# Thermofluids Centre of Pressure Lab Report

Results of the data analysed show the hinge in the hydrostatic force experiment does not have to be positioned at 90O and that it is important for the shape of the quadrant in the centre of pressure experiment to be circular and concentric. Methods of analysis involve practical and theoretical calculations. and the uncertainties. . It also analyses the position of the centre of pressure acting on the block. The theoretical solutions are based on the derivatives of the hydrostatic force with respect to length and angle values for the hydrostatic force experiment. All calculations can be found in each experiment section. The practical solutions are based on the masses of the balance weights added and removed from the experiment at two submersion levels.Summary: This report provides an analysis and evaluation of the hydrostatic force acting on a block in submerged in water and the uncertainties involved. The theoretical solutions for the centre of pressure experiment are based on the derivatives of the centre of pressure with respect to the length and angle values.

2: Summary  Pg. 16:Conclusions .11: Centre of Pressure Experiment o Experimental Results o Calculated Results  Pg.Table of Contents:  Pg.7: Hydrostatic Force Experiment o Experimental Results o Calculated Results  Pg.6: Procedure  Pg.4: Apparatus  Pg.5: Apparatus Diagram  Pg. 16: Discussion  Pg.4: Objective  Pg.4: Nomenclature  Pg.

Apparatus: Testing unit for hydrostatic force Testing unit for centre of pressure Balance weights Tank hoses Ruler Tape measure Set Square Protractor .Nomenclature: Symbol  ӯ A D g R Θ IG b h m F M c Meaning Density Depth to centroid of wetted area Area Depth to reaction force Gravity Hydrostatic force Theta Second moment of area Base length of surface Height of surface Mass Force Moment Distance from surface to upper edge of block Units kg/m3 m m2 m m/s2 N  m4 m m kg N Nm m Objective: To determine the hydrostatic force on an inclined submerged surface and the position of the centre of pressure. To determine the uncertainty in the results determined by each method. using two methods.

add balance weights until the block is just supported with hinges at right angles to the block. balance the quadrant so that the beam is level. •With the tank empty. •Repeat the experiment with the water level 40mm vertically above the upper edge of the block face Centre of pressure Quadrant apparatus: •Measure the distance between the pivot and upper edge of the quadrant block (+-75mm) and the distance from the pivot to the balance weights (+-250mm) and the uncertainty in these measurements. with the hinges at right angles and the water level at the upper edge of the block face. Note the balance weight for this new equilibrium situation. Note the balance weights needed for this equilibrium process and also estimate the uncertainty in all weight measurements in this lab. and adjust the balance weights until the block is again in equilibrium. with the hinges at right angles and the water level at the upper edge of the block face. as well as the uncertainty estimated. and adjust the balance weights until the block is again in equilibrium. and note the balance weight required for this equilibrium position. Note the balance weight for this new equilibrium situation. The surface is to be set up at an angle of 30 degrees to the vertical and the uncertainty in this measurement estimated. Hydrostatic force apparatus: •With the tank empty.Procedure: Both test apparati are to be set up before carrying out the experiments. •Repeat the experiment with the water level 40mm vertically above the upper edge of the quadrant face . •Fill the tank carefully. In setting up the experiments. the dimensions of the surface are to be measured. •Fill the tank carefully.

0005kg m3 = 0.0005kg = 60 +_ 0.441 +_ 0.345 +_ 0.149 +_ 0.625 +_ 0.099 +_ 0.0005kg m2 = 1.0005m h = 0.Hydrostatic Force Experiment: Practical Recorded Results: b = 0.0005m m1 = 2.5O Calculated Results: Theoretical: ( ) .

0005m h=±0.0005m Ɵ=±0.c = 0m b=±0.5 √ .

0005m h=±0.0005m Ɵ=±0.04m b=±0.5 √ .0005m c=±0.c= 0.

441kg –1.81 ± N N N .0005kg For c=0m: R = mg R = (m1 – m2)g R = (2.345kg)(9.441kg –0.04mm: R = mg R = (m1 – m3)g R = (2.81m/s2) R = 17.81m/s2) R = 10.625kg)(9.Practical: R=mg √ m=±0.75 ± For c=0.

0005m h = 0.422 +_ 0.0253 +_ 0.149 +_ 0.0005kg m2 = 0.Centre of Pressure Experiment: Practical Recorded Results: b = 0.747 +_ 0.0005kg Calculated Results: Practical: .369 +_ 0.0005m d2 (Distance from pivot to balance weights) = 0.0005kg m3 = 0.100 +_ 0.073 +_ 0.0005m m1 = 1.0005m d1 (Distance from pivot to edge of block) = 0.

622 ± √ √ .: F = mg F = (m1 – m2)g F = (1.422kg – 0.81m/s2) F = 6.747kg)(9.

81m/s2) F = 10.F = mg F = (m1 – m3)g F = (1.422kg – 0.369kg)(9.33 ± √ √ .

Theoretical: For c = 0m: √ .

For c = 0.04m: √ .

Discussion: In the first experiment the hinges do not have to be positioned at 90O as from we can see that the hydrostatic force is dependent on the angle This is the angle that the submerged face of the block makes with the surface of the water. For the theoretical hydrostatic force calculations the value of R was found to be R = 9. theoretical and practical. the hydrostatic force and centre of pressure have been determined using two methods. When comparing the uncertainties of the theoretical and practical values for both the hydrostatic force and centre of pressure. It was expected that the difference in values between the two would be large as there are many factors that cannot be accounted for in calculations of the practical figures. there is a noticeable difference particularly for the hydrostatic force experiment.75N and R = 17. Although there is a certain difference between the two calculated values the practical figures are still very close in magnitude and quite accurate. .336N for c = 0m. while the practical values were D = 0.0828m and D = 0.086m for c = 0m. and equipment error in the scales as they had large increments. The figures for the centre of pressure calculations have proved to be greatly similar. The theoretical values of D were found to be D = 0.81N for the respective c values. which is much more easily obtained from trigonometry when the hinge angle is 90O.04m. and D = 0. The circular arc shape is important as it allows us to calculate the hydrostatic forces without accounting for the buoyancy effect. the two calculations for the hydrostatic force and for the centre of pressure we remarkably similar.04m. Consider the pressure forces acting normal to the surface of the arc. while the practical values were R = 10. Despite these initial thoughts. To achieve more accurate and precise results for the uncertainty values the experiments should be done using a set of scales with much smaller increments as the scales used had increments of 5g.1178m for c = 0. The significantly small difference between the theoretical and practical values show that the practical figures are accurate and precise as there is little deviation from the theoretical values. This large difference can be attributed to human error in measuring distances and lengths. Conclusion: As seen in the calculations.1137m for the respective c values. and R = 15. the buoyancy force does not emerge because the normal forces on the curved surface do not create a moment about the pivot point.12N for c = 0.