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The Fight for Public Education in Chicago

Karina Solano Senior Division - Individual Website 11th grade Social Justice High School

Annotated Bibliography Primary Sources Book Ravitch, Diane. The Death and Life of the Great American School System: How Testing and Choice Are Undermining Education. New York: Basic, 2010. Print. This book contains information about modern American School System. Diane Ravitch is a former assistant Secretary of Education so her book really examined policies that have been incorporated in the school systems. The book gave me a good idea of how the system works and the opinion of someone who is knowledgeable in this area. I used this book to quote Diane Ravitch on my website. Website Staff, NPR, and Diane Ravitch. "Ravitch: Standardized Testing Undermines Teaching." NPR. NPR, 28 Apr. 2011. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. <http://www.npr.org/2011/04/28/135142895/ravitchstandardized-testing-undermines-teaching>. This website quotes some of Diane Ravitchs interviews and also has excerpts from her book The Death and Life of the Great American School System: How Testing and Choice Are Undermining Education. Direct quotes of Diane Ravitch give Ravitchs personal testimony as to why she was for NCLB and other policies which made her conservative. The excerpts and quotes gave me an idea of why NCLB is a good idea until it undermines public education and why someone who supported it changed their mind. Schmidt, George N. "CTU Orders Printing of ON STRIKE Signs." Substance News- CPS and CTU News. Substance News, 12 Feb. 2014. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://www.substancenews.net/articles.php?page=3509>. This article was written by George N. Schmidt, a former teacher of CPS. The article was useful because Schmidt retold important events that led CTU to strike as well as Schmidt recalled the strikes themselves. Schmidt provided a timeline of the strikes, the reason for each strike, and what teachers won from each strike. "The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001)."The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001). U.S. Department of Education, n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2014. <http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/index.html>. This is the Public Law print of No Child Left Behind. I used the print for information about the act to include on my website. I was able to learn about the purpose, mission, and fallacies.

Dickson, Rachel. "1963 Chicago Public School Boycott | Chicago Tonight | WTTW." 1963 Chicago Public School Boycott | Chicago Tonight | WTTW. WTTW, 22 Oct. 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://chicagotonight.wttw.com/2013/10/22/1963-chicago-public-school-boycott>. This website told of the 1963 Boycott. I used this website for a summary of events that led up to the strike as well as the strike itself. The website includes the account of the strike from participants. Participants were interviewed and I was able to learn about the general feelings of AfricanAmerican students in public schools as well their parents and community members. "Monthly Archives: June 2013." 63 Boycott. Kartemquin, 26 June 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://63boycott.kartemquin.com/2013/06/>. This website was also used for a summary of events as well as understanding the Boycott from the point of view of participants of the Boycott such as Libbie Shufro and Dr. Timuel Black. Caref, Carol, PhD, Sarah Hainds, Kurt Hilgendorf, Pavlyn Jankov, and Kevin Russell. "The Black and White of Education in Chicagos Public Schools." Catalyst-Chicago. CatalystChicago.org, n.d. Web. <http://www.catalyst-chicago.org/sites/catalyst-chicago.org/files/blogassets/files/ctureportfinal_120112_pdf.pdf>. The files provided by catalyst-chicago were essential to my entire project because it included accurate statistics of CPS education over the years about the results of reforms, the injustices that exist when it comes to white students vs. students of color, privatization that is expanding, as well as it included important messages of what CPSs mission should be in order to make sure that children come first. "Achievement Gap CPS Trends." Cps.edu. CPS, n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://www.cps.edu/Spotlight/Documents/AchievementGapCPSTrends.pdf>. The PDF file included statistics of college readiness, graduation rates, and the achievement gap. It was important for my website because the statistics show disproportionate negative effects for students of color in comparison to college readiness and graduation rates of white students in public schools. "No Child Left Behind: A New Era in Education Presentation." No Child Left Behind: A New Era in Education Presentation. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Mar. 2014. <https://www2.ed.gov/nclb/overview/intro/presentation/index.html>. This government document was essential to include in my presentation because it summarized the mission of No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. "Diane Ravitch: Charter Schools Are a Colossal Mistake. Here's Why." Alternet. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Mar. 2014. <http://www.alternet.org/education/diane-ravitch-charter-schools-are-colossalmistake-heres-why>. An experts opinion was really important to include in the debate of charters vs. public schools. I quoted Diane Ravitch who believes that charters are not the best optionthe best option is to invest more in public schools. "Iris Rotberg: Charter Schools Exacerbate Segregation." Diane Ravitchs Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Mar. 2014. <http://dianeravitch.net/category/charter-schools/page/2/>. This blog post among

many others, written by Diane Ravitch, was helpful in leading to many research studies on public education and charter schools. Also, Diane Ravitch is an expert when it comes to education so her analysis on school reforms was very helpful. "INCS - Illinois Network of Charter Schools." INCS - Illinois Network of Charter Schools. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Mar. 2014. <http://www.incschools.org/>. This primary source summarized the mission of Charter schools and provided links to study data which showed charters are better as opposed to public schools. I quoted the mission of Charter Schools according to INCS for my debates/controversies on public schools vs. charter schools. Cremata, Edward, Devora Davis, Kathleen Dickey, Kristina Lawyer, Yohannes Negassi, Margaret Raymond, and James L. Woodworth. "CREDO STudy." CREDO. Stanford, 2013. Web. 6 Mar. 2014. <http://credo.stanford.edu/documents/NCSS%202013%20Final%20Draft.pdf>. The CREDO study was important to include because it includes many statistics for charter schools vs. public education Visual Cremata, Edward, Devora Davis, Kathleen Dickey, Kristina Lawyer, Yohannes Negassi, Margaret Raymond, and James L. Woodworth. "CREDO STudy." CREDO. Stanford, 2013. Web. 6 Mar. 2014. <http://credo.stanford.edu/documents/NCSS%202013%20Final%20Draft.pdf>. I used many charts from this study in order to display pros and cons of charter schools. Dickson, Rachel. "1963 Chicago Public School Boycott | Chicago Tonight | WTTW." 1963 Chicago Public School Boycott | Chicago Tonight | WTTW. WTTW, 22 Oct. 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://chicagotonight.wttw.com/2013/10/22/1963-chicago-public-school-boycott>. I used this website because it included pictures taken during the 1963 strike of black students protesting on October 22nd for better education and integration. "Monthly Archives: June 2013." 63 Boycott. Kartemquin, 26 June 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://63boycott.kartemquin.com/2013/06/>. From this website which discussed the 1963 Boycott, I used a headline that was printed on October 23, 1963 edition of the Chicago Daily Defende. "Chicago Teachers' Union (CTU), Demonstration, Chicago, Illinois." Walter P. Reuther Library. Reuther Library, 14 Aug. 2008. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. <http://www.reuther.wayne.edu/node/709>. From this website, I used an image of 1933 when people were protesting CPS. The sign that people are carrying reads IS CHICAGO KILLING PUBLIC EDUCATION? It was an important image because of the bold message that shows that Chicago has not lived up to its promise of providing children with a quality education.

"Rahm Emanuel and St. Vincent DePaul | Reclaim Reform." Reclaim Reform. Reclaimreform.com, 10 July 2013. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. <http://reclaimreform.com/2013/07/10/rahm-emanuel-and-st-vincent-depaul/>. From this website, I got a picture that was taken of a boy holding a sign that reads Support our schools. Dont close them. I used this picture because it is part of the legacy of mayoral control. Admin. "BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION: ANNIVERSARY THOUGHTS."REFLECTIONS FROM THE SUSQUEHANNA. Tom Berrigan's Professional Website, 13 May 2013. Web. 10 Feb. 2014. <http://tomberrigan.com/blog1/2013/05/15/brown-vboard-of-education-anniversary-thoughts/>. I used a picture of a newspaper that was printed when the news of segregation in schools was ended by court. It was important to include because it was a historic event but also, segregation continued although it was voted unconstitutional.

"The Hyper-Politicization of Education." EdReach RSS. N.p., 14 Feb. 2014. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. <http://edreach.us/2012/04/03/the-hyper-politicization-of-education/no-child-left-behind-logo/>. I used this website to include the NCLB logo in my website. Video Chicago Tonight. "1963 Chicago Public School Boycott | Chicago Tonight | WTTW." 1963 Chicago Public School Boycott | Chicago Tonight | WTTW. WTTW, 22 Oct. 2013. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. <http://chicagotonight.wttw.com/2013/10/22/1963-chicago-public-school-boycott>. This video helped me learn about the 1963 Boycott and included interviews of students at the time speaking about how they want equal rights and feel like they are not getting the education they should be getting. The video also provided pictures taken in 1963. I included what I learned from the video on my website. The Video Catalyst Project. "Amazing 9 Year Old Asean Johnson Brings the Crowd to Their Feet at Chicago School Closings Rally." YouTube. YouTube, 20 May 2013. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oue9HIOM7xU>. This video was of Asean Johnson speaking out about school closings and the racism behind the actions. This was an important video to include in my website because it shows the legacy of mayoral control and how children are affected when their school is closed. Labor Beat. "The Fight for Social Justice HS." YouTube. YouTube, 08 Sept. 2012. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AEkn1wmxCcE>. This video captured the fight that Social Justice High School had against CPS and what the system was trying to do to the school. The video does a good job at showing that CPS targets low-income community schools that serve African-American and Latino students. CORE, and Chicago's Labor Beat. "CTU Strikes." YouTube. YouTube, 28 Aug. 2012. Web. 02 Mar. 2014. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B1qO4IBhGEw>. This video was of the Chicago Teachers Union strikes since 1969 until the 1980s. It was used as an overview of strikes

history. From the interviews and events included in the video, I was able to do more research on CPS history. CTUTV1. "The 1980 CTU Strike." YouTube. YouTube, 11 Apr. 2012. Web. 02 Mar. 2014. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VC8dPdPo9Tg>. This video was used to include a teachers perspective of the 1980 CTU strike and her feelings about CPS that year. Song Kartemquin. These Schools Are Your Schools by the Willis Singers, n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://63boycott.kartemquin.com/blog/boycotter-stories/#sthash.z6Dk5sf0.dpuf> This is a song that was broadcast the day before the Oct. 22 School Boycott. It is to the tune of This Land Is Your Land and emphasizes the need for integrated schools and equal quality of education. Secondary Sources Books Shipps, Dorothy. School Reform, Corporate Style: Chicago, 1880-2000. Lawrence, Kan.: University of Kansas, 2006. Print. Dorothy Shipps book was used to learn more about CPS and the reforms that took place over time. The book touches on important factors to consider in evaluating the reforms CPS has established such as achievement gaps between white students and minorities. The book was most helpful in incorporating information for part of the legacy that my project focused on such as mayoral control. Russo, Alexander W. W. School Reform in Chicago: Lessons in Policy and Practice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education, 2004. Print. Alexander Russos book was used in further learning about the events that took place after CPS was called the worst school system in the nation. From the book, I learned about the actions that the mayor took in order to try to improve the school system and how those actions affected students. I used information from this book to write about the legacy in my project. Website Hagopian, Jesse. "A People's History of the Chicago Teachers Union." Issue #91. International Socialist Review, n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://isreview.org/issue/86/peoples-history-chicagoteachers-union>. The website was helpful when doing research on the Chicago Teachers Union strikes. From the site, I learned important historical events to include in my website which led to doing more research of certain events in order to fully grasp CTUs history with school reforms. Haney, Leviis. "The 1995 Chicago School Reform Amendatory Act and the Cps Ceo: A Historical Examination of the Adminstration of Ceos Paul Vallas and Arne Duncan."Loyola Ecommons. Loyola University Chicago, 2011. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://ecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1061&context=luc_diss>. The historical

examination was important in understanding events leading to public school leaning more towards a business. The examination included analysis on mayoral control and whether the CEOs of CPS fulfilled their mission. This website was very helpful in understanding the history behind the education system today and whether Paul Vallas and Arne Duncan were fit for the position. "The No Child Left Behind Act." Rethinking Schools Online. Rethinking Schools, n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. <http://www.rethinkingschools.org/special_reports/bushplan/index.shtml>. This website was one of the most helpful of all. The site includes many links that gave an opinion on the education system and whether education is going in the right direction and if it is not in certain areas, such as testing, what one should do about it. This website also included Diane Ravitchs opinions and personal analysis which I later further looked into. The site was helpful when researching failed policies. "KEEPING PUBLIC SCHOOLS PUBLIC by Barbara Miner Testing Companies Mine for Gold." Rethinking Schools Online. Rethinking Schools, n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. <http://www.rethinkingschools.org/special_reports/bushplan/test192.shtml>. The article was used to explain the effects of testing and the costs of it. The purpose of including information included in the site was to discourage excessive testing since companies producing testing materials and tutoring are raking in billions while students have not significantly academically improved. Strauss, Valerie. "Ravitch: No Child Left Behind and the Damage Done." The Washington Post. WashingtonPost.com, n.d. Web. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answersheet/post/ravitch-no-child-left-behind-and-the-damagedone/2012/01/10/gIQAR4gxoP_blog.html>. The article was helpful in contrasting the damage NCLB did overall in comparison to the mission NCLB intended to achieve. From this site I was able to quote Diane Ravitch on NCLB. De La Torre, Marisa, and Julia Gwynne. "Rahm Emanuel and St. Vincent DePaul | Reclaim Reform." Reclaim Reform. THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO URBAN EDUCATION INSTITUTE, Oct. 2009. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. <http://ccsr.uchicago.edu/sites/default/files/publications/CCSRSchoolClosings-Final.pdf>. This site was helpful for my project because it included information about displaced students and receiving schools which shaped the argument I made in the legacy part of my project. Austintalks. "Candidates for Local School Council Sought." AustinTalks Candidates for Local School Council Sought Comments. AustinTalks, 21 Feb. 2014. Web. 02 Mar. 2014. <http://austintalks.org/2014/02/candidates-for-local-school-council-sought/>. This website was used to learn more about Local School councils today and roughly explain LSCs role in my project.

Shipps, Dorothy. "The Invisible Hand: Big Business and Chicago School Reform." TCRecord: Article. Teachers College Record, n.d. Web. 02 Mar. 2014. <http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentId=10253>. This website was useful in learning more about the business that has been implemented in the education system and some of the negative effects of these reforms Policy Research Action Group. "Chicago's Schools- Reform and Responsibility."PRAGmatics. Policy Research Action Group, n.d. Web. 02 Mar. 2014. <http://www.luc.edu/curl/prag/fall99.pdf>. This research was important to my project because I learned about the history of Local School Councils such as parental involvement and the positive effects of giving more power to community members. "Related Links." Growing Corporate Support of Chicago Schools Poses Questions. N.p., 07 Mar. 2014. Web. 07 Mar. 2014. <http://news.medill.northwestern.edu/chicago/news.aspx?id=72511>. It was important to not only include research that opposes corporate support when it comes to education and include pro-charter information and from this site, I found first-hand opinions of board members for Noble Street Charter schools on young people and the kind of education they have access to when it comes to charter schools. Rury, John L. "Schools and Education." Schools and Education. Encyclopedia Chicago History, n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2014. <http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/1124.html>. The online encyclopedia for the history of Chicago was helpful because I was able to read about the history of schools in Chicago. From the website I learned general knowledge of important events which I used to further research as a way to focus on specific ones in greater detail. I used the website mainly to write about the historical background of public schools and the reforms that would come from CPS being called the worst in the nation. O'Connell, Mary. "School Reform Chicago Style." Catalyst-Chicago. Catalyst-Chicago, 1991. Web. 6 Apr. 2014. <http://www.catalyst-chicago.org/sites/catalyst-chicago.org/files/schoolreform-chicago-style.pdf>. The website gave me information about LSCs. I learned about the history, I was able to get quotes of some parents provided by the website, as well as what LSCs purpose is. Visual Suchenek, Marek A. "Dr. Marek Suchenek's CSC 101 Course." Dr. Marek Suchenek's CSC 101 Course. California State University, 29 Aug. 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://csc.csudh.edu/suchenek/CSC/101>.This website was useful because I used the scantron from this site. "Go Green Schools Symposium 2012Friday, April 13Eric Solorio High School8:30am 3:00pm ." Seven Generations Ahead. Seven Generations Ahead, 2012. Web. 12 Feb.

2014. <http://sevengenerationsahead.org/index.php/events/go_green_schools_symposium_2012>. I used CPS logo for my homepage from this website. "George W. Bush." George W. Bush. Soylent Communications, n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. <http://www.nndb.com/people/360/000022294/>. This was used to show a visual of the president who was optimistic about NCLB. Austintalks. "Candidates for Local School Council Sought." AustinTalks Candidates for Local School Council Sought Comments. AustinTalks, 21 Feb. 2014. Web. 02 Mar. 2014. <http://austintalks.org/2014/02/candidates-for-local-school-council-sought/>. As well as giving me more information about LSCs legacy, I used the logo from this website. "Artsproject2012." Artsproject2012. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Mar. 2014. <http://artsproject2012.wordpress.com/2012/02/13/literature-review-no-child-left-behind-astudy-of-its-impact-on-art-education/>. The primary objectives of No Child Left Behind were summarized in an image. I thought it would be better to include a summarized version of the objectives instead of leaving it out or including long pages from the actual Act. "Progress Illinois." Report: Proposed CPS Charter Schools Could Cost Taxpayers $225 Million Over Next Decade. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Mar. 2014. <http://www.progressillinois.com/quickhits/content/2013/12/18/cps-21-proposed-charter-schools-would-cost-taxpayers-225-millionover->. An image was used from this website. It is the typical red apple and chalkboard to represent schools. I thought it was appropriate to use in order to introduce the debate between two types of education systems. O'Connell, Mary. "School Reform Chicago Style." Catalyst-Chicago. Catalyst-Chicago, 1991. Web. 6 Apr. 2014. <http://www.catalyst-chicago.org/sites/catalyst-chicago.org/files/schoolreform-chicago-style.pdf>. An image was used from this website. I used a picture of parents and students protesting the teachers strike against the Chicago Board of Education. The picture was important to include in my website because it shows the leading events to the creation of LSCs. I used more pictures provided that outlined the structure of LSCs