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Syria Civil War Fast Facts
By CNN Library
January 29, 2014 -- Updated 1236 GMT (2036 HKT)
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(CNN) -- Here is some background about the on-going civil war in Syria. Since the war began in 2011, more than 100,000 Syrians have been killed, according to the United Nations. Facts: Bashar al-Assad has ruled Syria as president since July 2000. His father, Hafez al-Assad, ruled Syria from 1970-2000. The ongoing violence against civilians has been condemned by the Arab League, the European Union, the United States, and other countries. Timeline: March 2011 - Violence flares in Daraa after a group of teens and children are arrested for writing political graffiti. Dozens of people are killed when security forces crack down on demonstrations. March 24, 2011 - In response to continuing protests, the Syrian government announces several plans to appease citizens. State employees will receive an immediate salary increase. The government also plans to study lifting Syria's long standing emergency law and the licensing of new political parties. March 30, 2011 - President al-Assad addresses the nation in a 45-minute televised speech. He acknowledges that the government has not met the people's needs but he does not offer any concrete changes. The state of emergency remains in effect. April 21, 2011 - Al-Assad lifts the country's 48-year-old state of emergency. He also abolishes the Higher State Security Court and issues a decree "regulating the right to peaceful protest, as one of the basic human rights guaranteed by the Syrian Constitution." May 18, 2011 - The U.S. imposes sanctions against Syrian President
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cnn." August 18. February 7. 2011 .The Arab League suspends its mission in Syria as violence there continues. 2012 .N.Syria signs an Arab League proposal aimed at ending violence between government forces and protesters. 2012 .S. The vote was 137 in favor and 12 against. the release of detainees and allowing unfettered access to relief 'Jon Stewart' of Egypt returns to TV next week From Around the Web Bookshelves for All Spaces Dwell Obama Marriage On The Rocks?? Claims Surface Over The Infamous ‘Selfie’ and An Alleged Affair Recommended by 2 of 6 2/7/2014 11:38 AM . 2012 . 2011 .The Arab League suspends Syria's membership. February 16.A new alignment of Syrian opposition groups establishes the Syrian National Council. including financial sanctions. with 17 abstentions. 2011 .S.N. against Syria.com/2013/08/27/world/meast/syria-civil-war-fast-facts/ Bashar al-Assad and six other senior Syrian officials. barring Americans from making new investments in the country and prohibiting any U. 2012 . November 30.Foreign ministers from 19 Arab League countries vote to impose economic sanctions against the Syrian regime for its part in a bloody crackdown on civilian demonstrators. including the United States. persons are generally prohibited from engaging in transactions with them. imposes new economic sanctions on Syria. closes its embassy in Damascus and recalls its diplomats. December 19. 2011 .S. a framework through which to end President al-Assad's government and establish a democratic system.S. March 13. Almost 90% of voters approve the changes to the constitution.com http://edition.Syria Civil War Fast Facts . 2011 .CNN. 2012 . and U. 2012 .The European Union bans the import of Syrian oil. 2011 . November 12. among other things.Syrians vote on the constitutional referendum in polling centers across the country.The U.. October 4. Nine of the 15-member council countries. freezing Syrian government assets in the U. any property in the United States or in the possession or control of U. January 28. September 2. meets in Turkey with government officials and Syrian opposition members. 2011.Russia and China veto a U.Kofi Annan. the U. 2011 . October 2. voted in favor of adopting the resolution. "As a result of this action. special envoy to Syria.The European Union imposes additional sanctions against Syria. 2012 .The United Nations General Assembly passes a nonbinding resolution endorsing the Arab League plan for Syrian president Bashar al-Assad to step down. persons in which the individuals listed in the Annex have an interest is blocked. He visits Syria over the weekend where he calls for a cease-fire. transactions relating to Syrian petroleum products. 2011 . February 4.N. February 6.The Gulf Cooperation Council announces its member states are pulling their ambassadors from Damascus and expelling the Syrian ambassadors in their countries.Turkey announces a series of measures.The U. Security Council resolution that would call for an immediate halt to the crackdown in Syria against opponents of President Bashar al-Assad. Security Council meeting ends with no agreement on a draft resolution intended to pressure Syria to end its months-long crackdown on anti-government demonstrators. February 2.A U. Security Council resolution condemning action against Syria is not adopted after Russia and China vote against it. effective November 16.S.N.A U. The Treasury Department details the sanctions by saying. 2012 . November 27.S. February 26. 2011 . September 23. due to "the continuing brutal campaign" by the government against its own people.
2012 .Syrian opposition factions formally agree to unite as the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces. November 11. give access to humanitarian agencies. Qatar and Kuwait. though both the Syrian regime and opposition have reported at least hundreds of killings since then. 2012 . believes more than 8. November 11. August 9. October 3.The Gulf Cooperation Council announces that the six member countries will close their Syrian embassies and calls on the international community "to stop what is going on in Syria.After a year of fighting.com/2013/08/27/world/meast/syria-civil-war-fast-facts/ agencies to deliver much needed aid.The Syrian Foreign Ministry spokesman.. It is the first time Israel has fired on Syria across the Golan Heights since the 1973 Yom Kippur War. observers are tasked with supporting the implementation of Annan's peace plan." The council members include the United Arab Emirates. Jihad Makdissi. 3 of 6 2/7/2014 11:38 AM .N. Hijab is the highestprofile official to defect. 2012 .U. 2012 . 2012 . 2012 . the international group Friends of the Syrian People formally recognizes the Syrian National Council as a legitimate representative of the Syrian people. the release of arbitrarily arrested detainees and the start of a political dialogue.com http://edition. 2012 .cnn. 2012 . April 1. 2012 .The U. July 23." July 30. and start a political dialogue to address the concerns of the Syrian people. March 27.Syrian television reports that President al-Assad has appointed Health Minister Wael al-Halki as the new prime minister.The U. 2012 . Turkey fires on Syrian targets and its parliament authorizes a resolution giving the government permission to deploy its soldiers to foreign countries.Abdul Basit Sieda. .At a conference in Istanbul. Saudi Arabia. Turkey.N. which also calls for access for humanitarian groups. unless Syria is exposed to external aggression." August 2.N. Oman.. is now Syria's National Council leader. 2012 . Secretary General Ban Ki-moon announces that Special Envoy for Syria Kofi Annan will not renew his mandate when it expires at the end of August.N.The Syrian government accepts U.Five people are killed by Syrian shelling in the Turkish border town of Akcakale. 2012 . the U.000 people have died.N.The Syrian Charge d'Affaires in London. "No chemical or biological weapons will ever be used. Security Council has authorized up to 300 unarmed military observers for a 90-day mission in Syria. The proposal seeks to stop the violence. In response. 2012 .Syrian Prime Minister Riyad al-Hijab's resignation from office and defection from Assad's regime is read on Al Jazeera by his spokesman Muhammad el-Etri. a Syrian native now living in Sweden. June 13. threatens to use chemical and biological weapons against outside forces. resigns stating he is "no longer willing to represent a regime that has committed such violent and oppressive acts against its own people. 2012 . release detainees. Opposition activists claim the number to be higher than 10.000 and most of the dead are civilians.Syria Civil War Fast Facts . The monitors are tasked with observing a cease-fire that was supposed to go into effect April 12. Khaled al-Ayoubi. envoy Kofi Annan's plan to end violence. March 21. 2012 . June 10.Israel fires warning shots toward Syria after a mortar shell hits an Israeli military post.CNN. Bahrain. In addition. June 16. Hijab and his family are said to have left Syria overnight arriving in Jordan. August 6. suspends its monitoring mission due to intensifying violence. March 15.
5 million Syrians have left their country to escape the war. August 1. May 17. and holds dual U. 2013 . May 27.U. 2013 . May 6 . August 18. official tells CNN that Israeli forces conducted an airstrike in Syria on May 5. 2013 .U.The United Nations and the United States call for an immediate investigation of Syrian activists' claims that the Bashar al-Assad government used chemical weapons in an attack on civilians on August 21. 2013 .Sheikh Ahmed Moaz al-Khatib is elected leader of the Syrian opposition collective.Medical charity Doctors Without Borders 4 of 6 2/7/2014 11:38 AM . official to visit since the beginning of the war.European Union nations end the arms embargo against the Syrian rebels. 2013 . Though born in Damascus. and the earlier strike targeted Fateh 110 missiles stored at the Damascus airport.300 people were killed in the attack outside Damascus. The opposition refuses to work with Assad's government. Video footage and witness reports appeared to bolster claims that chemical weapons were used. 2013 .U. March 19.A U.A team of U. August 22. July 6. which he calls terrorists. most of them government soldiers. It is reported that he is the highest ranking U.The Obama Administration says that Syria has crossed a 'red line' with its use of chemical weapons.Ahmad Assi Jarba is elected the new leader of the Syrian National Coalition.N. 2013 .N. Videos on the internet purport to show Syrian rebels executing as many as 30 people. August 24. including the nerve agent sarin gas.S.S.N. many of them women and children.com/2013/08/27/world/meast/syria-civil-war-fast-facts/ November 13. against rebels and indicates that it will be stepping up its support of the rebels. 2013 . calls for an investigation into an incident in July in Khan al-Assal in northern Syria. the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces.CNN. Security Council estimates that the number of civilians killed in the two-year civil war in Syria is approaching 70. 2012 . 2013 .Assad announces he will not step down and that his vision of Syria's future includes a new constitution and an end to support for the opposition. Senator John McCain visits rebels in Syria. June 13. Hitto has spent much of his life in the United States. who have been calling for the United States and others to provide arms need to battle al-Assad's forces. April 25. 2013 . and Syrian citizenship.N.The National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces elects American-educated Ghassan Hitto as its prime minister.The U. February 12. weapons inspectors arrives in Syria to begin an investigation into whether chemical weapons have been used during the civil war. 2013 . 2013 . as well as one the previous week. spokesman Martin Nesirky tells reporters that a team of ten experts has been assembled to travel to Syria to investigate three reports of chemical weapons use. Sunday's strike targeted a research facility in a mountainous area near Damascus and weapons that were to be transferred to Hezbollah. August 23.Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel announces the United States has evidence that the chemical weapon sarin has been used in Syria on a small scale. 2013 .The U.N.'s refugee agency reports that over 1.000.N.S.S.The U. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon says the use of chemical weapons in Syria is a crime against humanity and must be punished. 2013 .Syria Civil War Fast Facts .com http://edition. Anti-regime activist groups in Syria say more than 1. 2013 . May 27. January 6.cnn. August 2.
2013 .S.U. 2013 .N. human right chief Navi Pillay says that a U. August 26. Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel says that if the President Obama orders a strike on Syria. 2013 .S. 2013 . President Obama says he will not. Syrian Foreign Minister Walid al-Moualem says that Syria is not engaged in a civil war. The 5 of 6 2/7/2014 11:38 AM . the team's convoy is hit by sniper fire. Switzerland. No one is injured.429 people were killed in last week's chemical weapons attack in Syria.N.U. inspectors reach the site of a reported chemical attack in Moadamiyet al-Sham.cnn. Security Council passes a resolution requiring Syria to eliminate its arsenal of chemical weapons. 2013 . intelligence information has found that 1. September 16. fact-finding team has found "massive evidence" that the highest levels of the Syrian government are responsible for war crimes. Secretary of State John Kerry describes the suspected chemical weapons attack "inexcusable" and says. President al-Assad says he will abide by the resolution. 2013 . September 9.The U. public. 2013 . August 31. including at least 426 children.The U.U.N.S. January 20.The Syria National Coalition announces it won't participate in the Geneva II talks unless the United Nations rescinds its surprise invitation to Iran or Iran agrees to certain conditions. September 14. December 2. but a war on terror.In a speech before the U. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon releases the report from chemical weapons inspectors who investigated the August 21 event.000 patients suffering "neurotoxic symptoms" on August 21. 2013 . 2013 . and Russia agree to a plan to eliminate chemical weapons in Syria.S. August 30. September 27. 2013 . September 20. 355 of the patients died.com/2013/08/27/world/meast/syria-civil-war-fast-facts/ announces that three hospitals near Damascus treated more that 3.The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons announces that Syria has destroyed all its declared chemical weapons mixing. 2013 . September 30. including the destruction of missile warheads and aerial bombs.Syria begins dismantling chemical weapons program. The inspectors say there is "clear and convincing evidence" that sarin was used.N. 2013 .S Secretary of State John Kerry says that U.S.S.K. October 6. 2014 ." August 27. 2013 . filling and production facilities.U.N.S.Syria Civil War Fast Facts . October 31.N. September 10.At the U. General Assembly in New York.U.The U.U.com http://edition.CNN.'s Parliament votes against any military action in Syria. 2013 . August 26. Reportedly. 2013 . near Damascus.Syria agrees to a Russian proposal to give up control of its chemical weapons. "President Obama believes there must be accountability for those who would use the world's most heinous weapons against the world's most vulnerable people." August 29. "put American boots on the ground in Syria" but does not rule out other military options. November 25. En route to the site. 2013 . announces that starting January 22 in Geneva. defense forces are "ready to go. U.U. 2013 .Syria releases an initial report on its chemical weapons program. President Barack Obama gives a speech asking Congress to authorize military action against Syria.N.The U. the Syrian government and an unknown number of opposition groups will meet at a "Geneva II" conference meant to broker an end to the Syrian civil war.
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