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Process analysis!

What is a process?!

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What is a process?! !A process is any part of an organisation that takes inputs and transforms them into outputs!

Why do we map processes?!

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Why do we map processes?!

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Understand current processes! Identify relationships and process dynamics! Identify bottlenecks and spare capacity! Identify wasteful activities! Analyse and improve processes!

Why do we map processes?!

! ! ! !

Design new processes! Forecast resource requirements! Identify relationships and process dynamics! Anticipate effects of new process!

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Why do we map processes?!

! ! ! !

Standardisation! Maintain process quality (e.g. ISO9000)! Highlight deviations and process quality issues! Provide a foundation for improvement!

Flowchart Elements!

Task or operation

Decision point

Queue or stockpile

Material or customer flow

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SIPOC!

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Mapping by Functional Area!

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Process concepts!
! ! ! ! Buffering! Blocking ! Starving! Bottleneck!

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Process concepts!

Process concepts!

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Process concepts!

Process concepts!

! Make to stock! ! Make to order!

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Make to stock!

Make to order!

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Hybrid!

Hybrid!

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Exercise!

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What factors determine what a process looks like?!

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Measuring Processes!
! Cycle Time: time between completion of units
! Includes setup and process time

! Throughput Rate: ! Throughput Time: Time for unit to move through system

Measuring Processes!
! Utilisation: Time activated/Time available ! Efficiency: Actual output/Standard output ! Productivity: Output/Input

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Measuring Processes!

! Takt time

Littles Law!
! Throughput time = WIP/Throughput rate
! e.g. A parts distribution warehouse ships 80 orders per day. Right now, there are 45 picking notes in the in-tray. The storemen are all busy picking orders; there are currently 10 incomplete ones being assembled in the staging area. There are 5 staged orders waiting for an invoice to be attached. 25 complete orders are at the exit, awaiting the logistics company. What is the throughput time for an order, from when the warehouse receives a picking note, to when the order is sent out?

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Measuring Processes!
! Process velocity: Throughput time/value-add time

Different processes have different performance criteria?!

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Homework!

Good processes are:


! ! ! ! ! Designed Aligned to clear objectives Communicated and used Span functions and boundaries Continuously analysed and improved

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Process mapping - types


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