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**199-214, 1997
**

Pergamon PII:0892--6875(96)00146-X © 1997 Publishedby Elsevier Science Ltd Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved 0892-6875/97 $17.00+0.00

INVESTIGATION OF INTERPARTICLE BREAKAGE AS APPLIED TO CONE CRUSHING

**C.M. EVERTSSON§ and R.A. BEARMAN?
**

Machine and Vehicle Design, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden I" Centre for Mining Technology and Equipment, Isles Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068, Australia (Received 29 September 1996; accepted 15 November 1996) ABSTRACT

The brealazge of material in cone type gyratory crushers is traditionally regarded as relying up¢m single particle breakage. In the last ten years the emphasis has shifted with manufacturers trying to generate higher degrees of interparticle breakage. Increasing the degree of interparticle crushing is claimed to improve crushing efficiency and product shape. The current study uses form conditioned crushing tests (geometry controlled compression) to investigate how multiple particles respond to crushing loads. By variation of test parameters the breakage characteristics of a rock material can be determined and compared to traditional single particle crushing. The selection function, S (probability of crushing a single particle), seems to be related to the ratio between stroke and bed height, s/b, with a second order polynomial in s/b. An analysis of a given crusher chamber gives selection values in the range O.05 < S < O.4. Given the geometry of this chamber it is clear that much of the breakage will be interparticle. However, the selection values indicate that the efficiency of crushing is poor. Using the approach outlined a mechanistic crusher model has been developed. The model seeks to describe the crushing process in relation to the machine operating parameters, chamber geometry and the material characteristics of the feed. In this way predictions of material flow and product size gradation are obtained that can be used to improve the understanding and design of crushers. ©1997 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd

Keywords

Comminution; crushing; modelling; simulation; particle size INTRODUCTION Production of ballast material is a process which is challenging to analyse due to the complex structure of dependencies between the different process parameters. Of particular interest is the breakage mode. Two modes have been identified: interparticle breakage and single particle breakage. Interparticle breakage occurs when a particle has contact points shared with other surrounding particles.

Presented at Minerals F.ngineerin& '96, Brisbane, Australia, August 26-28, 1996

199

. With this equipment they were able to measure strength and damage of single rock fragments with good accuracy. One aim is to get a better understanding of the interparticle breakage process of relevance in a cone crusher. chamber geometry. I • . A. Evertsson and R. Although a very useful simulation tool the Whiten model cannot be considered as a design tool. Interpartiele breakage is believed to be an important breakage mode in cases where a significant amount of the feed is smaller than the closed side setting. Classification C = size separation process occurring between subsequent reduction cycles. attrition behaviour and breakage behaviour. Feed and product is represented by f and p. but indeed a different approach when modelling crushers for simulation of crushing plants. . Examples of this type of crushing were investigated among others by Eloranta [1]. elastic modulus. Breakage between liners (single particle breakage) is a breakage mode which occurs when the distance between the chamber walls are equal to or smaller than the particle size before it is broken.200 C. stroke. The objective of this work is twofold. I Material characteristics product S-Selection B =Breakage I. The particles that have not reached a critical stress level will be left unbroken. All particles are not broken in this breakage mode.i I I -~. Of special interest is the understanding of how selection and breakage behaviour depend of the machine parameters. After full-scale tests Whiten's approach provides a good tool for optimization of a given design. closed side setting. Bearman After catastrophic breakage cracking generates two or more daughter fragments and fines due to attrition at the contact points. For breakage between liners all particles are broken during a stroke. Evertsson [3]: Selection S = the probability of a particle to be broken. The machine parameters of a cone crusher are eccentric rotational speed of the cone.~ S ~ (I-S)f B . The rock material to be crushed is characterized by some strength parameter. Here it is assumed that no internal classification occurs which is reasonable for a choke-fed crusher. The main difference is that the crusher is simplified to a single crushing zone and that model parameters are fitted to full-scale data.~ feed . Breakage B = the actual size reduction resulting in smaller particles. Whiten [4] has at first sight a similar. CRUSHING PROCESS A crushing process in a crushing machine is characterized by three process elements.Machine parameters Fig. When a particle breaks the sizes of the daughter fragments are controlled by the specific breakage appearance of the material.M. During the stroke of the cone some particles are selected for breakage depending on how and to what level they are stressed. However. power consumption and hydraulic pressure. they can contribute to the generation of fines due to attrition at the contact points. Briggs and Bearman [2] used a Modified Hopkinson Pressure Bar for studies of single particle breakage. 1 Model of a single reduction cycle. The other aim is to develop a mechanistic model which can be used for analysis and prediction of the performance of cone crushers at the design phase. A reduction cycle for a cone crusher can be modelled as shown in Figure 1.

material characteristics. All other parameters are in one way or another dependent o f at least one other parameter. feed and product properties. Independent machine parameters are rotational eccentric speed. . closed side setting and stroke. i! Machine parameters Eccentric speed. TABLE 1 Relationships between machine parameters. The interdependency matrix relates the input to the output parameters as showa in Eq. D=dependent parameter. (1). Dependencies in any direction between two parameters are marked X. feed and product properties is shown in Table 1. inh. I=independent parameter. inherent material properties.Investigation of interparticle breakage PARAMETER CHARACTERIZATION 201 An attempt to describe the dependencies between machine parameters. The inherent material properties are independent. n Close side setting Stroke ~ ~ g~'~ •- ~ ~ ~ - I I l XX- Chamber geometry D Power Capacity Material properties. Feed Materialstrength Attrition resistance Size distribution Particle shape Material strength Prc~tuct Size distribution Particle shape : Material strength Hydraulic pressure D X X X X DXXXXX DXXXX I I D D D X - x! XXXXX XX X X XXXXXX X XXX X DXXXXX DXXXXX D'X X X X X X Another way to illustrate the dependencies between the independent parameters and the crushing result is to formulate a so called interdependency matrix.

ben. at some point. (1) that the product size distribution is affected by all the independent parameters. will fall freely in the crushing chamber.rpivo t. If the interdependency matrix had been diagonal the crushing process would have been an easy problem to solve. A process with a triangular interdependency matrix would have been possible to tune by adjusting the input process parameters in correct order. This equation only describes how the size distribution changes for a single size reduction cycle.o achieve high capacity the rotational speed of the cone is normally over critical and therefore the effective stroke is always less than the nominal stroke. The process would have been easy to tune if for example speed would have been the only parameter affecting capacity. distance from pivot point and chamber geometry. Shorn) < Snom (3) The bed height at a given point is a function of eccentric speed. Due to the effort . In that case a input parameter would only affect a single output parameter. S. The reduction process for the single reduction cycle described in Figure 1 leads to the mathematical expression which describes the size distribution of the product: p = BSf + (I-S)f = [BS + (I-S)]f (2) Where p is the product size distribution.202 C. A. B and S are matrix operators corresponding to breakage and selection. nominal stroke.om. saf = s(n. I is a unity matrix. bcff = b(n. Evertsson and R. As an example we notice from Eq. ser f. This fact is important to consider when comparing laboratory results and parameters with chamber geometry. This fact implies the complexity of the crushing process. In a typical gyratory or cone crusher the effective bed height and stroke varies with the dismac~ from the pivot . Boatman Power / Product size | Product shape / Product strength] = XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX Speed CSS Stroke Material strength Attrition resistance Feed size Feed shape Feed strength (1) An X in the interdependency matrix symbolizes a dependency between two parameters. closed side setting. In the case of crushing with existing crusher equipment such as jaw and cone crushers the interdependency matrix will be different from triangular. There is a so called critical speed of a crusher defined as the speed when the material. In an operating cone crusher the nominal stroke is not utilized to compress and thereby crush the material in the crusher chamber. and effective stroke. ess.chamber geometry) (4) Usually the material is subjected to more than one reduction cycle as it passes through a crusher. These parameters are effective bed height. is the feed size distribution. closed side setting. nominal stroke and chamber geometry two other independent parameters can be derived. DESCRIPTION OF GEOMETRY From the machine parameters rotational speed. The effective bed height and stroke give a better description of the ernshing conditions and makes it possible to compare different types of machine layouts.M.

S i )l f (7) DETERMINATION OF SELECTION AND BREAKAGE Breakage and selection functions can be determined by two main methods.S(sen. b o~) (6) Because breakage and selection varies between the reduction cycles the reduction process for a cone crusher can be written: P = H i=l [ B i S i + ( 1 . The bed heilOt decreases while the stroke increases in this direction. nominal stroke Snomand the distance r from the pivot point. The other method is to perform separate laboratory tests under controlled conditions. Serf b eff T Fig. The laboratory test corresponds to the part of the machine cycle when the liners moves towards each other. It is assumed that the breakage appearance and selection function are independent of the strain rate .5 m/s. The strain rate for the compressed material in a cone crusher is determined by the rotational speed n.2 The principle of the test equipment with characteristic parameters. One way is to fit the breakage and selection function to full-scale data. The material is then locked between the chamber walls and can only deform elastically and/or break into smaller particles.Investigationof interparticlebreakage 203 point. The maximum time derivative of the distance between the linen for a given total stroke is: b = ~ns (8) At normal operating conditions the maximum velocity of the cone relatively to the concave is below 0. In order to determine the selection and breakage function after one single reduction cycle a simple laboratory test was designed. The principle of the test is shown in Figure 2. b eff) (5) S -. The test equipment is designed to simulate the conditions to which a volume of material is subjected in a real crushing chamber. For a given material the breakage and selection function depends on the parameters effective bed height and stroke: B = B(Sen. It is not possible to isolate the results from one single reduction cycle in an operating cone crusher which is a reason why full-scale tests are not suitable for this purpose.

then the value of S is obtained as the weight fraction passing a given sieve size. = ~ BiMi i=l (9) The matrix Bi is triangular with elements given from a breakage function which describes a particular breakage mode. B. When a breakage mode is activated the corresponding breakage (base) function is expected to be constant.. These base functions are believed to be quite different depending on the mode of breakage. . The mode of breakage was discussed by Evertsson [2]. is obtained directly from the compression tests. The selection function is believed to be dependent of the s/b-ratio and particle size.s fraction[ B(:). selection. By keeping the degree of compression s/b constant and varying the bed height the degree of interpartiele breakage can be varied.function is obtained by dividing the size distribution below xl with the value of S. The probability of a particle being broken. Evertsson and R. The applied energy corresponds to the shaded area in Figure 4. A breakage operator which combines different breakage functions (modes) can be written as: Bm~. . B. 100% l 0 ** Weight . is obtained by normalising the size distribution curve below size x I with the value of S.~ st result X 1 X0 1 S-S Size Fig. is of diagonel type with non-zero elements at positions corresponding to the size ranges that are broken in a particular breakage mode. Mi. The mode matrix. ENERGY ASPECTS By integration of the crushing force P over the stroke s it is possible to obtain the applied energy E A. stroke s and initial size of the crushed particles xo. lfa narrow size distribution of particles is defined by +Xl-Xo. A.204 C. The crushing result (i e size distribution and shape) is stated to be dependent of the parameters bed height b. Expected results from the tests are elementary base functions describing the size distributions after breakage. The breakage function. see Figure 3.M. Bearman at this level.3 Value of S is equal to the total weight fraction passing size x~.

~ + E~o" (11) The efficiency of breakage can be quantified through the concept of energy utilization which is defined as new surface produced per unit of applied energy: E n e r g y utilization = As Eapplied (12) Here As is the increase in specific surface per unit mass and Eapplied is the average applied energy per unit mass. ~lb f The energy can be compared to the degree of reduction which is obtained by sieve analysis.Investigation of interparti¢le breakage 205 P S Fig. = E o~¢ + Ethe. is by definition the probability of a single particle being broken when a population of particles is subjected to a compressive load. not depending of the applied energy. There are two criteria which must be fulfilled if a particle should be selected for breakage: . Attrition of particles occurs during the compression which also consumes energy. S.e. The tested material was quartz and the energy range was 10-110 J/g. In the case of partially confined beds the energy utilization decreases relatively to fully confined beds when the applied energy increases. SELECTION Selection. Eapplie d = Eel~ c + Efriction = Ebreakag e + Etoss (10) Enos. Larger particles are weaker than smaller ones and therefore produce a greater surface area for a given expenditure of energy. This fact was proven by Rose [6] who performed drop weight tests using a bed of cement clinker. The applied energy corresponds to the energy consumed in breakage of the particles and energy losses. The area under the graph corresponds to the applied energy. Buss et al.4 Typical example of P. Multiple particle breakage has a lower energy utilization because of frictional losses and local crushing at contact points (attrition).s-relationship from a crushing test. The loss of energy which occurs immediately after a rupture is due to acoustic emission and thermal loss. The energy utilization is higher for single particle breakage than for multiple breakage. The way in which the degree of reduction should be defined is not clear. [5] found that for fully confined particle bed tests the energy utilization was constant i.

5 Selection function that fulfils the set of conditions. The chamber is loaded in a hydraulic press. A maximal theoretical compression (s/b)limit can be calculated from initial packing density and the inherent density of the rock. The chamber contains 20-70 panicles of size + 16-19mm depending of the required bed b e ~ h t . The stress level must reach a critical value (Briggs and Bearman [7]).206 .M. Total crushing force P and stroke s is recorded on a XY-recorder. A. . S 1 )l I I I I 0 ( s / b )min ( s / b )lirait "~ s / b Fig. EXI~'ERIMENTAL RESULTS The equipment used for the compression tests consists of a crushing chamber according to Figure 2. It consists of a steel cylinder with a diameter of 100ram and two circular steel platens. Bearman 2. limit Pinh A diabase with a typical initial packing density of 1300 kg/m3 and an inherent material density of 2900 kg/m 3 will then have a (s/b)limit--0. At (s/b)limi t the selection is assumed to be equal to unity. The particle must be located in such a way that a sufficient number of contact points are achieved. Even if no particles are broken below (s/b)min generation of fines will probably occur due to attrition.55. Evertsson and R. C. This is natural since there must be some compression before the particles have enough contact points so the stress level in some of the particles can reach the critical value. If selection is to be described with a mathematical function it looks suitable to adopt the following conditions: 1 11 lm I : :0 ds limit ]1 In practice there will be a minimal s/b-value below which the selection is equal to zero.

.--. This bed height is used in tests with constant bed height and variable s/b-ratio. .Investigation of interparticle breakage 207 A number of replicate tests were performed under identical conditions for every test point. .. Results From Tes~ with Constant Reduction Ratio Three different bed heights 20. 55 and 80ram were used in the tests with constant reduction ratio.125 0. .. .. Results from Tests with Constant Bed Height Compression test:~ with constant bed height were performed in order to study the effect of different s/b- .. The spread of results.3 0.to medium-grained gaeissic granite and medium grained gneissic diorite. . .5 1 16 32 Particle Size.. (9)....062 0.. . [mm] Fig.'7 ~. .. The aim of using such a short fraction is to be able to perform back calculations to achieve the selection and breakage function.. . .! 0 t... "'3 0. All the tested materials were taken from the tertiary stage in operating quarries..... For the purpose of this work a 55mm bed height is assumed to give a pure interparticle breakage. With 55ram and 80ram bed height the breakage mode is interparticle. ..h.5 ~ 0.6 . ..031 :. 0.. . .4 0. .ICE 0. . . .8 + = 80ram o = 55ram x = 20ram .i . . A bed height of 20mm corresponds to a mono-layer of particles.. .. .-.. . In this case the breakage mode is purely breakage between liners. . .. . . .. . . : . The results are shown in Figure 6. ...9 0.6 Normalized breakage functions for granite from tests with different bed height.. The materials were sieved to a size fraction +16-19mm. Z ""i . .2 0.25 0. Normalized Cumulated Particle Weight Distribution 0. was low especially for size fractions below 4ram.. The rock types were fine-grained diabase. . ....--. .. There is a small difference between the two tests which supports the theory of breakage modes given in Eq. and constant bed height with varying stroke s. . fine. in which the bed height b was varied. .... Three different types of rock material were tested.. A substantial difference between 20mm and 55ram bed height was found... Test were performed both with a constant reduction ratio s/b. 0.

Ls/o))) .4 0.9 0.2 0.4 0. Evertsson and R.25.3 0.17. Granite and diorite were tested for comparison at s/b=0. . A second order polynomial can be fitted to the data. 4 .5 0. (14) to the data for diabase in Figure 8 the following numbers for the constants are achieved: a 1=21.25 and 0. A.7759 ot2=-43. In all these tests the material was diabase.7 0. x s is defined in Eq. ct . . .(¢x3 ÷ xs¢t.008ram).10. f = log 2 ] X-Xmin s X (15) t X o -Xmi n After fitting Eq.3 0. with s/b as parameter and four constants was fitted to the test data.4191 Selection vs s/b for interparticle breakage 1 0. A function. s/b) = (1 .1 )( x i ] S = -4.1387(s3 + 4 5 3 8 6 s -b 02456 .7 Selection as a function of s/b. 31 0. 0.2 0.M. (14).8 0. (15).1 0. 0.208 C.0029 ot4=0. The s/b-ratios were 0.6 "~ 0.4615 t~3=-0. +%(s/b) + ((~3 + 0~4 ( s / b ) ) X s (14) Here x s is a particle size relative to the initial particle size xo. B (x s.38. In Figure 8 normalized size distributions resulting from four different s/b-ratios are shown. It is obvious that the overall reduction increases when the s/b-ratio increase.6 s/b Fig. Here Xmin is a small particle size (=0. . Bearman ratios. given in Eq.5 0. The achieved values for selection are shown in Figure 7. A second order polynomial is fitted to the test data together with the theoretical (s/b)limit -value.

. . !.. ........ ... .. .. / .. ! ... . .. .. . .... i . . . ! . . :: ... i ! i. . ..2! 0. ~ . .. ....~..... ..~... .....25 0. ... . .. . . / ~ ... ] ... .... .. .. .031 0 :. . • . .. ..D62 0.... ..8 Size distributions after compression tests of diabase. i... i .......... :: ] i" l ' / h . ...... ~. .... :" s/b ! . .5 1 2 P a r t i c l e Size.. . . ... ......... ... ......... .....~J....... ..... ...l -- 0. i . [ m m ] 4 8 16 32 F i g .. ........ ......... . Normalized Cumulated Particle Weight Distribution w ....~ i... i ...... ... : . .. . .. i . . + o ~ 4 ( s / b ) ) ) x s o.. ... . . i. ...... ...Investigation o f intetlaatticle breakage Normalized Cumulated Particle Weight Distribution.. Comparative tests were performed in order to obtain the difference in crushing behaviour between the three r o c k types. 2 5 . ! . 0.. ....... ... -~ 0... ... . .I e~ .. . . .. ..3 : . . . .5 1 2 Particle Size.O ~''~ .~o.~ + (oc 3 + t x 4 ( s / b ) ) x s []. . : ..125 0... ..5 . . .. .. . . . ...40. . .. . ...i. .... i.... ! i E ..! . !... ......i ... . . # • i C9 o = Granite o........ . . ... ........(Ct-. . . ...s 0... .. !. .25 0..3 . i o.. ! ... Four different s/b were tested. .... : .... ....'. . i~o:2~ 0. . ...... [ram] 4 8 16 32 Fig. .4. i.... • .. ....... i. . . .. . i. ...... ~0. •~ C) 0. . .. . . i i ! i... ~ o. .......... data2130m ~1 + Gt2(s/b) 209 B = ( 1 .... .. . .... . " .. The r e s u l t s a r e s h o w n i n F i g u r e 9. . ... .. i . ! .031 0 ..... .. . .. .. . ... . . .... ... i. ..7 x = i :: :: :: Diabase .. . .062 0.125 0..... ... . . . 9 S i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r t h e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t r o c k m a t e r i a l s t e s t e d at s / b = 0 .. . . .=.

. Bearman The diabase achieved the smallest size-reduction for a given s/b-ratio. (7) . . . The relationship between selection and the maximal crushing force is linear in the region of technical interest (0 < S <0.210 C. Material flow A volume of material is crushed N times. Process A repeated breakage process can be described with the expression given in Eq. material flow and material characteristics into consideration. The model takes the process. Conclusions from Compression Crushing Tests The difference between crushing a mono-layer of particles compared to interparticle breakage is substantial in the case of geometry controlled crushing.7). A FIRST APPROACH TO A MECHANISTIC CRUSHER MODEL Making some assumptions it is possible to achieve a mechanistic model of a cone crusher that contains the most important mechanisms which occur in a real crusher. The relative amount of fines was highest for diorite. This assumption is not a severe limitation as an arbitrary geometry can be treated if needed. The assumptions are as follows: . The maximal crushing force increases exponentially with s/b. Material characteristics The selection and breakage functions are given as functions of s/b.M. The applied energy increases with increasing maximal crushing force. The distances between the locations where the material volume is crushed are equal. chamber geometry. For bed heights over 55ram the crushing is purely interparticle for the initial size fraction +16-19mm. A. It is assumed that selection and breakage functions are independent of the size distribution. For example selection and breakage can be achieved from the slow compression tests. Selection-values over 0. Chamber geometry The crusher chamber can be described with a simple geometry as shown in Figure 10. Evertssonand R.8 for interparticle breakage do not seem possible to achieve in practice as the loads in the crushing chamber will become excessive. The selection function can be described with a second order polynomial in s/b. The material volume is crushed at the inlet and at the outlet of the crusher chamber. The breakage appearance for a rock material can be described as a function of particle size with the s/bratio as a parameter.

.o . We assume the following numbers for the geometry (rl. S2..o . I. I (I-Sn)Pn-I /:: . .. 1 cnaractemtics iIi. q P .. O) ~" Open positio . bl) Concave profile Mantle profile i n ~ ~ (r2' b2) Closed position O.. Other numbers of interest which can. .° .2" and from those we achieve the numbers for the s/b-ratio which is shown in Figure 12. .~. Cross-section profiles of cone and mantle are described with straight lines.bJeff.38) [ram] CPstroke= 1.. Overall crushing result can be described with Eq.. ~. .... 9 m m css = r2--0. 0 t . the interpretation of which is shown in Figure 11. f feed o : ["~o--"I ~ Vl r ' 7 " ] ~ : p2 Pn.Investigation of interparticle breakage 211 b(r) Pivot point r (rl.... . 10 Geometry of a simple cone crusher chamber. the breakage process for the assumed crusher can be described with Eq. . ..bJeff 2 character~tics .... . .o . (7).| o . . I . ..8 n u n oss = r2 +0. .(I'S2)pl li. l m m Now.. . be derived from the geometry are stroke.o .. open and dosed side setting: Sno m max = r 2tan (P. li ~. .5snomn~ = 2 9 ..~ Fig. .100) cPcone= 3 5 * (r2. .. .I r ' 7 " ] ~ : Pn l (I-Sl)f I:! ...5 S°om max = 4 6 .b2) =(850. . . .. .. .ke = 17. 11 Model of a cone crusher with N subsequent crushing events. .bJeff N characteristics Fig.o ... (7).. ... The (s/b)eff -ratio is taken from Figure 12. ~..b])=(400. The operators Si and Bi are affected by the machine parameter (s/b)eff and material characteristics.

064 0. i....... TABLE 2 Values of S and (s/b)~ in different strokes...M.. If the inlet of the crusher chamber is much larger than the largest particle and if the nip angle is small enough the mode of breakage will be interparticle.g. e.3~- 0.097 0. Assumption 2 and 3 will together give the nominal s/b-ratio at each crushing event..4~ I ! 0....... 1st strokei 2nd stroke 3rd stroke 0. r [mm] Fig.151 5th stroke 0.. Evertsson and R. but the s/b-value will always be to large.156 4th stroke 0. Due to dynamic effects we have concluded earlier that the effective stroke always is less (or equal) with the nominal stroke.. The arrows mark where a volume of material is crushed for the case with N = 5 .6.028 0.042 0 0. Bcarman 15thl!: 0.. The results are presented in Figure 14.: . An arbitrary feed size distribution is given in Figure 13. see Table 2..254 0.344 The crushing result after each event is calculated by using Eq. 7.1 00 100 200 300 i 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Distance from pivot point....641 (s/b) Selection S 0.212 C. . If this is the case the material characteristics data in Figure 7 and 8 give the numerical values of the elements in the operators Si and B i for a given (s/b)eff value... 12 Nominal s/b ratio for the geometry in Figure 10 as a function of the distance from the pivot point. A.5 ~- 0..... 0. At this stage the best assumption is that ser f is a fraction of s..2~ .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Feed size distribution chosen for simulation. .5 2 4 8 16 32 Particle Size. . . . . . . -Z"-' 0. [ram] Fig. . . [mm] Fig. ..Investigation o f interparticle breakage Feed size distribution 213 0. . . . . . . . . " .362 0. . . . . !. . . . . . . . .7 2 o6 •.~ 0. . . . • . . . " . . . . . .031 t ~.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 i .. .2 0. . . . . . . . . . . .. . Product size distribution in each zone n=5 1 0. . . . .. . . . .5 1 2 4 16 32 Particle Size.031 0 2. .i . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . .1 0 0. . . . . . .2 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . .5 o. . . .3 i . ". . . . .. 0. . .. . .. . No size reduction takes p]tace and the product size distribution is identical to the feed size distribution.25 0.D62 0. . . .1 • (I. . . . .~ . . 0.. .. . . . . . . . . . .8 3. . .125 0. . . . .25 0. . . . . . . . . . . .125 0..14 Simulated product size distributions in each crushing zone.5 ~ 0. . . . . . .~o. ". . . . . . . . .9 i . . . ~. . . . .4 0. . . . . . At the first stroke the (s/b)eff -value is below 0. . . . . .4 0..ol .3 0.06 and therefore the selection function is zero. . . . . . . . . .8 09 0. .

An Investigation of Rock Breakage and Damage.A. J. &Sehubert. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Prof.A. Sabema Material AB. B. USA.. This part acts more as a feeder than a crusher. Eloranta. By modelling how a single rock or a material volume passes through the crusher chamber it will be possible to obtain better information of the locations where the crushing occurs and the total number of reduction cycles which a material volume is subjected to. AIME Annual Meeting. Bearman At the second stroke S is approximately 0. Tampere University of Technology.A. 173-180. 1995). M . Prediction of Size Distributions from Compressing Crusher Machines. 1995). Briggs. 4. 12(5). Process. 489-497 (May 1996). Control 84. Swedish Rock Engineering Research (SveBeFo). This is probably the gravest assumption of the ones made in this work. NCC Baggermanns AB. 3. The mechanistic modelling method which has been developed governs the detailed understanding of how and where in the cavity a volyme of rock material is exposed to size reduction. Proc. Metall. Proceedings EXPLO '95 Conference. PhD Thesis. Gatu & Vag AB. The (s/b)eff value is high as is the selection function S and the breakage function B. Nordberg-Lokomo AB. Brisbane.. & Bearman. is gratefully acknowledged for his supervision and for valuable discussions. Evertsson and R. 277-283 (1982). 7.. National Swedish Sand and Crushed Stone Association (GMF).M. H. 5. Uber das Zerkleinergungsverhalten seitlich begrenzter und nichi-begrenzter Kornschichten bei Druckanspruchung. G6ran Gerbert. 217-225. Buss. J. During the third. R. C. (4-7 Sept. fourth and fifth stroke the main part of the total size reduction takes place..214 c . Models and Controls Techniques for Crushing Plants. REFERENCES . Drop Weight Tests as the Basis for Calculations of the Performance of Ball Mills. H. Rose. . 5(5). At the same time this assumption implies a need for further research. By using the method as a analytical tool it is possible to improve the performance of cone crushers. Congr.J. lOth Int. The flow model will provide an important contribution to the mechanistic understanding of how a cone crusher operates. Briggs.E. Swedish National Road Administration (V~igverket).. IMM (London). The Assessment of Rock Breakage and Damage. Neue Bergbautechnik. This fact implies that effective size reduction is governed by high (s/b)eff -values. 143-147 (April 1973). R. Minerals Engineering. Whiten. R~sj6 Kross AB. Skanska AB. Publ. Influence of Crushing Process Variables on the Product Quality of Crushed Rock.. . Mini. In this study the material flow through the crusher is assumed to have constant velocity through the crusher chamber. 2. CONCLUSIONS Given the stated assumptions the following conclusions can be drawn: The total size reduction seems to be more dependent on the selection function than on the breakage function. W. 16%172. & Bearman. The upper half of the assumed crusher is highly ineffective. London.03 and a slight size reduction is achieved. Hanische. Los Angeles. Machine and Vehicle Design. Svedala Industri AB. A. (Feb. The author is grateful and wants to thank the following companies and organizations for their financial support: Development Fund of the Swedish Construction Industri (SBUF). Proceedings EXPLO '95 Conference. C. C..A. Process. 1984). Miner.. (4-7 Sept. Evertsson. (1995).. Brisbane.

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