Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M.

Hollenbeck, Scholastic Teaching Resources

GRADE 3

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K

AT H L E E N

M.

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O L L E N B E C K

NEW YORK

TORONTO

LONDON

AUCKLAND

SYDNEY

MEXICO CITY

NEW DELHI

HONG KONG

BUENOS AIRES

To the patient
Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. Hollenbeck, Scholastic Teaching Resources

and dedicated teachers who guide and encourage students.

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Scholastic Inc. grants teachers permission to photocopy the rubric, checklist, and mini-book pages in this book for classroom use. No other part of this publication may be reproduced in whole or in part, or stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission of the publisher. For information regarding permission, write to Scholastic Teaching Resources, 557 Broadway, New York, NY 10012. Cover design by Maria Lilja Interior design by Kathy Massaro Interior art by Margeaux Lucas, Bari Weissman, Nadine Bernard Wescott, and Jenny Williams ISBN: 0-439-55418-7 Copyright © 2005 by Kathleen M. Hollenbeck. Published by Scholastic Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 40 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05

Contents
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Introduction .................................................................................................... 4 Fluency: An Overview ........................................................................................ 5 What Is Fluency? .......................................................................................... 5 How Does Fluency Develop? ............................................................................ 5 Ways to Build Fluency .................................................................................... 6 Bringing Oral Reading Into Your Classroom .......................................................... 7 Where Does Vocabulary Fit In? .......................................................................... 8
Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. Hollenbeck, Scholastic Teaching Resources

Enhancing Comprehension .............................................................................. 8 Assessing Fluency ............................................................................................ 9 Teacher Checklist and Rubric for Oral Reading Fluency .......................................... 10 Student Checklist for Self-Assessment .............................................................. 11 Using the Mini-Books to Enhance Fluency ............................................................ 12 A Fluency Mini-Lesson .................................................................................. 12 Mini-Book Readability Scores .......................................................................... 14 Preparing for Difficult or Unfamiliar Text ............................................................ 15 Activities for Building Fluency.......................................................................... 16 How to Make the Mini-Books .......................................................................... 18 Resources for Reading Fluency and Comprehension ................................................ 19 The Mini-Books .............................................................................................. 21 Meeting George Washington .......................................................................... 21 Franklin’s Fractions ...................................................................................... 25 What Simple Machines Are These? .................................................................. 29 Under the Bridge ........................................................................................ 33 How Do Animals Sleep? ................................................................................ 37 The Other Side of the Sea .............................................................................. 41 The Man, the Boy, and the Donkey.................................................................... 45 The Day the Sun Didn’t Shine .......................................................................... 49 What’s the Matter? ...................................................................................... 53 Pass the Chips! ............................................................................................ 57 Tornado! .................................................................................................... 61 Man on the Moon ........................................................................................ 65 Born to Fly ................................................................................................ 69 A View From the Top .................................................................................... 73 Sal Fink .................................................................................................... 77

INTRODUCTION
s educators, we believe there is power inherent in the written word. It is the power of knowledge and interaction—the ability to convey what we mean and to be heard, the gift that brings others’ thoughts into our realm of understanding. It is our hope that the children in our care will learn to look to the written word for the same reasons we do—to answer questions, clarify learning, and exchange ideas. A relationship between readers and the text can come only from training and experience. To help unlock the meaning of language, we teach readers to apply sense to symbols. They learn to associate sounds with letters and then to combine letters to make words. Ultimately, they connect these words to make sense of what they are reading. They can answer questions such as “What is this story about?” and “What is the author telling me?” For some, this progression happens naturally. One day children are decoding single words and the next they are reading sentences, paragraphs, and chapters with ease. For others, each step comes with great effort, and success is not always at hand. They seek what the proficient readers have— and what all readers deserve: fluency. Fluency, the ability to read with speed, accuracy, and expression, is essential to comprehension, which is the primary goal of reading. Fluency comes with practice, and all readers must strive to achieve it. Readers who are already fluent, readers who are well on their way to being so, and those who are struggling to get there all must employ practice and patience to become confident, capable readers. Their skills may be different, but their goal is the same: They want to understand. This teaching resource, Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3, offers countless opportunities to build and strengthen your students’ ability to read with ease and confidence. It contains 15 mini-books on topics from core curricular areas, tied in with national standards at the third-grade level and presented as fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and prose. It also offers tools for assessment, including a teacher checklist and rubric and a checklist students can use to monitor their own reading progress. (See Assessing Fluency, page 9.) The mini-books and accompanying activities target specific skills in fluency and phonics and aim to increase speed of word recognition as well as to improve decoding accuracy, use of expression, and, ultimately, comprehension. The text adheres to vocabulary standards based on the studies of Harris and Jacobson. These standards ensure that your students
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Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. Hollenbeck, Scholastic Teaching Resources

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And they all share the same objective: to give students practice reading comfortably. The stories are ready for use to practice. confidently. fluency sharpens with experience. 2001 n Readers are most comfortable (and most fluent) when reading what they have seen before or what they know most about. they must rely on word attack skills. They can attend to the details of text. From the emergent on up. and uses appropriate expression and phrasing. gets most of the words right.” (NIFL. page 14. Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. Fluency frees readers from the struggle that slows them down. Their reading sounds natural. Even very skilled readers may read in a slow. and the amount of their practice with reading text. When a student reads text quickly. so that you can build an ever-growing flock of fluent readers within the walls of your classroom. Their oral reading is choppy and plodding. and assess skills in reading fluency. Hollenbeck. “Fluency is not a stage of development at which readers can read all words quickly and easily. their familiarity with the words. The stories have been leveled using readability scores from the Lexile Framework for Reading (See chart. ” N ATIONAL I NSTITUTE FOR L ITERACY. Fluency changes. practice all lead to fluent reading. The National Institute for Literacy (NIFL) speaks of fluency as a skill in flux. prior knowledge. and the host of tools that helped them advance previously. practice.will encounter words within the first-grade reading vocabulary rather than those that might hinder their progress. Exposure to print. 2001) luent readers read aloud effortlessly and with expression. readers must learn and apply tools to help them advance. word by word. and with enthusiasm. When venturing beyond that. they are able to read for meaning and to understand. pausing as indicated and varying tone and pace to enhance comprehension for both themselves and potential listeners. as if they are speaking. 5 . labored manner when reading texts with many unfamiliar words or topics. Readers who have not yet developed fluency read slowly. we say that he or she has achieved fluency. “F How Does Fluency Develop? As with every skill worth developing. depending on what readers are reading. strengthen. and practice.) These scores offer guidelines to help you select the stories that best match the needs and reading levels of each student. Scholastic Teaching Resources Fluency: An Overview What Is Fluency? Fluency is the mark of a proficient reader. immersion in a rich linguistic environment. Hence.

Help students understand that people aren’t born knowing how to do this. and it allows the listener to provide guidance as needed. and expression. model (and point out) aspects of fluent reading such as phrasing. freeing attention for expression. (Blevins. Pre-teach difficult or unfamiliar words. Prepare students before they read. 2001/2002) For information about how to use text to assess fluency. To help a student advance in fluency. As you read. To foster fluent reading. Because the reader cannot be heard. a student must practice ” (C UNNINGHAM . Oral reading is highly effective for tracking and strengthening fluency. The value of silent reading is that it increases time spent reading and gives students “opportunities to expand and practice reading strategies. F PROVIDE STUDENTS WITH PLENTY OF READING PRACTICE. and comprehension. and tell children when they have done these well. 2001) F SELECT APPROPRIATE TEXT. and offer praise as well as helpful tips for the next attempt. all students read aloud at the same time. assessment of reading skill is not possible. To develop fluency. First. By assessing each student’s reading level up front. review phonics skills they will need to decode words. they learn it by hearing it and trying it themselves. This level varies for every student. phrasing. and expression. see Assessing Fluency. Worthy and Broaddus. Read aloud to students from text that is above their n independent reading level. This text can be read with 90 to 95 percent accuracy. present text at his or her instructional level. you will be prepared to select appropriate texts and ensure that your students get a lot of practice reading at a level at which they achieve success. Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M.” (Fountas and Pinnell. keeping students on task. students read an assigned passage or a book of their own choice. F GIVE ROOM TO GROW. be sure to: F MODEL FLUENT READING. (Rasinski. In whisper reading. root words. Repeated reading helps children develop fluency because with each reading their word identification becomes quicker and more automatic.Ways to Build Fluency Two words encompass what readers require for the development of fluency: exposure and practice. pacing. 2003) F PROVIDE DIRECT INSTRUCTION AND FEEDBACK. The student is able to self-monitor and the teacher to move around the room. noting progress. Whisper reading serves as a transition from oral to silent reading. 6 . page 9. It enables both the reader and the listener to hear the reader and assess progress. affixes. exposing them to new and more difficult words and concepts without the pressure of having to decode. 2001a. but at a volume that is just barely audible. For silent reading. Demonstrate the use of intonation. phrasing. the student can get almost all the words right. Listen to children read. 2003. and offering guidance as needed. Hollenbeck. 2005) reading text at his or her independent reading level—the level at which he or she is able to accurately decode 96 to 100 percent of the words in a given text. Rasinski. F RAISE THE BAR. and word chunks. With a little help. Draw attention to sight words. Scholastic Teaching Resources “F luency develops when children do lots of reading and writing—including lots of easy text. Read aloud to students.

(See such as caves. birds sleep on a branch.) Model fluent reading in trees/ and sleep there. Where/ and how/ do animals sleep?// listening for pauses.// Sometimes. and poetry offer a rich and varied reading experience. during. Plays. tudents who are having trouble with comprehension may not be putting words together in meaningful phrases or chunks as they read. 2001 A ) n Bringing Oral Reading Into Your Classroom Provide opportunities for children to read aloud. and connection with the topic. Hollenbeck./ with proper phrasing.// Animals Sleep?. F SHARED READING: An adult reader models fluent reading and then invites children to read along. In addition./ appropriate places. Their oral reading is characterized by a choppy. soliciting students’ prior knowledge and extending their understanding. and after the reading. Scholastic Teaching Resources students who are struggling with fluency is to use phrase-cued text. or expression in response to the story. Two slashes indicate a longer pause at the end of a sentence. fiction stories. ” (B LEVINS . One of the most effective ways to help “S Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. the interactive read-aloud provides an opportunity for teachers to ask open-ended questions before. F HIGHLIGHT PHRASING. and drawing slashes in the Lights out!// Bats sleep/ in dark places.F USE A VARIETY OF READING MATERIALS. but you can also How Do Animals Sleep? convert any passage of text to phrase-cued text Inside?// Outside?// Upside down?// by reading it aloud. pace.// They hold/ themselves in place/ the mini-book “How Do with strong claws. page 19). 7 . word-by-word delivery that impedes comprehension. right. Ready-made samples of phrase-cued text are available (see Resources for Reading Fluency and Comprehension. comprehension. Expose your students to each of these. nonfiction passages. This may include all or any of the following: F INTERACTIVE READ-ALOUD: An adult reader demonstrates fluent oral reading and talks about how he or she changes tone. Give them many opportunities to get excited about and immerse themselves in what they are reading. Phrase-cued text is marked by slashes to indicate where readers should pause. Students enjoy a dramatic reading and absorb skills in fluent reading.// A sleeping bird/ and invite students to holds the branch tightly/ with its feet. One slash indicates a pause within a sentence.” page Treetops/ are tempting!// Birds make nests/ 37.// Bats hang/ upside down/ the example.// practice with the text you have marked. using big books or small-group instruction. This connection can advance student interaction with the text and promote optimal conditions for fluency. These students need instruction in phrasing written text into appropriate segments. from while sleeping.

auditory discrimination— is wasted effort if comprehension gets lost in the process. Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. The manner of grouping provides every struggling reader with a more proficient reader to model. and. each reading a short passage three times and then getting feedback. ” (C LAY. those who find no purpose or meaning in the written word will soon lose interest in reading altogether. F TAPE-ASSISTED READING: Children listen to books-on-tape while reading along in a book. the student reads the same text aloud alone. Cunningham and Allington (2003) urge active use of word walls. and pacing. and reviewing the list words daily. and the drive to present well can be a powerful force behind mastering fluency in reading and speech. the gist of the whole or partly revealed story can provide some guide for a fluent reading. F READERS’ THEATER: Students work in groups to rehearse and perform a brief play before the class. This activity works especially well with poetry and cumulative tales. F ECHO READING: A child repeats phrases or sentences read by someone else. expression. then. Performing can be exciting. F REPEATED READING: An adult reads aloud while a student listens and reads again while the student follows along. phonemic awareness. motivating both struggling and proficient readers. which can be distracting. to grow familiar with words they will likely encounter in reading.) Children can also listen and critique their own reading on tape. (Consider recording your own tapes if commercially made tapes go too quickly. matching above-level readers with on-level readers and on-level readers with those below level. so that he is familiar with the topic. 1991) n Enhancing Comprehension In all reading instruction. F PHRASE-CUED TEXT: (See Highlight Phrasing. He will understand what he reads if it refers to things he knows about. eliminating words hardly used. All other instruction—phonics. or if the tapes include background elements such as music or sound effects. Help them learn to question the text they are reading. and so the fundamental goal of reading is to comprehend.F CHORAL READING: An adult and children read aloud together. It remains in your students’ best interest. inviting student participation in choosing words to put on the walls. Scholastic Teaching Resources “A s the child approaches a new text he is entitled to an introduction so that when he reads. finally. Then the adult invites the student to read along. mimicking tone. page 7. Partners are encouraged to take turns reading aloud to each other. or has read about previously.) Where Does Vocabulary Fit In? Stumbling over the words constitutes one of the main setbacks on the way to fluency. F PAIRED REPEATED READING: Teachers group students in pairs. Consequently. Avoid this by teaching your students strategies to enhance comprehension. This technique is most helpful for struggling readers. What is the message? 8 . the vocabulary or the story itself. Hollenbeck. it is important to remember that reading imparts meaning.

Review the checklist components with students many times. including meaning. 82–83). use the reproducible Teacher Checklist and Rubric for Oral Reading Fluency. until they understand the purpose of the checklist and the meaning of each sentence. 2004. marking words omitted or pronounced incorrectly.Does it make sense to them? Do they know what it means? Find out by asking questions. reading fluency. 2002) 9 . With this in mind. Photocopy and laminate one for each student. * For more detailed information on timed reading. Scholastic Teaching Resources nstruction that focuses too heavily on word-perfect decoding sends a message that good reading is nothing more than accurate word recognition. ORIGINALLY CREDITED TO LYON ET AL . and overall achievement. “I Assessing Fluency There are two ways to assess a student’s progress in fluency: informally and formally. and average the scores to obtain his or her oral reading fluency rate. Then give the student three one-minute opportunities (in separate sessions) to read the same text. 2004) n “T n IN CONCLUSION Does fluency instruction work? Research has shown that concentrated reading instruction can dramatically improve reading comprehension and fluency. phonics. Count the number of words the student read correctly. Hollenbeck. it is essential. on page 11. vocabulary. which in turn affect academic performance. and reading comprehension strategies. pp. and other elements. on page 10. Informal assessment involves listening to students read aloud. Encourage students to mentally complete the checklist from time to time to track their own reading fluency. noting how easily. self-esteem. Have a student read aloud for five to seven minutes while you note on the form the strategies the student uses as well as his or her reading strengths and difficulties. Have the student read aloud the passage for one minute.. expression. Students can monitor their own progress using the Student Checklist for Self-Assessment. Teach your students to formulate questions of their own to give them a vested interest in what they are reading. quickly. To conduct an informal assessment of students’ reading fluency. to clear up any comprehension issues and summarize the story. ” (LYON AND C HHABRA . to prepare them for the story. ” (R ASINSKI . consult Blevins (2001a. he majority of children who enter kindergarten and elementary school at risk for reading failure can learn to read at average or aboveaverage levels—if they are identified early and given systematic. Ask questions before students read. Ask additional questions after they read. pp. To carry out timed repeated reading. Ask as they read. intensive instruction in phonemic awareness. select a passage of text (150–250 words) that is at the student’s independent reading level and that he or she has never read before. and accurately they read and deciding how well they attend to phrasing. 2001 AND T ORGESEN . it is not only helpful to instruct with an eye toward fluency. students tend to shoot for accuracy at the expense of everything else. Formal assessment involves timing a student’s oral reading to create a tangible record of his or her progress throughout the school year. 9–12) and Rasinski (2003.* Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. to deepen their understanding of the text. Track your own copy of the text while he or she reads. As a result.

.. but sometimes struggles with words or sentence structure. The child reads with expression and attempts to pronounce unfamiliar words.. Scholastic Teaching Resources Usually Sometimes Seldom attempts to read/pronounce unfamiliar words. The child reads smoothly at times and then slowly..... reads in meaningful phrases or word chunks.................. especially when encountering unfamiliar words........ ... The child reads with expression and works to pronounce unfamiliar words... ....... The child reads slowly and word by word... Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 Scholastic Teaching Resources ... Permission to reuse granted by the author.... The child reads primarily in meaningful phrases........................ The child often self-corrects but does not always recognize errors... The child reads primarily in groups of two or three words..... The child attends to most punctuation and usually reads at a smooth pace...... word by word. The child does not heed punctuation and reads words in a string without pause or expression........ pacing..... reads smoothly without frequent pauses........................... The child hesitates before trying new words and usually requires assistance with them............. The child usually self-corrects while reading.. The child does not attempt to pronounce unfamiliar words........ The child responds to punctuation through appropriate pausing and intonation. The child’s reading sounds stilted and unnatural and lacks meaning. .......Child’s Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: ________________________ Grade: _________ Passage: _______________________________________________________________________ Teacher Checklist and Rubric for Oral Reading Fluency Oral Reading Checklist The reader: self-corrects as he or she reads...... 4 3 2 1 10 Adapted from 35 Rubrics & Checklists to Assess Reading and Writing by Adele Fiderer........... repeating them if necessary to ensure accuracy.... but sometimes needs assistance.. and expression and spends most of the effort on decoding.. 1998.. attends to punctuation at the end of a sentence............... . reads with appropriate expression.. Oral Reading Rubric The child reads in meaningful phrases..... Hollenbeck.. The child pays little attention to punctuation. Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M... Scholastic.................... . ..............

Adapted from 35 Rubrics & Checklists to Assess Reading and Writing by Adele Fiderer. Permission to reuse granted by the author. Scholastic Teaching Resources Sometimes No 1 I say a word again if it does not sound right. 3 I try to read without stopping after every word. 1998. I look at the pictures to see what is happening. Scholastic. Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 Scholastic Teaching Resources 11 . Hollenbeck. 4 5 I read with expression. 2 I pay attention to punctuation at the end of a sentence.STUDENT CHECKLIST FOR SELF-ASSESSMENT Name: _____________________________________________________________________ My Read-Aloud Checklist Yes Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M.

page 18. such as reading from left to right. point out ways in which your pacing. and expression lend meaning to the text. have you heard? “Come onfor in!” thedollar sign said. things in you parts. “smooshing” words together to sound like talking. slices. You might say: “Listen while I reread the words ‘Come on in!’ What did I do with my voice to make those words sound cheerful? What did I see in the sentence that told me to do that?” (exclamation point) Walter William Franklin “I am selling lemonade hung aNow. sign outside his door.) 2. • Franklin’s Fractions Franklin’s Fractions MINI-BOOK 2 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. Introduce unfamiliar or difficult words that students will come across in the text. (See Preparing for Difficult or Unfamiliar Text. fractions. intonation.) anklin’s Fractions!” people said. These might include Franklin. We know the sentence is asking something. separately. for more about the vocabulary in the mini-books. for less.” 15 6 2 12 .Using the Mini-Books to Enhance Fluency A Fluency Mini-Lesson Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 Scholastic Teaching Resources Use this sample mini-lesson as a model for using the mini-books to strengthen and assess students’ reading fluency. Help students assemble the books.” or “Did you notice how my voice rose at the end of the sentence ‘Notice how it’s cut in two?’ That’s what we do when we see a question mark. three-quarter.” “How you sell fractions?” said Walter William. Help students decode the words. “How“See? can it If be?” pay four might get “I sell quarters. dea’s rather nice! Now you o run a sale and offer things ice!” 7 Franklin’s Fractions Pre-Reading 1. or construct them in advance.” William. Review reading techniques that promote fluency. Depending on students’ level of reading proficiency. too. As you read. (Blevins. (See How to Make the Mini-Books. 2001a) Reading and Modeling 1. we use our voices to make it sound that way. Scholastic Teaching Resources PREPARATION: Give each student a copy of the minibook “Franklin’s Fractions” (pages 25–28). Walter William.” said Walter one back from me. and crossing the page with a steady. page 15. Three cups one “I sellthat fractions in my store!” means one cup is one-third!” “I givecan change in fractions. “Come and see. and notice as well as some of the sight words: idea’s and might. you may Resources Fractions 26 Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 3 Scholastic Teaching Page Franklin’s ••Fluency 27 Resources•• Fractions Page Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade Scholastic Teaching Franklin’s want to read aloud the story first and then invite them to read along with you in their mini-books. Review them several times to aid recognition and boost fluency. Hollenbeck. sweeping eye movement. onethird. you people asked.

you might get one back from me. Once readers have read the story several times. See? See? Now Now two two of of them them are are gone. Read the story aloud again. offer examples of such text.” William. and “The Other Side of the Sea. nice. preview the words and then have children read the story aloud without modeling. Now.” “Here “Here I have I have a cupcake. Scholastic Teaching Resources 26 Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 Scholastic Teaching Resources Fractions 27 • Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 Scholastic Teaching Resources Fractions PagePage Fluency • Fluency • Franklin’s • Franklin’s Walter William Franklin “I am selling lemonade hung a sign outside his door. paired repeated reading.” 5 1 2 6 Page 25 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 Scholastic Teaching Resources • Franklin’s Fractions Franklin’s Fractions 5. separately. character. Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. go back and emphasize aspects of phonics and vocabulary that will increase their understanding of language. “Come and see. heard. quarters. “See? If you people can it be?” pay four quarters. have you heard? “Come onone in!”dollar the sign said. the words that he or she says are contained within quotation marks. inviting students to read aloud with “Want “Want a three-quarter a three-quarter pizza? pizza? Let Let me me turn turn the the oven oven on. more accurate reading. text placement. on. Other options for use with this mini-book include timed reading for assessment of each child’s rate of fluency. F phrasing: Readers must pause after all ending punctuation. store.PagePage 28 • 28 Fluency Practice Practice Mini-Books: Mini-Books: Grade Grade 3 Scholastic 3 Scholastic Teaching Teaching Resources Resources Fractions Fractions • Fluency • Franklin’s • Franklin’s 2. encourage faster. Notice Notice how how it’sit’s cutcut in two? in two? I’llI’ll sell sell each each half half separately. Hollenbeck. and deepen comprehension. The methods described here feature shared reading and Reader’s “Franklin’s Fractions!” people said. eight. Point out that questions read without the appropriate tone sound flat and stilted.” Walter one back from me.” gone. F quantitative words: three-quarter. Try reading the sentences without the inflection. That That is what is what I do. This This one one had had eight eight slices. half-price. 3. They will pause ever so briefly after each comma.” page 41. two.” I do.” F dialogue: Help readers practice using clues in punctuation. which naturally lead the reader to pause in the middle of a sentence rather than strictly at the end. and choral reading. one dollar. An indented paragraph indicates that a new speaker is talking. one-third. Three cups for “I that sell fractions in one-third!” my store!” means one cup is “I give fractions. slices.” “How can change you sell in fractions?” said asked. or expression. and vocabulary to determine who is speaking and when. “Under the Bridge. Dialogue words such as “said” and “cried” highlight who is speaking. Have students underline the rhyming words in each verse. third.) “Franklin’s Fractions” presents opportunities to explore such topics as: F rhyming: door. “The idea’s rather nice! Now you need to run a sale and offer things half-price!” Theater.” you as they are able. (You may want to write the story on sentence strips and use a pocket chart to manipulate words and phrases. without depth. as in the sentence “If you pay four quarters. for less. you said might get “I sell things in parts. a cupcake. price. Point out that each time a character speaks. 3 3 4 4 4. This method gives students the opportunity to step in and participate in the oral reading. too. half. Fluency techniques such as echo reading work well with stories containing repetitive or rhythmic text.” page 33. NOTE: If you feel that a group of readers is already proficient. Walter “How William. Have students put a dot under all the number words in the mini-book. 7 13 .

Pass the Chips! 11. page 15.lexile. (See Preparing for Difficult or Unfamiliar Text. Man on the Moon 13. Hollenbeck. and the Donkey 8. Sal Fink A Lexile Score of 350 to 550 is appropriate for the third-grade independent reading level. For more information about the Lexile Framework. The Day the Sun Didn’t Shine 9. The Other Side of the Sea 7. Meeting George Washington 2.) Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. What’s the Matter? 10. go to www. How Do Animals Sleep? 6. The texts were leveled using the Lexile Framework for Reading.com. Born to Fly 14. What Simple Machines Are These? 4. Lexile Score 350L 360L 380L 420L 470L 480L 500L 500L 510L 530L 540L 540L 550L 550L 550L 14 .Mini-Book Readability Scores The chart below shows the readability scores of the stories in this collection. A View From the Top 15. These scores offer guidelines to help you select the stories that best match the needs and reading levels of each student. the Boy. for more about the vocabulary in the mini-books. The Man. Under the Bridge 5. Scholastic Teaching Resources Story Title 1. Franklin’s Fractions 3. Tornado! 12.

sliver. pirates. Buzz Aldrin. have children read text that is new to them. license. simple.” page 29. Captain H. Canary. stroller. Saratoga Springs. soil. slices. such as the words inclined and pulley in “What Simple Machines Are These?. poison. The words listed below may be unfamiliar or challenging to your students. Pre-reading may distort the assessment results. Some are within the common third grade vocabulary but may contain difficult or unfamiliar letter patterns. ramp. H. Liberty. introduce words and help children decode them before they read. 1982) These words were selected for use in the mini-books when necessary to enhance the flow of the text or where substitutions would not carry the same meaning. when using the mini-books for assessment. upstream. tractors Man on the Moon astronauts. Then review the words several times to aid recognition and boost fluency. Jules. general. phone. roughest. heroes. uneasy. chef. tuna. glared. Note that proper nouns are excluded from leveling. lonely How Do Animals Sleep? claws. flight. Hawaii. Hollenbeck. Give them a chance to decipher the words before you provide correct pronunciation. shone. Columbia. underground. graceful. soldiers Franklin’s Fractions Walter William Franklin. Michael Collins. selfish. menu Tornado! tornado. impossible. (Blevins. Ohio. solid. fluffy The Other Side of the Sea America. treetops. Carlos. wooden. moonlight. mankind. Delaware River. impatient. students. vapor. collects Sal Fink Mike Fink. toughest. pulleys. shame The Day the Sun Didn’t Shine complained. liquid. remarked What’s the Matter? Professor. Neil Armstrong. freedom. sixty-six. Mr. however. collected. bonus. difficult words on grade level. Marla. three-quarter. symbol. Mississippi. do not prepare students by introducing unfamiliar or difficult words. Before reading for the purpose of developing fluency. affect. boils. trailers. Barlow. Atlantic. petals. it is helpful to highlight words that may prove to be stumbling blocks for young or struggling readers. British. troll. rainforest. steam. waded. dizzy. Words slightly above grade level. harness. steel. huddled. destroys. sprays. wrestled. clues. scientist. Railey. riverboat. snorted. Michelle. the Boy. thorny. hedgehog. fractions. courage. received. and complex high-frequency words can be daunting when encountered for the first time within text. Others have been categorized as common to text read by slightly older readers. challenge Pass the Chips! restaurant. Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. (Harris and Jacobson. Scholastic Teaching Resources Meeting George Washington George Washington. Shiro. sting. To prevent this. Eagle. skill A View From the Top Meg Lowman. Ellis Island The Man. Washington. coyote 15 . batch. samples. Oklahoma. alligators. Statue. Saratoga Chips. Sal Fink. inclined. tempting. lever Under the Bridge meadow. one-third What Simple Machines Are These? attention. headache. American Born to Fly Amelia Earhart.Preparing for Difficult or Unfamiliar Text To assess fluency. bunches. village. 2001a) With this in mind. temperature. littered. and the Donkey switched. passenger. Tori.

Barlow. to draw attention to using dialogue to represent each character’s unique personality. use oral reading to demonstrate the ways speech can reflect emotion. and pace (degree of speed) throughout the story. and the Donkey.” provides a particularly good opportunity for this. using a period.” page 45. Barlow speaks. you might read the sentence “You solved my bonus questions!” as follows: F “You solved my bonus questions. Discuss the ways you change inflection. the Boy. the Boy. and tone to represent each character. at some kinds of matter mperature. a question mark. and Marla. u learn?” s make work easier!” ey’re all around us!” 7 ks: Grade 3 • The Man. Barlow. In addition. for example. them all!” said Mr.” 7 16 . o them and said. and an exclamation point. Each person’s speech will hold its own distinct sound. repeat it each time that character speaks. the Boy. the scorn and criticism of the passersby can be conveyed through pitch (how high or low). The dialogue in “The Man.Activities for Building Fluency s: Grade 3 • What’s the Matter? Play With Punctuation Emphasize the impact of ending punctuation. or “The Man. and encourage them to create their own unique voices for characters—in this mini-book and in trade books they read aloud. from “What’s the Matter?. you may choose to speak more quickly and in a higher-pitched voice. you may want to talk slowly and carefully. r gas. Jules. For Marla. When Mr. ending with the old man’s quiet wisdom. Carlos. and the Donkey been following them. such as “What Simple Machines Are These?.” F “You solved my bonus questions?” F “You solved my bonus questions!” 7 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. when reading aloud “What Simple Machines Are These?. pace. Now you tes of matter: solid. Hollenbeck. For example. Scholastic Teaching Resources d Professor Betty. the Boy. What Simple Machines Are These? ver!” cried Carlos. and The Donkey The Man. Model and then invite students to say the same sentence three different ways. tone (nature of expression). For example. You win the What’s the Matter? oks: Grade 3 Scholastic Teaching Resources • What Simple Machines Are These? Dabble in Dialogue Use a mini-book filled with conversation. and the Donkey. accent.” page 53. Point out your intentions to your students.” purposely model distinct voices for Mr.” page 29. Try to please everyone e no one at all.

Today. America’s door. separately at first. to guide children in reading smoothly instead of word by word. look for connections to the following: Letter-Sound Relationships F blends and digraphs F high-frequency words F vowel sounds Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. b The b Other Side of the Sea 7 F word families F rhyme • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 • Under the Bridge F prefixes and suffixes F syllabication Tap Into Highlighting Tape Use colorful highlighting tape to flag words previously introduced as well as to mark the beginning and end of text children will be expected to read. 7 17 . we remember Amelia’s courage and skill. Meg collects some of the insects and plant life. 7 Page 73 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 • A View From the Top Pull Out a Pocket Chart Use a pocket chart to reinforce pacing. Nine ships and sixty-six planes searched. Write each word on its own strip. We’ve reached Ellis Island. and other aspects of fluent reading. Students can also use highlighting tape to emphasize repetitive phrases. substitute the individual words for a larger strip featuring the words in a group rather than individually. such as “The man walked” in the sentence “The man walked while his son rode” (from the mini-book “The Man. “We don’t care if you’re clean or neat. sight words. chunking.” And so the troll came out that day. and the Donkey.Page 41 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 Scholastic Teaching Resources • The Other Side of the Sea Connect With Phonics Each mini-book offers opportunities to extend phonics awareness. and then blending. Just being nice would be a treat. Amelia began a flight around the world. 7 Page 69 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 • Born to Fly Born to Fly In June 1937.” page 45). Before she could finish. While reading. He made new friends and learned to play. Hollenbeck. Focus on one mini-book and one skill at a time.) Invite children to manipulate sentences on the pocket chart. as well as to mark dialogue for Readers’ Theater. (Blevins. (Example: “The man walked” would be a natural word group. intonation. None could find her. and place these words in order on the chart. Amelia’s plane went down. or “smooshing. determine where natural phrasing groups words together. and word chunks. rhyming words. Her work helps scientists around the world learn more about rainforest life.” them together. Read aloud the words. 2001a) Next. writing whole sentences on strips and then cutting them apart to show natural groupings. Scholastic Teaching Resources Word Structure F compound words F contractions F homonyms F plurals Page 33 We step off the boat onto a new shore. For example. the Boy.

Place this copy in the machine’s paper tray. Title Page 5. Alternatively. Hollenbeck. G Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q . Scholastic Teaching Resources Page 4 Page 3 Page 7 Title Page Page 6 Page 1 3. Page 7 Title Page 4. Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. Then make a test copy of the second page (pages 1 and 6) to be sure that it copies onto the back of the title page and page 7.by 11-inch copy paper. Title Page 18 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Photocopying Tips n If your machine does not have a doublesided function. place page 2 behind the title page. tearing along the perforation. cut apart the mini-book pages. you can simple photocopy single-sided copies of each page. with the title page on top. For each book. Fold the pages in half along the solid line. 2. make copies of the title page and page 7 first. Remove the mini-book pages to be copied. make a double- Page 5 Page 2 G sided copy of the pages on 8 1/2. Once you have double-sided Page 5 Page 2 copies of the pages. Then staple the pages together along the book’s spine. and stack them together in order. and then staple them together along the book’s spine. Check to be sure that the pages are in proper order.How to Make the Mini-Books 1.

NH: Heinemann. 1991. Marie M. Portsmouth. Sigmon.Ed. New York: Scholastic. The Teacher’s Guide to the Four Blocks. New York: Scholastic. Isabel L. Inc. Blevins. 2002. 2003. New York: Scholastic. Irene C. New York: Scholastic. Fresch. (RMC Research Corporation/Partnership for Reading: National Institute for Literacy. Cunningham.. J..Resources for Reading Fluency and Comprehension Armbruster. Teaching Phonics and Word Study. 1998. Patricia M. 2003. Ph. 2001a.* Fountas. Hollenbeck.S. NC: Carson-Dellosa.. Jacobson. 2002. Phonics in Perspective. 1999. Fluency Formula: Grades 1–6.. Patricia M.S. and Content Literacy. Teaching and Assessing Spelling. Cunningham. Becoming Literate: The Construction of Inner Control. Scholastic Teaching Resources Beck. NJ: Pearson Education. and Cheryl M. Clay. Basic Reading Vocabularies. Adele. 40 Rubrics & Checklists to Assess Reading and Writing. M. Adele. A. Guiding Readers and Writers (Grades 3–6): Teaching Comprehension. Classrooms That Work: They Can ALL Read and Write. U. and M. Hall. Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction.* Blevins. Department of Education. 2002. Fran Lehr. M. Portsmouth. Fiderer.D. Fiderer. Patricia M. and Jean Osborn. 1982. Harris. Boston: Pearson Education. Arthur W.A. New York: Scholastic. Greensboro. and Gay Su Pinnell. 2005. 1999.... New York: Scholastic. 19 . Building Fluency: Lessons and Strategies for Reading Success.. Phonics They Use: Words for Reading and Writing.. Margaret G. A Child Becomes a Reader. New York: Pearson Education. 35 Rubrics & Checklists to Assess Reading and Writing. 2003). Allington. Wiley. and U. 2001b. McKeown. Bonnie B. Upper Saddle River. and Aileen Wheaton. 2001. NH: Heinemann. Heilman. and Linda Kucan. New York: Macmillan.. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.. Genre. Mary Jo. Department of Health and Human Services. Cunningham. Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. New York: The Guilford Press. D. Wiley. Dorothy P. and Richard L.

Mark. New York: Scholastic. and Ruth Helen Yopp. Worthy. G. 294. Scharer.” Childhood Education. Roseville. Number 1. A. Olson. G. J. 334–343. and Karen Broaddus. Jo.” Educational Leadership. 2003. No. D. Yopp.” The Reading Teacher. 2003. Alexandria. M. and R. No. Teaching Reading and Writing With Word Walls. Volume 61. 28. and Kathryn Prater. 1999. pp. Volume 56. Worthy. New York: Scholastic. 7–26. 12–17. K. * This resource includes samples and/or examples of phrase-cued text.” NAEP Facts.* Tomlinson. Rotherham. Volume 54. “The Prevention of Reading Difficulties. National Center for Education Statistics. and Patricia L. Reid. Carol Ann. Scholastic Teaching Resources Lyon. K. Fordham Foundation & Progressive Policy Institute. 1999. Gay Su. B. Volume 55. Volume 80.C. VA: ASCD. No. Hallie Kay. White. The Differentiated Classroom. Lyon. 2001. “Revisiting the Read-Aloud. A.).. Volume 1. E. B. Finn. CA: Prima Publishing. Fletcher. Timothy. No. 6 (March 1998): pp. “Listening to Children Read Aloud: Oral Fluency. 20 . No. 2 (October 2000): pp. Better Spelling in 5 Minutes a Day. The Fluent Reader. 259–287. 14–18. 46–51. R. Torgesen. Rasinski. Shulte. Volume 40. 6 (March 2004): pp. Teaching for Comprehension in Reading. Wood.Kieff. Independent Reading. Washington. 130–143. and C. 2001. Wagstaff. G. Rethinking Special Education for a New Century. Volume 55.” Educational Leadership. “The Science of Reading Research.” Educational Leadership. Pennington. 4. Torgesen. No. p. Lyon. A. F. Shaywitz. pp. 6 (March 2004): pp. “Supporting Phonemic Awareness Development in the Classroom. J. Janiel M. R.: Thomas B. (December 2001/January 2002): pp. Issue 1. Hokanson (Eds. Hollenbeck. S. Jo.” Journal of School Psychology. J. and Vinita Chhabra. Judith. Reid. “Why Reading Is Not a Natural Process.” In C. “Rethinking Learning Disabilities.” The Reading Teacher.* Rasinski. New York: Scholastic. E. “I Thought About It All Night: Readers Theatre for Reading Fluency and Motivation (The Intermediate Grades). Pinnell. 3 (November 2002): p.” The Reading Teacher. Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. “Creating Fluent Readers. R. No. J. Shaywitz. “Fluency Beyond the Primary Grades: From Group Performance to Silent. Sheida. Volume 61. 1. Timothy V.

What do you think will happen next? Meeting George Washington 7 .Page 21 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M.” she said. Hollenbeck. and afraid.” Kerry looked at the quarter again. “I’m not a soldier. “I’m just a girl who needs to go home. Scholastic Teaching Resources • Kerry felt cold. small. George Washington’s face appeared.

“We’re crossing the Delaware River to get to the British soldiers. Hollenbeck. Kerry sat in her bedroom and counted her money. “That’s George Washington.Page 22 • One day. Scholastic Teaching Resources “Where is this boat going?” asked Kerry. Kerry picked it up. 1 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. She looked at the face on it. One quarter looked more shiny than the rest. We want to take them by surprise. George Washington looked impatient.” said Kerry.” 6 .

Kerry felt a strange wind wrap around her. Scholastic Teaching Resources • Kerry held up the quarter. George’s face was gone! “Please step on the boat so we can get going. “Step on the boat. She felt dizzy and cold. 5 2 .” a voice said. It was just a piece of metal.” said George Washington.Page 23 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. All at once. Hollenbeck. please.

Scholastic Teaching Resources “You’re George Washington!” exclaimed Kerry. Instead.” replied the general. 3 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M.Page 24 • Kerry looked up. She was not in her bedroom now. Hollenbeck. she stood in the snow at the edge of a river. “But what is a quarter?” 4 . “Your face is on my quarter!” “I am George Washington. A tall man in a long cape stood before her.

Page 25 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. “The idea’s rather nice! Now you need to run a sale and offer things half-price!” 7 . Hollenbeck. Scholastic Teaching Resources • Franklin’s Fractions “Franklin’s Fractions!” people said.

” 6 . “See? If you pay four quarters.Page 26 • Walter William Franklin hung a sign outside his door. Scholastic Teaching Resources “I give change in fractions. “Come on in!” the sign said. you might get one back from me.” said Walter William. “I sell fractions in my store!” 1 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. Hollenbeck. too.

Page 27 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M.” 5 2 .” said Walter William. Now. “Come and see. Hollenbeck. “How can it be?” “I sell things in parts. have you heard? Three cups for one dollar means that one cup is one-third!” “How can you sell fractions?” people asked. Scholastic Teaching Resources • “I am selling lemonade for less.

Scholastic Teaching Resources “Here I have a cupcake. Hollenbeck. See? Now two of them are gone.Page 28 • “Want a three-quarter pizza? Let me turn the oven on.” 4 . That is what I do.” 3 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. This one had eight slices. Notice how it’s cut in two? I’ll sell each half separately.

“And they’re all around us!” 7 . Scholastic Teaching Resources • What Simple Machines Are These? “A seesaw is a lever!” cried Carlos.Page 29 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. “You’ve guessed them all!” said Mr. what did you learn?” “Simple machines make work easier!” said Jules. “Now. Barlow. Hollenbeck.

class!” said Mr. “Here’s the first clue.Page 30 • “Attention. 1 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. He handed out a page of clues. Barlow. Carlos.” Jules. Just one! You’ll go up when I sit down. and Marla worked together. I’ll lift you for fun!” 6 . Scholastic Teaching Resources “Sit upon a seesaw.” read Carlos. Choose an end. “I’d like you to figure out what simple machines these are. Hollenbeck.

Scholastic Teaching Resources • “People use pulleys to help them lift things.Page 31 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. “Pulleys make the job easier.” 5 2 . Hollenbeck. “This will help you move a load without lifting it.” Marla read the next clue. You won’t need to quit.” said Jules. Push a stroller up a ramp.

Page 32 • “A ramp is an inclined plane!” said Marla. Easy lift. She wrote “inclined plane” on the line beside the clue.” 3 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. Pull the rope over a wheel. “Okay. Scholastic Teaching Resources “Have a heavy pail to lift? Tie it to a rope.” said Jules. “Here’s the next clue. Hollenbeck. I hope!” 4 .

Just being nice would be a treat. Scholastic Teaching Resources • “We don’t care if you’re clean or neat. Hollenbeck.” And so the troll came out that day.Page 33 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. 7 . He made new friends and learned to play.

Then they turned around and waded through the water. Under the bridge lived a mean and muddy troll. 1 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. There they found the troll. Their meadow lay at the edge of a great wooden bridge. 6 .Page 34 • In a field of sweet green grass there lived three goats. Scholastic Teaching Resources The goats trotted all the way across the bridge. Hollenbeck. He looked sad and lonely.

I’m on my own. the troll spoke. “This bridge is mine. and all alone. “I cannot come up there.” One day. I don’t want you to look at me. I don’t take baths. the three goats tried to cross the bridge. Hollenbeck. I am the boss! Stay off my bridge. mean.Page 35 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. you see. Scholastic Teaching Resources • After a long silence. I’m muddy. mean voice. As soon as they stepped on it. You may not cross!” 5 2 . the troll called out in a loud.

or I will make you run away!” 3 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. We’ll walk across it if we choose. “This little bridge is ours to use. meaner voice.” The troll spoke in a louder. “Stay off my bridge! Get off. I say. Scholastic Teaching Resources The goats walked to the center of the bridge. Hollenbeck. they called to the troll. “Come up on top and let us see who won’t let us walk happily.” 4 .Page 36 • The goats stood still and called out. Again.

Scholastic Teaching Resources • How Do Animals Sleep? What about life underground? Foxes sleep in an underground den. Hollenbeck. These are some ways in which animals sleep.Page 37 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. What other ways have you seen? 7 . A sleepy fox curls up and uses its fluffy tail for a pillow.

Page 38 • Inside? Outside? Upside down? Where and how do animals sleep? 1 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. Hollenbeck. too. When they sleep in the ocean. The rest of their bodies hang down. Scholastic Teaching Resources Sea lions sleep in and out of the water. They take group naps on large rocks. Sea lions sleep on land. 6 . only their noses stick out of the water.

Page 39 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. Bats hang upside down while sleeping. They hold themselves in place with strong claws. This keeps the otters from floating away. Hollenbeck. they wind seaweed around their feet. 5 2 . Scholastic Teaching Resources • How about a real waterbed? Sea otters float on their backs while they nap. First. Lights out! Bats sleep in dark places. such as caves.

A sleeping bird holds the branch tightly with its feet. birds sleep on a branch. Monkeys lie on branches or bunches of leaves. Hollenbeck. Sometimes. 4 . Monkeys wrap their tails around the branches.Page 40 • Treetops are tempting! Birds make nests in trees and sleep there. Scholastic Teaching Resources Even big animals sleep in trees. 3 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. This keeps the monkeys from falling while they sleep.

Hollenbeck. We’ve reached Ellis Island. Scholastic Teaching Resources • We step off the boat onto a new shore. America’s door.Page 41 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. b The b Other Side of the Sea 7 .

Page 42 • We stand on the deck with our backs to the sea: my mother. Scholastic Teaching Resources “Welcome!” the lady in robes seems to say. my brother. Our eyes fill with tears. my father. and me. Hollenbeck. 1 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. 6 . We have come a long way.

graceful and tall. 5 2 .Page 43 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. It hurts us to leave them. Scholastic Teaching Resources • Then we see a symbol of freedom for all. We try to be strong. We wave to the faces we’ve loved for so long. Hollenbeck. The Statue of Liberty.

4 . The uneasy ride makes us sick the whole trip. and wind rocks the ship. We want better lives and good jobs for good pay. 3 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M.Page 44 • We’re off to America. Scholastic Teaching Resources Sea sprays in our faces. Hollenbeck. We’re on our way.

and the Donkey An old man had been following them. Try to please everyone and you will please no one at all.” 7 . Scholastic Teaching Resources • The Man. the Boy.Page 45 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. Now he came up to them and said. Hollenbeck. “Learn from this.

“Fools! Donkeys are to ride on!” On hearing this.Page 46 • One day. The man and his son felt sad for their loss. Then it got up and ran off. A farmer walked by and said. Scholastic Teaching Resources The man and his son carried the donkey into the busy market. Hollenbeck. 6 . 1 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. the man put his son on the donkey’s back. Just then. the donkey kicked its feet free and fell to the ground. a man and his son led a donkey to market.

“He makes his father walk while he rides!” So the man and the son switched places. people laughed and made fun of them. “Such a lazy boy!” said the men. The man walked while his son rode. 5 2 . All the way to town. Scholastic Teaching Resources • The two picked up the donkey and carried it between them. They passed a group of men. Hollenbeck.Page 47 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M.

“Shame on you for making that little donkey carry such a heavy load!” The man and his son did not know what to do. “How selfish!” they cried. people cried out. They both rode. Hollenbeck. “That man makes his poor son walk while he rests.Page 48 • Village women walked by. 3 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. So they got off the donkey. Scholastic Teaching Resources Farther down the road.” So the man pulled his son up onto the donkey beside him. 4 .

He looked up to the sky and yelled. heat and light filled the earth. 7 . “Nicely done. Scholastic Teaching Resources • The Day the Sun Didn’t Shine “All right! I believe you!” said the hedgehog. “I wish for the sun to come out! I will never again complain of its light!” Instantly. And the sun never hid its light again.Page 49 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M.” remarked the toad. Hollenbeck.

Page 50 • “It’s too bright out here. “I’m so tired that it’s giving me a headache. Hollenbeck. 1 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. 6 . Scholastic Teaching Resources Animals huddled together for warmth. Flowers kept their petals tightly shut. “I’m getting a headache from all this sun. Plants did not grow.” complained the hedgehog. “Is that so?” glared the toad.” complained a hedgehog one day. I wish the sun would take a break!” “Be careful what you wish for. Everyone felt tired and cross.” warned a toad who passed by.

the sun set as usual.” Days went by. The sky grew dark. Scholastic Teaching Resources • “Impossible!” snapped the hedgehog.” said the toad. “The sun has nothing to do with all that. “You’ll see. and just the tiniest sliver of moonlight shone. The earth stayed covered in darkness. Then a big cloud covered even that. and the sun did not shine. Hollenbeck. That night. 5 2 .” “Just wait. The night was as dark as the very deepest black.Page 51 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M.

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The next day, the sun did not come out. The sky stayed black, and the earth was covered in darkness. “Look what you’ve done!” cried the toad. “Your wish has come true! Do you know what this means?”

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Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. Hollenbeck, Scholastic Teaching Resources

“It means no more headaches!” sang the hedgehog, and he did a little dance. The toad snorted. “IT MEANS, NO MORE HEAT,” he shouted. “No more light. No seeds growing and flowers in bloom.”

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“Nice work!” said Professor Betty. “You’ve learned that some kinds of matter can change with temperature. Now you know the three states of matter: solid, liquid, and vapor or gas. You win the bonus challenge!”

What’s the Matter?

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Professor Betty was eating a tuna fish sandwich when she heard people calling. “Professor Betty! Professor Betty!” Professor Betty looked up to find three of her students standing before her.

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Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. Hollenbeck, Scholastic Teaching Resources

“How about when water’s really hot?” asked the professor. “What’s the matter then?” “When water gets hot, it boils and turns into steam,” said Tori. “Then matter is a vapor or gas.”

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“Water that is very cold turns to ice,” said Michelle. “That matter is a solid.” “When it’s warm?” asked Professor Betty. “Ice melts into water when it warms up,” said Shiro. “Then matter is a liquid.”

“What’s the matter?” asked the professor. Michelle, Shiro, and Tori grinned. “That’s what you asked us in class this morning,” said Shiro. “Now we know!”

5

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“Then at lunch. and it melted into a watery mess! Right then. I left it on the table. “what’s the matter when it’s cold?” 4 .” said Michelle. Scholastic Teaching Resources “We didn’t understand at first. “You solved my bonus questions! What is the matter when it’s cold? What is the matter when it’s warm? What is the matter when it’s hot?” 3 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M.Page 56 • “Ah!” said Professor Betty. Hollenbeck. tell me. I knew!” “So.” said the professor. I bought an ice pop.

Page 57 • Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. Today. Hollenbeck. Scholastic Teaching Resources • 7 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q George opened his own restaurant and put potato chips on the menu. In time. potato chips were packaged and sold in the New England states. Pass the Chips! Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q . they are sold across the United States and all over the world.

Hollenbeck. “Ah. 6 .” 1 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. He named them Saratoga Chips.” said the chef. “Someone wants a plate of my tasty French fries.Page 58 • It was a summer night in 1853. and people came from all over to taste George’s new crispy fries. Scholastic Teaching Resources Word spread. chef George Crum was hard at work. At a restaurant in New York state. because the restaurant was in Saratoga Springs. New York.

Scholastic Teaching Resources • George thought the customer would be angry. too. “Take these back. George made his best batch yet. The fries were thick and golden brown.” 5 2 .” complained the customer. Other diners began to ask for them. But the customer was not happy. “They are too thick to eat. To his surprise. Hollenbeck. the customer loved them! The customer ate the whole plateful and asked for more.Page 59 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M.

This time. Again. the customer sent the fries back. 4 . Hollenbeck. 3 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M.” said George. Scholastic Teaching Resources This bothered George. he sliced the potatoes as thin as thin could be. He fried them until they were too crisp to stick with a fork. He cut the potatoes much thinner than before. “I’ll show who’s boss.Page 60 • George made another batch right away. He made another plate of fries. Then he fried them.

It’s hard to believe that one storm could cause so much harm. Scholastic Teaching Resources • a d n r o o ! T Scientists say this was one of the most dangerous tornadoes ever. 7 . Hollenbeck.Page 61 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M.

wood. 6 . Trees are stripped of bark. Scholastic Teaching Resources The tornado has passed now. It is too dark for the middle of the day. tables. The sky grows very dark. 1999. Cars and tractors lie upside down. The air feels warm and sticky here in Oklahoma. Some trees have snapped in half. and beds.Page 62 • It is late afternoon on May 3. the ground is littered with bricks. All around us. We step outside. 1 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. Hollenbeck.

From it comes a mighty. As my family and I do. they run to hide in cellars under the ground. Hollenbeck. It is a tornado! 5 2 .Page 63 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. I look up and can’t believe my eyes. Scholastic Teaching Resources • Many people hear the news that a tornado is coming. Staying underground until the storm ends will save our lives. black cloud so huge it fills the whole sky. spinning tunnel of wind. I see a thick.

a fierce tunnel of wind. up in the clouds. It scatters everything in its path. Scholastic Teaching Resources The tornado destroys as it races along. It spins.Page 64 • The tornado stretches from the sky to the ground. It is thickest at the top. 3 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. it rips roofs off houses. 4 . The tornado blows apart homes made of brick and barns made of wood. The powerful wind throws trailers and trucks through the air. Roaring. Hollenbeck.

Man on the Moon 7 . On Earth. The next day. they returned to the Columbia and headed home.Page 65 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. they had made an American dream come true. Scholastic Teaching Resources • Neil and Buzz walked on the moon for almost three hours. In space. Then they climbed back into the Eagle. they had become heroes. Hollenbeck.

They would bring these samples back to Earth for scientists to study. the two collected rocks and soil from the moon. They set out to do what no one had done before. 6 . Scholastic Teaching Resources Then Buzz Aldrin stepped out of the Eagle. 1969. Together. They went to put a man on the moon. 1 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. three astronauts flew into space.Page 66 • On July 16. Hollenbeck.

Scholastic Teaching Resources • “That’s one small step for man. Their spaceship had two parts. 5 2 . was made to land on the moon. The other part. On July 20. A TV camera on the Eagle had recorded it. People all over the world heard Neil and saw that first step on the moon.Page 67 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. the Columbia. Hollenbeck. took the astronauts into space. one giant leap for mankind. 1969. the Eagle. One part. they did just that.“ he said.

Scholastic Teaching Resources Then came the words the world had been waiting to hear. Hollenbeck. Neil opened the door of the Eagle. climbed into the Eagle. 4 . The other two. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin.” said Neil Armstrong. Michael Collins. He climbed down its ladder and stepped on the moon. They steered the Eagle toward it. “The Eagle has landed.Page 68 • One astronaut. They could see the moon. 3 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. stayed on the Columbia.

Amelia began a flight around the world.Page 69 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. Amelia’s plane went down. Hollenbeck. Today we remember Amelia’s courage and skill. 7 . None could find her. Nine ships and 66 planes searched. Before she could finish. Scholastic Teaching Resources • Born to Fly In June 1937.

D. Hollenbeck. “By the time I got 200 to 300 feet off the ground. Ten pilots had died trying to make that flight 6 . Scholastic Teaching Resources For five years. “I knew I had to fly.” said Amelia.” 1 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M.C. she loved it. Twice she flew from Hawaii to Washington.Page 70 • The first time Amelia Earhart rode in a plane. Amelia continued to set records.

Page 71 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. She named her yellow plane Canary. Amelia took her first flying lesson. she flew across by herself. Hollenbeck. Then she bought her first airplane. She flew as a passenger. Amelia crossed the Atlantic Ocean in a small plane. Four years later. Amelia became the first woman to cross the Atlantic alone. That first plane ride took place in December 1920. 5 2 . Six days later. Scholastic Teaching Resources • That June.

in 1928. She flew higher and faster than anyone ever had. “How would you like to be the first woman to fly across the Atlantic?” Amelia said.Page 72 • Almost at once. She became the first woman pilot to get a license. Railey. Scholastic Teaching Resources Then. Amelia broke world records in flight. It was from Captain H. Amelia received a phone call. Hollenbeck.” 4 . “Yes. H.” he asked. “Amelia. 3 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M.

Her work helps scientists around the world learn more about rainforest life. Scholastic Teaching Resources • Meg collects some of the insects and plant life. Hollenbeck.Page 73 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. 7 .

she loved to climb trees. Scholastic Teaching Resources Meg faces danger in the treetops. There are snakes. bats.Page 74 • When Meg Lowman was little. It is her job. Today Meg still spends lots of time in the treetops. too. Hollenbeck. 1 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. 6 . There are poison dart frogs and thorny vines to climb around. and ants that sting. She searched the branches for insects and flowers.

and other living things. She learns how they affect plant life. Hollenbeck. Scholastic Teaching Resources • Way up high. Meg studies life that she can’t see on the ground. She studies rainforests all over the world.Page 75 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. Meg is a rainforest scientist. 5 2 . She sees many plants. She finds out what kinds of insects live there. Nowhere else in the world are there so many. insects.

Meg wears a harness to keep her safe. Scholastic Teaching Resources Meg’s walkway looks like a bridge. The harness has ropes and wires. 3 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. It hangs from the trees on steel wires. Hollenbeck. It keeps Meg from falling if she slips.Page 76 • Meg doesn’t just study life from the ground. 4 . She and her helpers have built a walkway up there. She climbs up high in the trees.

7 . Hollenbeck.Page 77 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. They never got free from the ropes Sal had tied. Scholastic Teaching Resources • Mike Fink didn’t have to go teach those pirates a lesson. And Sal and Mike Fink? They kept on riding the river.

She tied up those pirates faster than a chipmunk runs from a coyote. Scholastic Teaching Resources Sal waited until the pirates fell asleep.Page 78 • Once there lived a man named Mike Fink. He ran a riverboat up and down the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. Then she burst free from the ropes. Hollenbeck. 6 . Folks say he was the roughest. toughest man ever to ride the water. Then Sal left the pirates behind and went home. 1 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M.

Page 79 • Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. Mike Fink had a daughter named Sal. Sal Fink was as tough as her daddy. 5 2 . She rowed upstream alone as fast as ten men could together. Now. She rode alligators and never fell off. Those pirates had no idea what a woman they’d caught. They would soon find out. Hollenbeck. Scholastic Teaching Resources • Sal was hopping mad.

and wrestled bears. too. Scholastic Teaching Resources One day. 4 . They wanted Mike Fink to give them a pile of money. She kept two cubs with her for fun. She hunted. 3 Fluency Practice Mini-Books: Grade 3 © Kathleen M. fished. Then they’d give Sal back. Sal was hunting bobcats. All of a sudden. pirates grabbed her! They tied Sal up and took her to their cave.Page 80 • Sal was special off the river. Hollenbeck.