relevance. Children and young people should understand the purpose of their learning and related activities. They should see the value of what they are learning and its relevance to their lives, present and future. 7. Personalization and choice. The learning planned for children and young people should respond to their individual needs and support particular aptitudes and talents. It should provide opportunities for exercising responsible personal choice. Once children and young people have achieved suitable levels of attainment across a wide range of areas of learning, the choice should become as open as possible.

Lecture 7 TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS and CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Curriculum O Total learning experience O The description above implies that the crux of a curriculum is the different planned and unplanned activities which have been lived, acted upon or done by the learners with the guidance of the teacher. O Teaching and learning are actions necessary to accomplish a goal in education. In TEACHING. You cannot give what you do not have Teaching as a process in curriculum Effective teaching is one that will bring about the intended learning outcome O O O O O An organization of meaningful learning. It is creating a situation or selecting life-like situation to enhance learning. To the traditionalist, it is imparting knowledge and skills required to master a subject matter. Process of dispensing knowledge to an empty vessel (mind of learner). Its showing, telling, giving instruction, making someone understand in order to learn. Teacher Person, who teaches, controls learning, dispenser of knowledge, an ultimate authority, a director of learning. Teaching Based on progressive and humanist education, teaching is perceived as stimulating, directing, guiding the learner and evaluating the learning outcomes of teaching. Teachers role becomes complex but has given the learner the responsibility to learn. A process that enables the learner to learn on his own Teacher is the Decision maker in teaching process. Teaching Process

Planning Phase includes decision like: O The needs of the learner. O The achievable goals & objectives to meet the needs. O Selection of the content to be taught. O Motivation to carry out the goal. O Strategies most fit to carry out the goals. O Evaluation process to measure learning outcome. Considerations in planning O Learner O Availability of materials O Time requirement of particular activity O Strategy need to achieve the objective O Teacher

Basic assumptions can be made based on the diagram: That teaching is goal oriented with the change of behaviour as the ultimate end. That teachers are the ones who shape actively their own action That teaching is a rational and a reflective process. That teachers by their actions can influence learners to change their own thinking or desired behaviour, thus teaching is a way of changing behaviour, through the intervention of the teacher.

Implementation phase O Based on the objective, implementation means to put into action the different activities in order to achieve the objectives through the subject matter. O Interaction of the teacher and learner is important in the accomplishment of the plan. O Use of different teaching style and strategy are included in this phase. Evaluation phase O A match of the objective with the learning outcome will be made. O Answer the question if the plans and implementation have been successfully achieved. O A continuous process of feedback and reflection is made in this three phases of teaching O Feedback is the reflection of the feedback ;

Reflection is the process embedded in teaching where the teacher inquires into his action and provides deep and critical thinking.

Good teaching is....... O One that is well planned & where activities are interrelated to each other. O One that provides learning experiences or situation that will ensure understanding, application and critical thinking. O Based on the theory of learning. O One where the learner is stimulated to think and reason. O Utilizes prior learning and its application to new situation. O Governed by democratic principles. O Embeds a sound evaluation process. Learning as a process of learning. To teach is to make someone to learn. Learning O Defined as a change in an individuals behaviour caused by experiences or self activity O Implies that learning can only happen through the individuals activity or his own doing O Can be intentional or unintentional Two principal types of learning process 1. Behavioural learning theories Emphasizes observable behaviour such as new skills, knowledge, or attitudes which can be demonstrated Observable and measurable If the individual has changed behaviour, he has learned Cognitive learning theories Concerned with human learning in which unobservable mental processes are used to learn and remember new information or acquired skill Related to concept of meaningful learning through cognitive models


Three model of teaching anchored on cognitive learning theory 1. Discovery learning of Jerome Bruner States that the individual learns from his own discovery of the environment Learners are inherently curious, thus they can be self motivated until they find answers to the problem Gave rise to the emerging theory of constructivism and self-learning Learning is flexible, exploratory, and independent 2. Reception learning of David Ausubel Though learners are inherently curious, they may not be able to know what is important or relevant and they need external motivation in order to learn both also emphasize that prior learning is important in order to learn new things and because knowledge continuously changes once it is in the learners mind 3. Events of Learning of Robert Gagne Motivation phase the learner must be motivated to learn by expectation that learning will be rewarding Apprehending phase learner stands or pay attention if learning has to take place Acquisition phase while learner is paying attention, the stage is set and the information presented Retention phase newly acquired information must be transferred from short tem to long term memory Recall phase recall previously learned information; to learn to gain access to that w/c has been learned is a critical phase in learning Generalization phase transfer of information to new situations allows application of the learned information in the context in w/c it was learned Feedback phase students must receive feedback on their performance Learning based on the theory of learning Does not take place in an empty vessel A social process where interaction with other learners and the teachers are needed Result of individual experiences and self activity Both observable and measurable Takes place when all the senses are utilized Will be enhanced when the learned is stimulated, directed, guided and feedback is immediately given Each learner has its own learning style Teaching and Learning Go together One cannot succeed with the support or success of the other. Teaching style of the teacher should jibe with the learners learning styles. Learner is the centre of teaching. Knowledge of the learner and his learning style should be considered.

Learners become complex individuals capable of learning on their own; the repertoire of teaching should also increase. THEREFORE Teaching is the cause and Learning is the effect; Learning in Teaching and Teaching for Learning

Ways of Teaching & Learning 1. Different teaching method & strategies can be clustered according to the number of students being taught. 2. For larger group teaching, methods like lecture, expository, panel discussion, seminar, forum, demonstration or combination of lecture-demo are appropriate. 3. For smaller group, role playing, buzz session, workshop, process approach, discovery learning, and cooperative learning. 4. For individualized teaching, modular instruction, e-teaching, programmed instruction. 5. Traditional teaching method: inductive method, deductive method, type study method, project method, laboratory method, Q&A or Socratic Method & lecture method. 6. Improved teaching methods: integrative technique, discovery approach, process approach, conceptual approach, mastery learning, programmed instruction, e-learning, simulation, case-based teaching, conceptual teaching, cooperative teaching. 7. Trial and error- related to stimulus response theory of learning 8. Conditioning classical conditioning theory of Pavlov 9. Insight- higher level of intelligence is being utilized 10. Observation & imitation through modelling. Teaching & Learning in the Curriculum 1. Crucial issue how the student should learn how to learn 2. Curriculum seems to be overloaded 3. Teaching & Learning give life to the curriculum 4. Value placed in teaching will reap the same value in learning 5. A good curriculum can be judged by the kind of teaching and the quality of learning derived from it

Lecture 8 CRAFTING THE CURRICULUM Introduction Crafting a curriculum follows some designs. Curriculum designs provide clear relationships between and among the different elements of the curriculum: objectives, contents, activities, and evaluation. Considering all of these elements, as a curriculum designer, one has to look into the parameters or dimensions upon which a design can be crafted. Designing Curriculum 1. Subject-Centered. This model focuses on the content of the curriculum. The subject centered design corresponds mostly to the textbook written for the specific subject. The subject-centered curriculum can be focused on o traditional areas in the traditional disciplines o interdisciplinary topics that touch on a wide variety of fields o on processes such as problem solving o on the goal of teaching students to be critical consumers of information. A curriculum can also be organized around a subject center by focusing on certain processes, strategies, or lifeskills, such as problem solving, decision making, or teamwork.

In the Philippines, our curricula in any level are also divided in different subjects or courses. Most of the schools using this kind of structure aim for excellence in the subject matter content. Examples of Subject-centered curriculum: A. Subject Design. The drawback of his design is that sometimes learning is so compartmentalized. It stresses so much the content that it forgets about students natural tendencies, interest and experiences. B. Discipline Design. Discipline refers to specific knowledge and through a method which the scholars use to study a specific content of their fields. C. Correlation Design. This comes from a core, correlated curriculum design that links separate subject designs in order to reduce fragmentation. Subjects are related to one another but each subject a maintains its identify. D. Broad field design/interdisciplinary. This design was made to prevent the compartmentalization of subjects and integrate the contents that are related to each other.

Lets have a situation: Students in history should learn the subject matter like historians, students in biology should learn how biologist learn, and so with students in mathematics should learn how mathematicians learn. The discipline design model of curriculum is often used in college Discipline becomes the degree program.


Learner-Centered Curriculum. Centered on certain aspects of the learners themselves. May explore the learners own life or family history or local environment. A. Child-centered design (John Dewey, Rouseau, Pestallozi and Froebel ) o It is anchored on the needs and interests of the child. o The learner is not considered as a passive individual but as one who engages with his/her environment. One learns by doing. Learners interact with the teachers and the environment. B. Experience-Centered design o Experiences of the learners become the starting point of the curriculum. o Thus the school environment is left open and free. o Learners are made to choose from various activities that the teacher provides. o The learners are empowered to shape their own learning from the different opportunities given by the teacher. Humanistic design (Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers) o The development of self is the ultimate objective of leaning. It stresses the whole person and the integration of thinking, feeling and doing. It considers the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains to be interconnected and must be addressed in the curriculum. It stresses the development of positive self-concept and interpersonal skills. Advantages: It gives power to the learners: they are identified as the experts in knowing what they need to know. The constructivist element of this approach honors the social and cultural context of the learner. It creates a direct link between in-class work and learners' need for literacy outside the classroom. As a result, learners can more easily transfer new skills to day-to-day use (PurcellGates, et al., 2001). The immediacy of this transfer of skills at home, at work, and in communities also encourages learner persistence. Disadvantages: It often relies on the teacher's ability to create or select materials appropriate to learners' expressed needs. This requires skill on the part of the teacher, as well as time and resources: at a minimum, texts brought in from real life, a wide pool of commercially available materials from which to draw, and a reliable photocopier. Given the reality of teachers' professional preparation and working conditions (Smith, et al., 2001), lack of skill, time and resources makes creating curriculum with this approach difficult. Teachers may also find it difficult to strike an acceptable balance among the competing needs and interests of students Alternative Methods for a Learner-Centered Curriculum (These are only suggestions for supplementing your style, not substituting for it) Individualized diagnosis and (some) course objectives Learning contracts Programmed learning sequences Organize structured drills Multi-sensory instructional activities Paired activities Student-designed creative activities Design task cards Small-group activities (in and out of class) Role play Design competitive games Read aloud Design problem solving games Sit on the floor in a circle Focus on team learning/peer teaching Standard lecture Change the seating configurations Teacher demonstrations Go outside or meet in an alternate location. Speedwriting. Listserve, online forums.



Computer applications. Socratic dialogue (question-answer-deeper question). Chunk knowledge and connect chunks to make big picture . Multimedia presentations (film, CDs, audio-tapes, animated graphics). Student presentations (encourage multi-sensory supports). Cancel class and meet students individually. Present multiple invention and discovery techniques (brainstorming, clustering, freewriting, idea letters, graph and object relationships, meditations, dreams, art, etc.). Split Page (key phrases on one side, commentary on other). Color code ideas in documents and lesson plans (already known, yet-to-learn, still negotiating). Reverse question (look at answers and solutions first; create a question that it answers next). Treat objective questions an essay questions.

Problem-Centered Curriculum Problem-centered curriculum is inherently engaging and authentic, because the students have a real purpose to their inquiry -- solving the problem. Types of problems to be explored may include: a) Life situations involving real problems of practice. b) Problems that revolve around life at a given school c) Problems selected from local issues d) Philosophical or moral problems Life-situations design It uses the past and present experiences of learners as a means to analyze the basic areas of living. As a starting point, the pressing immediate problems of the society and the students existing concerns are utilized. Based on Herbert Spencers curriculum writing, his emphases were activities that sustain life, enhance life, and in rearing children, maintain the individuals social and political relations and enhance leisure, tasks and feelings. The connection of subject matter to real situations increases the relevance of the curriculum. Core design. It centers on general education and the problems are based on common human activities. The central focus of the core design includes common needs, problems, and concerns of the learners.


Dimensions of Curriculum Designs 1. Scope. According to Tyler in Ornstein (2004), he defines scope as all the content, topics, learning experiences and organizing threads comprising the educational plan. Scope does not only refer to the cognitive content, but also the affective and psychomotor content. The scope of the curriculum can be divided into chunks called units, sub-units, chapters, or sub-chapters. Sequence. Contents and experiences are arranged in hierarchical manner, where the basis can either be logic of the subject matter or on the developmental patterns of growth of the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. Smith, Stanley, and Shore (1957) introduced four principles for sequence. A. Simple to complex learning B. Prerequisite learning C. Whole to part learning D. Chronological learning






Posner and Rudnitsky (1994) presented five major principles for organizing content in units, which can also be applied to curriculum. A. World-related sequence i. Space ii. Time iii. Physical attributes B. Concept-related sequence i. Class relations ii. Propositional relations C. Inquiry-related sequence D. Learning-related sequence i. Empirical prerequisites ii. Familiarity iii. Difficulty iv. Interest Continuity. Vertical repetition and recurring appearances of the content provide continuity in the curriculum. This process enables the learner to strengthen the permanency of learning and development of skills. Gerome Bruner calls this spiral curriculum For learners to develop the ideas, these have to be developed and redeveloped in a spiral fas hion in increasing depth and breadth as the learners advance. Integration. Everything is integrated and interconnected. Life is a series of emerging themes. This is the essence of integration in the curriculum design. Organization is drawn from the world themes from real life concerns. Subject matter content or disciplined content lines are erased and isolation is eliminated. Articulation. Can be done either vertically or horizontally. In vertical articulation, contents are arranged from level to level or grade to grade so that the content in a lower level is connected to the next level. Horizontal articulation happens at the same time like social studies in grade six is related to science in grade six. Balance. Equitable assignment of content, time, experiences and other elements to establish balance is needed in curriculum design. Too much or too little of these elements maybe disastrous to the curriculum. Keeping the curriculum in balance requires continuous fine tuning and review for its effectivene ss and relevance.

Guidelines in Curriculum Design Pointers Curriculum design committee should involve teachers, parents, administrators and even students. Schools vision, mission, goals and objectives should be reviewed and used as bases for curriculum design. The needs and the interests of the learners, in particular, and the society, in general, should be considered. Alternative curriculum design should consider advantages and disadvantages in terms of cost, scheduling, class size, facilities and persona; required. The curriculum design should take into account cognitive, affective, psychomotor, concepts and outcomes.

Lecture 8 IMPLEMENTING THE CURRICULUM I. THE ROLES OF STAKEHOLDERS IN CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION Individuals or institutions that are interested in the school curriculum. Shape the school curriculum implementation. Is a group or organization that has interest in an organization. Anyone who affects or is affected by the schools actions.

Learners at the Center of the Curriculum The very reason a curriculum is developed. The ones being directly influenced by the curriculum. The primary stakeholders in the curriculum. Make the curriculum alive. Success of the curriculum. The reason why curriculum is developed. They can make or unmake the curriculum by active and direct involvement. Teachers as Curriculum Developers and Implementers The curriculum maker. From a developer to an implementer. Being an implementer is very crucial. Planning and writing the curriculum are the primary roles of the teacher. Guides, facilitate and directs activities which will be done by the students. Designs, enriches and modifies curriculum to suit the learners needs. Curriculum Managers and Administrators Supervise, select & recruit, admit, procure. Plan for the schools improvement. Can never be ignored. They supervise curriculum implementation, select and recruit new teachers, admit students, procure equipment and materials needed for effective learning. Responsible for running the entire school effectively. Important role in shaping school curriculum for the formulation of mission and vision, philosophy of the school effectively. Parents as Supporters in the Curriculum Parents are the Best supporters of the school. They have the power to influence curricula to instructional materials and school activities. How do parents shape the curriculum and Why they become stakeholders? Effective parental involvement in school affairs Involvement extends from the confine of the school to the home. Parent association is organized. Others Stakeholders in Curriculum Implementation The curriculum resources. They can interview and can provide local and indigenous knowledge in the curriculum. Professional organizations have shown great influence in school curriculum. The government is represented by the: (ACADEMIC EXPERTS ) o Department of Education (DepEd) for basic education curricula

o o o II.

Commission on Higher Education (CHED) for tertiary and graduate education They have mandatory and regulatory powers over the implementation of any curricula. The Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) TESDA


A. Instructional Media a. Media Technology b. Learning Technology c. Simply Technology B. Technology Plays a crucial role in delivering instruction to learners. Offers various tools of learning. For Example: Will a chalkboard presentation be sufficient in illustrating a mathematical procedure; will a video clip be needed for motivating learners? C. Types of Instructional Media/Technology Non-projected Media Real Objects Models Field Trips Kits Printed materials Visuals Visual Boards Audio Materials Projected Media Overhead Transparencies Opaque projection Slides File strips Films Video, VCD, DVD Computer/ Multimedia presentations

D. Factors of Technology Selection a. Practicality b. Appropriateness in relation to the learner c. Activity/suitability d. Objective-matching



Three Current Trends that could carry nature of Education in the future: a. The paradigm shift from teacher-centered to student-centered approach to learning. b. An educative process of cultivating the cognitive, affective, psychomotor, and much more the contemplative intelligence of the learners of a new age. c. The increase in the use of new information and communication technology or ICT. The Primary Roles of Educational Technology in Delivering the School Curriculums Instructional Program a. Upgrading the quality of teaching-and-learning in schools. b. Increasing the capability of the teacher to effectively inculcate learning and for students to gain mastery of lessons and courses. c. Broadening the delivery of education outside school d. Revolutionizing the use of technology to boost educational paradigm that gives importance to studentcentered and holistic learning.


PILOT TESTING, MONITORING AND EVALUATING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CURRICULUM A. Pilot testing or field try out This process will gather empirical data Follows some form of research design Usually follows an experimental method Assures the teachers and the school that indeed the curriculum materials are ready to use Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) - the original name of the curriculum to the whole nationwide 2002 renamed as Revitalized Basic Education Curriculum (RBEC) B. Monitoring Process Curriculum monitoring- ask the question: HOW ARE WE DOING? Important to determine if curriculum is still relevant and effective. Periodic assessment and adjustment during the period of time. Like formative evaluation. Determines how the curriculum is working. C. Curriculum evaluation The process of judging the value, effectiveness and adequacy of curriculum. Should be useful and systematic.

Lecture 9 ASSESSING THE CURRICULUM Introduction Curriculum assessment is the process of collecting information for use in evaluation. Purpose of Curriculum Assessment Curriculum assessment may achieve the following purposes: 1. Highlight curriculum expectations. 2. Gather information about what students know and can do. 3. Motivate students to learn. 4. Motivate and encourage teachers to meet the identified needs of the students. 5. Provide evidence to tell how well the students have learned. 6. Obtain feedback that help teachers, students and parents make good decisions to guide instructions. The difference between: Intended Curriculum. Refers to the objectives set at the beginning of any curricular plan. Establishes the goal, specific purposes and immediate objectives to be accomplished. The intended curriculum answers what the curriculum writer wants to do Some Questions to Intended Curriculum Are the objectives achievable within learners development levels? Is it achievable within allotted time? Are there enough resources to achieve the objectives? Are the objectives clear and specific? What are the ways to measure the outcomes of the objectives? Are the objectives observable, relevant & doable? Implemented Curriculum This refers to the various learning activities or experiences of the students in order to achieve the intended curricular outcomes. Implemented curriculum refers to the ACTUAL activities being practiced in schools. These activities may coincide with the specified objectives of the curriculum (intended curriculum) OR may largely be out of agenda. Some Questions to Implemented Curriculum Are the learning objectives congruent with the stated objectives of the curriculum? Are the materials and methods appropriate for the objectives set? Does the teacher have the skill to implement the activities or use the strategy? Does the teacher utilize the various ways of doing to complement the learning styles of students? Are there alternative activities for learners to do to accomplish the same objectives? Are there activities to address individual differences? Do the activities provide maximum learning experiences? Do the activities motivate the learners to do more and harness their potentials? Do the activities utilize multiple sensory abilities of the learners? Do the activities address multiple intelligences of the learners? Achieved Curriculum This refers to the curriculum outcomes based on the first two types of curriculum: the intended and the implemented. Achieved curriculum is considered the PRODUCT of the curriculum development process. Any achieved curriculum must MATCH with the objectives and th e activities that were mad e. Achieved curriculum indicates PERFORMANCE in relation to the objective sand the activities. It is usually described thru test scores and other performance indicators. Some Questions to Achieved Curriculum Do the learning outcomes achieved by the learners approximate the level of performance set at the beginning of the curriculum? Are the learning outcomes achieved higher or lower than the objectives set? Do the achieved learning outcomes reflect the knowledge, skills and attitudes intended to be developed? How many percent of the learners in the same class perform higher than the level set at the beginning? Do the curricular outcomes reflect the goals and the aspirations of the community where the curriculum was implemented? Criteria A set of standards to be followed in assessment. As they apply to curriculum, criteria are set of standards upon which the different elements of the curriculum are being tested. Will determine the different levels of competencies or proficiency of acceptable task performance.

Criteria for Goals are statements of curricular expectations. are sets of learning outcomes specifically designed for students . Criteria for Objectives indicate clearly what the students will learn after instruction has taken place . GOALS AND OBJECTIVES ARE FORMULATED AND SPECIFIED FOR THE FOLLOWING PURPOSES: To have focus on curriculum and instruction which give direction to where students need to go. To meet the requirements specified in the policies and standards of curriculum instruction. To provide the students the best possible education and describe the students level of performance To monitor the progress of students based on the goals set. To motivate the students to learn and the teachers to be able to feel a sense of competence when goals are attained. CRITERIA FOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES For goals and objectives to be formulated, criteria on certain elements should be included according to Howell in Nolet in 2000. 1. Content- From the objectives, what content should students learn? 2. Behavior- What will students do to indicate that they have learned? 3. Criterion- What level of performance should the students have to master the behavior? 4. Condition- Under what circumstance should the students work in order to master that behavior? WRITING EFFECTIVE GOALS AND OBJECTIVES SHOULD ALSO USE THE FOLLOWING GENERAL CRITERIA. 1. Are the general objectives syntactically correct?- Syntactic Correctness See if it has all its parts Teachers need to include logically the elements: content, behavior, criteria and conditions 2. Do the objectives comply with the legal requirements of the course of subjects?- Compliance with legal requirements There should be a direct relationship between the annual goals and the students present levels of educational performance. The annual goals should describe what the learners can reasonably be expected to accomplish within a given appropriate instructional resources. Short term instructional objectives should be stated so clearly so that it is obvious how we would measure to see if the objectives are met. The objectives should describe a sequence of intermediate steps between a childs present level of educational performance and the annual goals that are established. 3. Do the objectives address both knowledge and behavior?- Both knowledge and behavior are addressed The confusion between knowledge and behavior : although it is knowledge that we are most often trying to transmit, we need to see behavior to know if we have succeeded. 4. Do the objectives pass the stranger test?- The Stranger Test Goals and instructional objectives must be measurable so that their status can be monitored. The simplest way to judge if a goal or objective can be reliably measured is to apply the stranger test (Kaplan, 1995). The statement of behavior must be in an objective to provide a measurable indicator of learning. But it is the learning, not the behavior, which is of primary importance to most teachers. 5. Do they pass the so-what test?- The So-What Test (validity) Because the purpose of education is to prepare people to be socially competent, the so-what test asks whether the goals and instructional objectives are important. Good objectives specify outcomes that will benefit students by teaching them things that are socially significant (Ensminger & Dangel, 1992) and not simply make life easier for parents and teachers. To pass the so-what test, an objective should act to develop, rather than to suppress, behavior . In cases where behaviors need to be suppressed, goals and objectives should include alternate positive behaviors (Kaplan, 200; Martin & Pear, 1996; Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991). 6. Are the objectives aligned?- Individualization Appropriate goals and instructional objectives are derived from assessment data. They must be aligned with the students present level of educational performance and students goals. 7. Do they make common sense?- Common Sense Instructional objectives dont have to fit into one sentence and trying to make them do so can be very confusing. Objectives tell what the students will learn, not descriptions of what the students will follow to learn. CRITERIA FOR ASSESSMENT OF INSTRUCTIONS Instruction refers to the implementation of the objectives. It is concerned with the methodologies and strategies of teaching. The two approaches to instruction: 1. Supplantive Approach- referred to as direct instruction (Adams & Englemann,1996). The teacher attempts to promote learning by providing explicit directions and explanations regarding how to do a task.


The teacher assumes primary responsibility for linking new infor mation with the students prior knowledge and ultimately whatever the students learn. Information is presented in an ordered sequence in which component subskills are taught directly or a foundation for later tasks. This approach to instruction is highly teacher-directed.

Generative Approach- referred to as constructivist or developmental. The teacher functions as a facilitator who takes a less central role in a learning process that is student-directed (Ensminger & Dangel, 1992). The teacher provides opportunities for the students to make own linkages to prior knowledge and to devise her own strategies for work. It is constructivist because much of its emphasis is on helping students to construct their own educational goals and experiences as well as the knowledge that results. Information is presented on a schedule determined by students interests and goals. Subskills may not be taught explicitly Pre-requisites for more complex information are expected to be learned as a consequence of the larger understanding students would be guided to construct. Learning is assumed to be socially constructed out of the interaction between the students innate and predisposition and the social context in which the student lives. But advocates of the generative approach sometimes take a restrictive view of social context In which the student lives (Stone, 1996). Often, they do not seem to view teachers and classrooms as part of the social context. Therefore they see intentional instruction by teachers (or parents) as unnatural or meaningful.

THE CRITERIA ARE STATED IN THE FORM OF QUESTIONS AS FOLLOWS: 1. Have the goals of the curriculum or teaching plan been clearly stated; and are they used by teachers and students in choosing content, materials and activities for learning? 2. Have teacher and students engaged in student-teacher planning in defining the goals and in determining how they will be implemented? 3. Do some of the planned goals relate to the society or the community in which the curriculum will be implemented or the teaching will be done? 4. Do some of the planned goals relate to the individual learner and his or her needs, purposes, interest and abilities? 5. Are the planned goals used as criteria in selecting and developing learning materials for instruction? 6. Are the planned goals used as criteria in evaluating learning achievement and in the further planning of learning sub goals and activities? WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD CURRICULUM? 1. The Curriculum is continuously evolving. It evolved from one period to another, to the present. For a curriculum to be effective, it must have continuous monitoring and evaluation. Curriculum must adapt its educational activities and services to meet the needs of a modern and dynamic community. 2. The Curriculum is based on the needs of the people. A good curriculum reflects the needs of the individual and the society as a whole. The curriculum is in proper shape in order to meet the challenges of times and make education more responsive to the clientele it serves. 3. The Curriculum is democratically conceived. A good curriculum is developed through the efforts of a group of individuals from different sectors in the society who are knowledgeable about the interests, needs and resources of the learner and the society as a whole. The curriculum is the product of many minds and energies. 4. The Curriculum is the result of a long-term effort. A good curriculum is a product of long and tedious process. It takes a long period of time in the planning, management, evaluatio n and development of a good curriculum. 5. The Curriculum is a complex of details. A good curriculum provides the proper instructional equipment and meeting places that are often most conducive to learning. It includes the student-teacher relationship, guidance and counseling program, health services, school and community projects, library and laboratories, and other school- related work experiences. 6. The Curriculum provides for the logical sequence of subject matter. Learning is developmental. Classes and activities should be planned. A good curriculum provides continuity of experiences. 7. The Curriculum complements and cooperates with other programs of the community. The curriculum is responsive to the needs of the community.



The school offers its assistance in the improvement and realization of ongoing programs of the community. There is cooperative effort between the school and the community towards greater productivity. The Curriculum has educational quality. Quality education comes through the situation of the individuals intellectual and creative capacities for social welfare and development. The curriculum helps the learner to become the best that he can possibly be. The curriculum support system is secured to augment existing sour ces for its efficient and effective implementation. The Curriculum has administrative flexibility. A good curriculum must be ready to incorporate changes whenever necessary. The curriculum is open to revision and development to meet the demands of g lobalization and the digital age.

WHAT IS CURRICULUM EVALUATION? Curriculum Evaluation is the process of obtaining information for judging the worth of an educational program, product, procedure, educational objectives or the potential utility of alternative approaches designed to attain specific objectives (Glass and Worthem, 1997). In evaluating a curriculum, the following key questions are usually asked: 1. Are the objectives being addressed? 2. Are the contents being presented in the recommended sequence? 3. Are the students being involved in the suggested instructional experiences? 4. Are the students reacting to the contents? FORMATIVE AND SUMMATIVE EVALUATION Summative evaluation is evaluation that takes place at the end of the unit or section of instruction. It takes place at the end of the lesson or project and tells the evaluator what has happened. It sums -up the learning. Formative evaluation takes place during the lesson or project and tells the evaluator what is happening. It is ongoing and yields information that can be used to modify the program prior to termination. (Howel & Nolet, 2000). TWO WAYS OF CURRICULUM EVALUATION 1. School-Based Evaluation An approach to curriculum evaluation which places the content, design, operation of evaluation procedure. It is participative evaluation where the control and the process rest on the school personnel themselves. A range of evaluation activities may take place within the school. Advantages of School-Based Evaluation Accountability is shared by all, hence bias and conflict are minimized. School personnel develop evaluation skills. The real concern of the school and community are addressed by the evaluation. Broad participation of school personnel provides opportunities for building school cohesiveness. Provides reliable and valid information on curriculum, resources, and general school functioning Accreditation A voluntary process of submitting a curricular program to an external accrediting body for review in any level of education. Studies the statement of the educational intentions of the school. Areas for Accreditation under Curriculum and Instruction O O Curriculum and Program of Studies. Includes the cluster of knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and experiences. Classroom Management Management of teaching and learning in the classroom Provide opportunities to develop independent lifelong learners Teacher will act as a manager of learners and learning Instructional Process or Methodologies Follow principles and theories that enhance learning outcomes Graduation Requirements Graduation - successful accomplishment of the curricular program of studies. Student has to accomplish its academic program Administrative Support for Effective Instruction Principal has a distinct responsibility of curricular manager or manager of learning Evaluation of Academic Performance of Students




Learning outcomes of the students must be evaluated Students should receive information about their school performance promptly and regularly TOOLS IN ASSESSING CURRICULUM Assessment strategies are used by the teacher to assess students performance. There are Seven (7) tools in assessing the curriculum. 1. Paper and Pencil Strategy - it is a traditional way of teacher in assessing student performance. Examples: Essay- refers to a writing samples of a students in which, is used to assessed student mastery of the concept, organizing ideas and developing the critical thinking. Select Response- is used to identify one correct answer (multiple choice, identification and matching type) Performanced-Based Strategy - requires students to demonstrate, create and produce. Reflective Strategy - it is a self assessment where in students reflect with there own. Behavioral Strategy - refers to the behavior of the students which the teacher used to assessed while working/task inside the classroom. Oral Strategy - often used by the teacher inside the classroom, a question and answer portion where in students develop their verbal skill on how he/she response to the question given by the teacher. Combination Strategy - used by the teacher to enhanced students creativeness of answering questions. Example: Portfolio - refers to the student work collection. Personal Communication Strategy Examples: Conference - is a formal and informal meeting between and among the teachers, students and parents. Interview - a form of conversation among/between the teachers, parents and students.evaluation and curriculum redesign?

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.


LINKING CURRICULUM CONTENT, INSTRUCTION and ASSESSMENT Curriculum and Assessment Assessment is the process of collecting information which describes students achievement in relation to curriculum expectations.

FOUR LEVELS OF ACHIEVEMENT BASED ON CURRICULUM EXPECTATIONS Level 1: Students has demonstrated few of the required knowledge and skills and achievement falls below the standard set. Level 2: Students has demonstrated some of the required knowledge and skills and achievement exceeded the standard set. Level 3: Students has demonstrated most of the required knowledge and skills and achievement exceeded the standard set. Level 4: Students has demonstrated all the required knowledge and skills and achievement has exceeded the standard set. INSTRUCTION AND ASSESSMENT Instruction refers to the various ways of teaching, teaching styles, approaches, techniques, and steps in delivering the curriculum. It is a complex activity that requires teachers to use a variety of action to accomplish a variety of functions. Several factors on how well instruction will be done.. 1. Learner the centre and the one who receives instruction. The learners will be the one to put action on the objectives. 2. Teacher He/she guides the implementation of the plan. Often times referred to as instructors because they give instruction. 3. Learning Environment This where learning occurs. It provides the situation or the conditions for teaching and learning to occur. 4. Subject Matter this is the content of instruction. Ideas, concept, principles and theories in the different disciplines that are taken up as a means to accomplish the objectives. 5. Method of teaching and learning This is the heart of instruction. 6. Measurement refers to assessment.