The Role of Organizations in Fostering Public Service Motivation Author(s): Donald P. Moynihan and Sanjay K.

Pandey Source: Public Administration Review, Vol. 67, No. 1 (Jan. - Feb., 2007), pp. 40-53 Published by: Wiley on behalf of the American Society for Public Administration Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4624539 . Accessed: 18/04/2013 02:33
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

.
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

.

Wiley and American Society for Public Administration are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Public Administration Review.

http://www.jstor.org

This content downloaded from 175.111.90.100 on Thu, 18 Apr 2013 02:33:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

capacity especially in shapingpublic servicemotivation. and Facer 2000.edu. and how that sense influences their behavior (e.and income). This theory has significant public deals with the relationship as it relevance.100 on Thu. from a national surveyofstate governmenthealth and E-mail: dmoynihan@lafollette. Brewer. of the topic. Pandey Universityof Kansas on Work The Role of Organizationsin Fostering Essays and Motivation PublicServiceMotivation the Workplace In seekingto explain the antecedentsofpublic service DonaldP.Pandeyisanassistant atthe ofpublic administration professor ofKansas. context.the conceptof public service motivation (PSM) represents a positive example of theory development in administration. In recent years.showing thatpublic service motivation is stronglyand positively relatedto level of education and membershipin professionalorganizathe significant influence tions. We also include membership. In 2000. indicating that red tape of organizational are negatively and length of organizational membership related to public servicemotivation. The relevance of much of these findings 40 Public Administration Review * JanuaryIFebruary2007 of PublicServiceMotivation The Importance The literature on PSM has been thoroughlyreviewed Brewer and Selden 1998. institutionsand organizations" (Perry This content downloaded from 175. Perry 1996.111.edu. Heconducts research University inpublic and health policy. basedon responses ofperformance management. E-mail: skpandey@ku. Theresultsalso underscore institutions. research on Our model addsto the limitedempirical the PSM by partially testing theoryproposedby Perry (2000) and deepeningthat theoryby focusinggreater institutions. Thus far. Therefore.red tape. controls(age.in particular. The findings supportthe role ofsociohistoricalcontext. this theoretical development has been gradually joined by empirical work as scholars have sought to operationalize what public interest means for employees. University 7his study testsPerry's research public management analyzes and examines the role that organizationalfactorsplay inthearea and reform. Crewson 1997.g. which has continued to expand. Houston 2000. 1997).James Perry focuses on theformative role ofPublic La Follette School Affairs. we simplyhighlightthe majorcontribuTherefore. whereashierarchical authority and reformeffortshave a positive relationship. Studies National Administrative Project.We demographic fourdimensionsof test this model on two of Perry's to policy makingand commitment PSM (attraction to publicinterest/civic duty) exhibitedby a sampleof in the 50 state healthand humanservicemanagers governments.Moynihanisanassistant ofpublic affairs intheRobert M. professor motivation. Herring 1936). Perry.. lengthof organizational factorsidenin the model some salientsociohistorical in tifiedby Perry(levelof educationand membership a number of with along professional organizations). usually by comparing employee motivations across sectors.wisc. we employa organizational variables: numberof organizational organizational reformorientation.Donald P. Alonso and Lewis 2001. tions to underlinethe importance PerryandWise providethe widelyaccepteddefinition to respondto of PSM:"anindividual's predisposition or uniquelyin public motivesgroundedprimarily and Wise 1990.hierarchy. Despite such research. management II Phase ofthe Most hedirected recently. removed a of publications by JamesPerry greatdealof the about theoretical and empirical apambiguity that areappropriate for studyingPSM.gender. Brewer and Selden 1998.In attentionon the role of organizational model to accountfor the effectof extendingPerry's institutionson PSM. Mesch. elsewhere (see. public organizationshave both an opportunity to createan environmentthat allows and a responsibility tofeel they are contributingto thepublic good. Perry proaches PSM in deviseda seriesof scalesto measure carefully evidenceon the causes 1996 and providedempirical the most of PSM in 1997. The construct of the public interest is central to traditional public administration scholarship (Appleby 1945. there remains a need for more empirical work to validate and test this theory. why they develop a strong sense of public service. SanjayK. much of the researchhas focused on establishing the existence of PSM. practical between motivation and the public interest.and Paarlberg 2006). 18 Apr 2013 02:33:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . causes theory comprehensive as sociohistorical context a primary identifying influence. Moynihan Universityof Wisconsin-Madison Sanjay K. he articulated of the of PSM thus far. Selden.and culture.90. theory ofsociohistorical His ofWisconsin-Madison. employees remainsin disputebecauseof the use of different or of PSM and incompletetheoriesof indirectmeasures A series how PSM occursand the effectsit generates. lthoughit is of recentvintage. Perry2000. human servicemanagers.

1997). ExtendingPublicServiceMotivation The Roleof Organizations Theory: (2000) processtheoryof PSM offersthe most Perry's theoretical in the topic since significant development PerryandWise (1990). work-related rulesand normsareorganizational enjoyhigherjob they likely leavetheirjobs (Naffand Crum 1999). Havingjoined an organization. 21).4 Thisbroaddefinitionof institutionsnot only conto selectpublicservicecareers. making in of administration majortopics investigation public of PSM.and Facer(2000) note. the mindsof individuals-ratherthan a morerationalmanagers. in turn.and Facer2000. Gabrisand Simo 1995). Marchand Olsen defineinstithe pursuitof the publicinterestwith administrative tutionsas "collections of interrelated rulesand roubehavior. public helpful whereas and important. traditional differences and privatesectors.PSM providesa theoryof motivationthat links them to developPSM. they aremorelikelyto be high performers institutions. be found in cross-sector institutions. an assertion that is formsto the idea of sociohistorical institutionslevelsof PSM supportedby evidenceof different betweenthe publicand privatesectors(Houston Marchand Olsen explicitlyconsiderthe roleof educationand socialization-but also is consistent 2000.research on the sources of PSM has pointedto institutions. is importantnot just to motivationbut also to proaccountductivity.we examineorganizational sociohistorical Rainey(1982). Earlier work (Perry1997) confirmsthe influenceof education.6 The Role of Organizations in Fostering PublicServiceand Motivation 41 This content downloaded from 175. Wittmer(1991) cameto a similar Perry(2000) points to Marchand Olsen's(1989) conclusionin his examination of reward basisfor asserting preferences work on institutionsas a theoretical that institutionsfostera logic of appropriateness in hybrid. service. they exhibit tions provideinstitutional public interest(Brewer influences.111.The relevance high for government.Perry1996. they believethat theirjobs areimportant. The next sectionfurtherinvestigates Perry's processtheoryof PSM and our contributionto it.and businesssector amonggovernment. which tend to focuson pecuniary rewards.but. is not limitedto this sector. PSM 368). that theseactorshold aboutthe valueof public Perry(2000) asserts the importance of PSM as an alternative Our theoretical to does not model.5 commitment(Crewson higherlevelsof organizational Our key theoretical 1997).Similarto Perry(1997. prestige wereless important.Indeed. therefore. Wittmer 1991). and policieson the publicservicemotivapublicmanagers experiences regarded service and work that is to others as tion of members overtime"(1997.status. Courseyand Pandey.Perryexplicitlycallsfor such a showedsignificant in theirperceptions differences of of organizational influences study:"Investigation In conthe importance of differenttypesof rewards. comparisons.We argue and are less to that satisfaction. workoffersevidence self-interested choicesbut is rootedin normative and Althoughsome of the empirical of no difference betweenpublicand privateorganiza.affectivemotivesas well. the bulk of the empiri.We also 1975. giventhe increasingly blurry betweensectors.as employeesin the privateand nonprofitsectorsalso exhibitPSM to varyingdegrees(Wittmer1991).family.The appearto contributein positiveways:Theyaremore emphasison rulesand routinessuggeststhat both to protectthe willing to engagein whistle-blowing formallymandatedand informalaspectsof organizaand Selden 1998).100 on Thu. and Wise that individutines that define in action termsof (1990) Perry argue appropriate alswith a high senseof publicinterestaremorelikely relations betweenrolesand situations" (1989. 18 Apr 2013 02:33:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .2 choicelogic of consequentiality-which causes Thus. Rainey1982. for example. betweenthe public. The theoryarguesthat individualbehavior is not just the productof rational. our analysis forthsharesa focuson the institutional of indiSelden. rather coming. contribution to Perry's workis to which. government.Thusfar.it is usefulin understandboundaries in organizations behaviors that ing public-regarding levels of arecharacterized by varying publicness (Bozeman1987). practices.nonprofit. shapers than focuson but. Supportfor PSM can also vidualbeliefsand behavior. should seekto assessthe effectsof organizational trastto privatemanagers.Selden. thoughparticularly today. the PSM not only helps us understand Therefore.leadsthem to workharder(Wright extendthe understanding of institutionsthat shape and PSM to includeorganizational 2003). Simplystudyingmotivation tions on extrinsicand intrinsicmotivators (Buchanan from a rational. It is also to how illustrate PSM can beliefs and possible shape behavioral outcomes. 193).and religionin shaping PSM. higherpay.' As Brewer.incentive-driven perspective provides of motivation.found that publicand privatemanagers institutions.Carefulinvestigation als'normative beliefsand emotionalunderstandings of of the PSM constructsupportsits validity(Brewer.90. the world. memberswith high levelsof PSM with the conceptof organizational institutions. 2000). improvedmanagement in trust it one of the and ability.3 institutionsthat shapenot only the administrative behavior of publicservants but also the basicattitudes In relationto the motivationliterature. with Perryfocuson the roleof sociohistorical instituing particularly tions. rationaland self-interested theoriesof motivation.only a partialunderstanding cal evidencesupportsthe existenceof a publicservice need to studythe socialprocesses that shapeindividuethic amongpublicemployees.

within institutions.7 is consistentwith the theoretical Our approach premises that Perry(2000) placesat the heartof PSM and affective protheory:that rational.normative. We also test the effectsof and reformorientation. Perry(1997) confirmsthe strengthof this influence.which is typicallycompletedpriorto joining an organization.: Membership PSM.seek to directlycontradict theorybut ratherto Perry's test whetherone aspectof that theory--the work environment-deservescloserattentionas a signifiof employeebeliefs. formaland informalmechanisms throughwhich of and behavior the beliefs may shape organizations of informalinstitutheirmembers. parent Perry(1997) found that educationhad a significant of PSM with his overallmeasure positiverelationship commitmentto publicinterest/ and two subscales. 42 Public Administration Review * JanuarylFebruary2007 In the 1997 model. nizedthe primary findingthat the levelof educationwas significantly and positivelyrelatedto the overallPSM scaleand all of the subscales. Therefore.that peoplearemotivatedby or values that preferences theirown self-concept. religion on PSM. with at leastone relations had respondents good a not have did strongimpacton PSM.8 clear instance of the norms is a likely organizational March nature of individual preferences. duty.90. but the directionof the relationship that he had professional hypothesized Although an individualto ethical socializes identification shouldbe positivelyrelated behavior-and therefore to PSM-Perry found that it had a mixedeffecton to the PSM. cessesmotivatehumans.they interactand influenceeachotherin the individuals contextof a structured Conformityto environment. endogenous and Olsen (1989) observethat expectations. impactin eitherdirecmixedresultsfor parental tion. and that preferences arenot just a meansto produce Publicorganizations are also socialinstitutionsin which outputs. preferof the actions and interpretations ences. is a type of socialization that membership professional in the the experience parallels employee's organization. greater degreethan levelof education. seekto help theirmembers Professional organizations makesenseof and succeedin theirorganizational in we expectmembership environments.compassion. 18 Apr 2013 02:33:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .commitmentto publicinterest/civic In his 1997 and self-sacrifice).Essentially. with churchinvolvement being negatively relatedto PSM and closenessto God being positively relatedto PSM. remains unclear.Therefore. length organizational therearea varietyof As Barnard (1938) observes. educacivic duty and compassion. environwill also be influencedby the organizational ment in which employees find themselves. publicinterest/civic with compassion.100 on Thu.experiences. This content downloaded from 175.education. with the exceptionof compassion. a to have influence organizations strong professional on PSM. He found similarly had The extentto which respondents relations: fromtheir or helpingbehavior learnedaltruistic parentshad a strongpositiveeffecton overallPSM The degreeto which and civic duty in particular. religion. institutions-primarilyparental observational learningand modelingduringthe courseof theirlives. valuesand a tolerancefor politics. cant predictor we arguethat PSM may be formedby sociohistorical but it factorsbeforeemployeesenterthe organization. arelearnedin socialprocesses. the areasof culture.Perry(1997) testedthe effectof some of a composite these factorson fivedependentvariables: to measure of PSM and foursubscales (attraction policy making. The secondaspectof educationoutlinedby Perryis identification and professional throughmembership in a professional To a activeinvolvement organization. Overall.was positively relatedto attraction associated with commitmentto and significantly and had duty and self-sacrifice. normsof behavior beliefsaboutpublic we expectthat publicemployees' serviceareat leastpartlyinfluencedby the natureof the organizations they area partof.but in his of recogformulating processtheory PSM. an employee's Organizational Institutions To examineorganizational institutions. religious had no significant worldview. shouldbe endogenousto any theoryof motivation.A thirdreligionvariable. Perry roleof educationin shapingbeliefs. Any description tions inevitably bringsus to the conceptof culture.it had no significant relationship was and PSM scale. Thisleadsto our firsthypothesis: Levelof educationis positivelyrelatedto Hi: PSM.Perry no significant relationship of his arguesthat theseareamongthe most interesting conflict between a about questions raising findings. composite negatively significantly to policy making. had a mixedimpact that found Perry analysis.and professional training. tion was includedas a demographic control. of membership.hierarchical authority.111.we retestthem herewithout specifyingthe directionof the relationand PSM: membership ship betweenprofessional in a professional societyaffects H.Given professional the relevance of thesemixedfindings. Sociohistorical Context Perry(2000) arguesthat PSM dependson how individuals aresocialized throughsociohistorical relations. of othersareall constructed basedon what Actorsconstructbeliefsand behaviors in light of theirenvironment and the is appropriate of those aroundthem.we survey in of theirworkenvironments employees' perceptions red tape.

employees provide publicservices culture an affects with the removal of red and can be constraints. Crewson1997. Pandeyand Kingsley2000. goal setting. with one culturestend to exception. 18 Apr 2013 02:33:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Giventhat hierarchical controlof employees(liketradiemphasizerule-based tional bureaucracies) and bureaucratic personality cultureto be (Merton 1940).control. Reinvention explicitlyassumesthat wish to valuable and. Given the difficultyof measuring culture-and the absence of discussionof organizational culturein previous work on PSM-our proposals hereareclearlyexploratory.100 on Thu.Develareassociated with a focus on the opmentalcultures and readiness.and morale.employeecohesion.developmental. Recentworkby The Role of Organizations in Fostering PublicServiceand Motivation 43 This content downloaded from 175.g. people rather flexibilityrather than control. publicserviceand give employeeshope for greater forceand entaila compliance freedomto operatein a way that is consistentwith burden. and Bozeman1995) has provided Rainey.we employQuinn and of distinctvalue (1984) categorization Kimberly's and rational hierarchical. Kingsley2000.management of information and communication. Buchanan(1975) with red tapeas the points to employeefrustration cause.Naff and Crum purposesthe ruleswere intendedto serve" (2000.just those that frustrate employeesin achievingtheirgoals. areat odds with the profileof Thesecharacteristics with high levelsof PSM. A reformist The definitionof redtapeofferedby Bozemanreduceemployeecynicismaboutexistingbarriers to and procedures that remainin "rules. DeHart-Davisand Pandey2005. To examinethe roleof culture.and higherinsecurity.control.we expectthat reform responsible effortsdirectlytargeted at battlingthese maladies will improvePSM. achievement. 1990).Moynihan 2006). we expectthat employees primary who perceive as workingin an organization themselves dominatedby red tapewill havelowerlevelsof PSM: who experience redtapehave H.but do not advancethe legitimate theirconceptionof publicservice. Perry and (Brewer Wise 1990). Dilulio is likelyto orientation.Pandey. we expecthierarchical with PSM: associated negatively Bozemanand colleagues(e.and mistrust(Bozemanand Rainey1998.and conflictbetweenred tapeand the emphasison actively PSM and reinvention we extendthis research to the statelevel: PSM servingthe publicinterestthat characterizes beliefs. PandeyandWelch2005. Bozemanand Scott 1996. otheraspectsof administrative behavior. 12)-underscores the found a relationship between (1999) havealready effortsat the federallevel..Groupculturesareassociated than the organization.and resource culturestend to focus on people.Therefore. organizational with organizational associated goals.g. Organizational Schein and practices 1992) and (Kaufman1960.Earlywork (e. acquisition. moreeffective in doingso (Gore1993. therefore. Finally. the potentialfor learning(Mahler1997). the adoptionof reformscommuwho experience a hierarchical nicatesthat leaders areintent on pursuingchangethat H4:Employees culturehavelowerlevelsof PSM.planAll ning.111. who arecharacemployees terizedby higherlevelsof performance.This definitionmoreclosely matchesthe perceptions of individualpractitioners: Not all formalrulesarered tape.and efficiency.and we do not specifythe directionof the relationshipbetweencultureand PSM. allowsworkers to do theirjobs effectively (e. Kaufman 1977) tendedto offera spiriteddefenseof red tapeas who experience H6:Employees employeea "procedural in the publicsectorwithout reforms that seekto cut safeguard" friendlyorganizational red tapeand empoweremployeesdisplayhigher specifyingwhatwas meantby red tape.Pandey. with a focus on cultures.normson beliefsand The influenceof organizational in the organizational behavioris widelyasserted cultureshapesbeliefs cultureliterature.Hierarchical growth. Pandeyand Scott 2002. regulations. and rational cultures are stability. implementation (Ginger1998). pessimism. Recentreformeffortsfallingunderthe bannerof the reinvention movementhaveadopted this approach. clearer for conceptualand measurement specifications the red tapeconcept. arelikelyto exhibitthesetypesto organizations varyingdegreesratherthan simplyfall into one type or another(Zammutoand Krakower 1991). Goodsell 1994.g. adaptability organization.: Employees lowerlevelsof PSM. greater personalalienation. and entrepreneurship(Moon 1999).90.production. organizational job and Selden 1998. types:group.thus limiting levelsof PSM.9Indeed. Organizational employee's tape H3: PSM. flexibility.. and satisfaction commitment.. Pandeyand and Bozeman1995).in explaininglowerjob involvement on the partof publicemployeescompared to theirprivatesectorcounterparts. To publicmanagers. including of interorganizational and reform interaction patterns (Ban 1995). we test the influenceof the presence of Therefore. Rainey. each type of organizational cultureon PSM. Examinations of the relationship betweenred tape and individualbeliefsdetecta greater tolerance for red with lower tapeamongemployees job satisfaction. 2000. If publicsectorstereotypes such as bureaucratic and entrenched red tapeareindeed personality for reducingPSM. furtherresearch on the topic. Bozeman1993.

information of a definition broad we because (1990).fromemactivities primary management Caudle with Consistent service human and less clear become thesegoalsmay agencies. organizational loyaltyand commitmentare we can of as a resultof organizational membership exclusively publicemployees. Given theseconflictingarguments. Contrary inlevels of individual found that esis. in seekingto replicate his findings. dealingwith publicinformationand communication. of differentages.particularly duty. Controls Demographic we employa In additionto the foregoingvariables.and Measurement aboutthe effectof lengthof conflictingarguments The datafor this studywerecollectedas partof Phase of most employmenton PSM.frustrating achievegoals. both good a particular workenvironment we and bad.He arguesthat this may be publicinterest/civic betweenthe the resultof a growingclassseparation to reduced sense a and other classes.and therefore strengthened as membership a (Romzek1990). involvedin research managers systemsthat areenmeshedin a managers directingmanagement In addition. as rule that is characterized by goal displacement of the orgathe originalpurposes observance replaces The theoretical population of interest for this study nization.111. variable.reformers and urge of frontlineworkers focus on the perspective as a meansof the removalof mid-levelmanagers and its associated problems reducinghierarchy Given the competingclaimsaboutthe (Gore 1993). systemsapplications becomingpartof and and evaluation. of lengthof organizaand pay grade. Crewson(1997) found that seniority employlengthof organizational to better in additionto the agevariable. However.Methodology.and therefore might be expectedto have a similarly negativeeffecton employeeoutcomes. although positiveimpact organization difference whetherthis is the resultof a generational environments or different the between we test the impactof lengthof organizational respondents Finally. the ineffectiveness employeesmaygradually recognize in achievingits goals.that men weremorelikelyto havehigher to one hypothlevelsof PSM thanwomen. Levelsof hierarin a a to also chy provide way manageaccountability fashion.and predictability. Finally. by respondents argued membership in Our sampleis madeup the of sion students survey.Formost publicpositions-and certainly healthand humanservices-the basicgoal of helping consistedof managers engagedin information health at state-level citizensis consistentwith PSM. Controlling emphasis for the dysfunctional aspectsof hierarchy promptsus and the reasonwhy to considerits functionalpurposes it has persisted.A basicassumption StudiesProject II of the NationalAdministrative formsof government is that bureaucratic reforms sap The 2002-03. stability.: Lengthof organizational affectsemployeelevelsof PSM. However. Perry higher with PSM associated come werenegatively among in termsof commitmentto employees. of well-meaning the enthusiasm was 53 Merton(1940) arguesthat bureaucratic organizations survey approximately percent(274 responses). the propose following: membership H. wealthy leading of civic involvement on the partof wealthyindividua als. (NASP-II) responseratefor the during workers(Gore 1993). Additionaldetailon the data-collection processis leademployeesto adopta bureaucratic personality 1 in includedin appendix and Pandey(2003).and consequently. controls:gender. they must adapttheireveryday but also information demandsof the bureaucracy. levelsin an H. web of rulesand reporting requirements.both correlates the natureof this relationship. find themselves frustrated increasingly as theirhopes to contributearedashed(Romzekand Hendricks1982). there are commitment. time. at leastin relationto commitmentto publicinterest/ civic duty.Perryfound.with many areassociated levelsof hierarchy Increased the abilityto of the effectsof redtape. as hypothesized.lengthof organizational effectsof being in reflectsthe cumulative membership overtime. understand to had a positiverelationship tional membership.further of the organization who joinedan organizaPSM.: The numberof hierarchical it is not clear on PSM. 44 Public Administration Review * JanuaryIFebruary2007 This content downloaded from 175. actionsthat areconsistentwith taskcomplexityand the time spanrequired (Jaques1990).Theseissuesarelikelyto be of structured majorconcernfor our respondents-mid-levelto senior-level managers-as they attemptto successfully contributeto the deliveryof publicservices. (1990) points to a tenWildavsky towarda in administration scholarship dency public the because of for distaste hierarchy-in part inequality it invokes-while takingfor grantedits virtuesof Hierarchical continuity.age.By conlevelstend to who criticizehierarchical trast. we controlfor the primary However.100 on Thu.Thesecontrolsled to some unexpected thereis value in Perry's 1997 study. he found that age had. 18 Apr 2013 02:33:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and numberof demographic results income. employed the longerthey remainwith the organization workpatternsto the includingnot only thosewho manage management. affectsemployeelevelsof PSM. Members undermining tion with a strongcommitmentto publicservicemay as time passes. we proposethe following: benefitof hierarchy.giventhe inclufaced that over It has been on PSM. organizational Data. negativeeffects of hierarchy throughthe inclusionof a red tapevariof hierarchical culturebasedon an ableand a measure of formal rules and procedures. levelsprovidea meansto managethe complexityof to undertake enablingmanagers largeorganizations. In short.90. ployees'perspective.

and alphaof .4964 3. Forthe measure of reformorientation. the average lengthof stayin was more than 15 years.000-$75.the originalsource of thesequestions.0554 Attractionto policymaking 9. partlybecausedefiningorgaAs interest/civic and culturealong a unidimensional scalefailsto duty. measures rationalcultures.8394 0.0076 1. university employees. In testingthe existence The Role of Organizationsin Fostering PublicServiceand Motivation 45 This content downloaded from 175.includinggraduate students.4388 Lengthof organizational membership 49.69 to . not to employthe compassion variable becauseof and outcomes importantorganizational processes concernsoverthe internalconsistency of the scale.6192 0.4335 Gender(Female) 0. negative employee a measure of reform that excludes downsizemployed but includesreinvention reform ing or privatization thatwe expectwill capturea senseof strategies purposeand actionthat is consistentwith our hypothesis by enhancinga focuson resultsand managerial authority(Moynihan2006).commitmentto difficult(Schein1996).had a Cronbach's alphaof .4142 Professional identification 0.4664 Attitudestowardstructural attributes-such as the of formalization and the distribution of power degree and discretion in the organization-are shapedby the way employeesperceiveformalrulesor entrenched normsthat communicate valuesand organizational our measures of red tape.0902 1. and different foci on by Perry analysis.a deliberate capturethe complexityof competingculturesin almadeto excludequestionspertaining to the selfmost all organizations. (1991) surveyquestionsby Zammutoand Krakower in the scalereliability differences and adaptedfor use in the NASP-IIsurvey.and the the organization was $50.4998 Publicservicemotivation 25. items employedby Perry.which arguesthat organizational of its conceptualsimilarity to and overlap with the to performance varyalong threedimenapproaches dimension. In this we chose versus (1996). practices.developmental. we Therefore. reportmay be the Table l Descriptive Statistics Variables Mean Standard Deviation 4.0239 authority 15.111.largelybecauseit was not inof (1981) categorization Quinn and Rohrbaugh's cludedin the originalconceptionof PSM and because distinctvaluetypes. of the managers almosthalfwerewomen. 18 Apr 2013 02:33:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and reformorientationreflectemployeeattitudesaboutthesemorestructural aspectsof the organization.8723 Developmentalculture Hierarchical culture 3.0245 1.1007 2.100 on Thu.4022 Education 2.8910 Age Income 2.8975 2. Quinn and Kimberly (1984) The scaleemployedfor this variable had a Cronbach's categorize the fourculturaltypesemergingfromthis standards.In constructing scalesfor each sions:(1) organizational focus (peopleversusthe compassion items item.we used four of the five . salary average Thisdemographic soundsmoreconsistent description with our expectations of a typicalcareer manager in a healthand humanserviceagency.74 for the PSM scalesthat he developed. is that we employedonly a subsetof the compassion surveyquestions(fourof the eight itemsin Perry's compassionscale). in generalizing cautionshouldbe exercised study findings. model as group.67.7701 Redtape 6. (meansand ends).and managers in different Anotherexplanation publicorganizations.3059 Hierarchical 6. resultof a different We groupof respondents: in the service in surveyed working managers public the areasof healthand humanservices. Our measure of cultureexaminesthe perceived values in and normsof the organization terms of directly The surveyincludedthreeof Perry's four measures of sharedsocialmeanings. obtaininga Cronbach's alphaof For the civic duty scale.6607 7. Our overallPSM scale.publicemployees.1785 10. Thesetypeswereconvertedinto Perry(1996) reportsalpha rangingfrom The .000 (seeTable1).not the popularimageof information technologystaffas men who young frequently changeemployment.90. age we surveyed was almost50 years.and the alphais dependenton the numberof items in the scale.5036 Rational culture 2.67.Measuring culturehas proved PSM:attraction to policy making.and the Cronbach's alphasof the scalesemployedcan be found in appendix2.7420 2.72. public compassion. suggested (control (3) flexibility).5009 1. belowminimallyacceptable hierarchical.40. whereasPerry his surveyto a widervarietyof responadministered and undergraduate dents. publicpolicy making employed items used by Perry.6630 Commitmentto publicinterest/civic duty 15. Thiscomplexitygaveriseto sacrifice dimension. Measurement Thissectiondiscusses how we measured the more A full complexvariables employedin this analysis.5467 0.5693 Groupculture 2. in a Cronbach's resulting alphaof . chicalauthority.The average and top-levelprogram administrators.9824 6.hierarTherefore. survey nizational choicewas questionswerebeing selected.reforms such as contracting out or privatization may producea effect on morale. we useda selectionof the Likert-scale aboutstructure (2) differing preferences organization). However.4210 Reformorientation 18.1460 1.madeup of the to publicpolicy makingand civic duty attraction scales. listingof the questionsemployed.as with any surveyof a particular group.Forthe attraction to we all three scale.6506 0.

116* .futureresearch this topic might benefitfromexamininghowthe educational valuesof PSM ratherthan processimparts of the level education.027) .22. organizational is an that the organization importantvenue premise to for shapingPSM. **statistically ****Statistically significantat .05.025) .039) .Althoughour culturemeasures did not we found strongsupportfor other provesignificant. The modelstestedin the studysatisfied least ordinary we estitherefore.two-tailedtests otherwise.834 (.01.029 (.172*** .363) .019 -.The difference to measurement-we used a simpledummymeasure in a professional whereas of membership organization.of a reformorientation.049 .144* .100 on Thu.264) -. findings original on that the role positive hypothesis professional organizationsplayin shapingthe ethicalnormsof their in resultsmay be attributable members.079 .033 (.030 (. in and used a scale that tracks attitudes activity Perry the towardprofessional Alternatively. is a and the measure of levelsof hierarchical authority of PSM acrossall scales. significantly associated for the negatively overallmeasure of PSM and attraction to policy makingand slightlyabovegenerally acceptedsignificancelevelsfor commitmentto publicinterest/civic controlsproved duty.083 .15 .0000002 Beta .127* .343 (.117 (.025) .178 (.lengthof organizational membership with PSM.155** Commitmentto Public Interest/Civic Duty B (std.168) . *statistically significantat .079 .527) .207*** . squares regression assumptions.264 (. Error) .857 (.118 (.002 -.065 F Significance significantat .093 (. ***statistically Note: Significancelevelsare one-tailedtests if matchinga predicteddirection.095 (.expressed and levels that are consistent between .145** .341) .057 -.10 reportedin table1.035 -.001.213**** .151 3.097 (.186) . therefore.378 (.007 -.005. difference may be explainedby the wide varietyof and Discussion Findings The explanatory as R2.and Wright the extentto whichworkers 1999). matedthe effectsof eachindependent variable on PSM while holdingthe otherindependent variables The descriptive statistics for the dataare constant. ranged with the resultsof Perry(1997) (seetable2).016) -.137) -058 (.034 (.179 (.028) .768 .074 (.347 (.138* -.151* .030 -.067 .188) -.193*** -.088 (. for our general variables and. simplymeasuring The resultsfor professional werealso identification This and is uniformlypositive.095) .357) 238 .040) .176) -.0003 Beta .107 .009 (. of PSM arethe socioThe most powerfulpredictors historical variables: higherlevelsof educationand The resultsreinforce earlier professional membership. On the otherhand.536 (. we employeda preexisting measure of reinvention(Brudney.counterto Perry's attracted (1997) finding.012 .303 .181) -.90. partlyinconsisstrong tent with Perry's (1997) findingsthat professional identification had no overallpositiveeffectandwas a to policy making.237 (.543 (.257) 1.076 .089 (.244**** -.026) .226) .148* . exception to policy making. was sample.168** .0001 Beta .004 (.094) -.147) .337 (. findings(Perry1997) on the positiverelationship betweenlevelof educationand PSM.220 7.088) -. Hebert. however.332 (.198) -.274) .335) 237 .Forour positivepredictor PublicServiceMotivation to Explain Table2 Regressions PublicServiceMotivation Independentvariables Education identification Professional Groupculture Developmentalculture culture Hierarchical Rational culture Redtape Reformorientation Hierarchical authority membership Lengthof organizational Age Income Gender(Female) N R2 Attractionto PolicyMaking B (std.160 3.109 -.203 (.None of the demographic with the that womenweremore significant.519) 237 .087 (. 18 Apr 2013 02:33:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Ourmeasure gauges of reinvention observedthe implementation efforts duringthe previousfouryears. The existenceof red tapeappears that reducePSM.The negativeinfluencefor attraction consistent with Perry's are.145** .066 B (std.213) -.030 (. Giventhe on clarityand strengthof theseresults.069 .032 -.330) .179) -.023 -.046 -.565 (.014 -.017) -.356 (.260) -.101) -. error) .068 . organizations.054 (.020 (.230**** .398) 1.273) -.026 (.assumingthat high levelsof implementation raisePSM.431 (. The offerstrongsupportfor the resultsof our analysis of the sociohistorical contextbut also importance the influence of institutions recognize organizational to the of PSM tested here-attraction on aspects policy makingand commitmentto publicinterest/ civic duty.171) . error) 1.050 (.288) .102 .913 (. powerof our models. 46 Public Administration Review * JanuarylFebruary2007 This content downloaded from 175. significantat .111.the perception reforms is a the organization is activelyimplementing for PSM the and of predictor positive significant overallcommitmentto publicinterest/civic duty scale.

Hierarchical levelsprovidea structure that allowstheseactorsto perceivethemselvesas exercising a powerfuland positiverolein but consistentwith reasonservices. agenciesmaintainpremodern a case of studies of effectivepubmeta-analysis Using lic organizations.111.and must reconceptualize how to add valueand overseea greater number meaningfully of employees. and the full PSM scale.It also of the hierarchihelpsexplainthe doggedpersistence cal form in the faceof continuingcriticism. Moynihan 2006). organization Defendinghierarchy have may gone out fashion. Red tape discourages employees from believing they are serving the public good. has manyhierarchical levelsto be associorganization atedwith higherlevelsof employeePSM. at least in the area of health and human services. and buildingconsensus and acceptance for organizational actions. providingpublic ablelevelsof complexityand accountability. which ranged from undergraduate students to managers and employees in different types of organizations. As Jaques(1990) argues. Although the validity of the categories and measures that we employed is confirmed by other studies (Zammuto and Krakower 1991). This is because"agencies of the moderneraaredecidedly less hierarchical thanweretheirpredecessors" and modern are a formalized to agencies degree "most with theirmission"(Wolf 1997. we acknowledge the difficulty of measuring cultural attributes across organizations. overstated basedon a mistakenbeliefthat modern levelsof hierarchy. as noted before. Suchreforms haveadvoorganizational catedflatterorganizations that reducethe distance betweenthe top and bottom of the hierarchy.Froma moreself-interested perspective. This finding runscontrary to the assumptions of reformefforts as an outmodedand stifling that denigrate hierarchy characteristic. Kaufman (1960) and Wilson (1989) offer classic examples of how culture shapes beliefs and behavior. our results on culture should be viewed as preliminary.Few arein a betterpositionto appreciate the benefitsof hierarchy-and also to overlookits failings-than mid-levelmanagers. with a smaller range of relevant professional organizations. additional survey populations. but active reform efforts to increase managerial authority and focus on results can reinvigorate PSM among managers. The results from our sample suggest that this effect is especially pronounced among employees who are interested in policy making. such reforms are likely to be viewed positively and reinforce the belief that the organization provides a venue in which employees can fulfill their public service motivation. The reinvention movement that provides the basis for our reform scale is broadly associated with generally positive reform rhetoric based on assumptions that organizational systems rather than public employees are to blame for public failures and that public employees play a central enabling role in achieving public goals (Gore 1993. our scales do not cover all aspects of PSM but instead focus on a limited set of public employees. 376). However.The losersin these empowering reformeffortsaremid-levelmanagers who supervise the workof publicorganizations but aredeemedan nuisanceand targeted for downsizing. and there is value in testing this relationship with alternative measures of culture. Our more homogenous set of respondents in the health and human services field might be expected to have a less varied and more uniform relationship. it is hard to dismiss this variable. Overall.90. thereby frontlineemployees.respondents that Perry surveyed.We recogthat this resultmay not be generalizable nize. In addition. the presence of manyhierarchical levelsalso improves the potentialfor promotionto a higherlevel of the for thesemanagers. Mid-level in that have managers organizations adopteda flatter facecriticism. addingvalueto workas it movesthroughthe organization. well-meaning employees may become unmotivated in intensely bureaucratic organizations. our results suggest that. The organizational culture variables were not found to be significant predictors of PSM. however. to the PSM of othergroupswho areless tolerantof The Role of Organizations in Fostering PublicServiceand Motivation 47 This content downloaded from 175. Consistent with the message of reform advocates in the public sector.100 on Thu.not workeffectively just in termsof makingorganizations but alsoin termsof the beliefsof employees. unnecessary Wolf (1997) arguesthat such criticisms are However. age organizational publicmanagers in organizations in which the likelyto find themselves levelof hierarchy is basedon an understanding of how best to achieveorganizational goals.hierarchy continuesto persist becauseit remainsthe most logicaland effective way to organizethe multiplecomplextasksundertaken by while maintaining a system largegroupsof individuals of clearaccountability. Thus. The null results for all of the measures of organizational culture were somewhat unexpected.but our resultsofferrare for the benefitsthat hierarchy advocacy provides. Red tape was negatively and significantly related to the overall measure of PSM and attraction to policy making but not to commitment to public interest/ civic duty. 18 Apr 2013 02:33:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Wolf demonstrates that hierarchy hasvirtually zeroeffecton agencyperformance.may struggleto fully underapproach standtheirrole relative to seniormanagers and frontlineemployees. appropriate Ratherthan being the haplessvictimsof an industrial are structure. the findings from our sample question recent reforms' emphasis on the negative effect of excessive We found the perceptionthat an hierarchy. professional identification appears to have a positive effect for the aspects of PSM that we measure here. Given the results of in-depth case analysis on the role of culture in shaping beliefs. For public employees who value public service and may be frustrated by perceived goal displacement in their organizations.

Policy. might studyhas offeredevidencethat the PSM of nonprofit employees.and commitment Selden 1998). Nonetheless. separate age suggeststhat helping employee of that are salientresearch contributif are feel as worthy empirical questions they meaningfully employees reduces to investigation. and there Clearly.motivation. PSM have declined is that effectthat management may among explanation systemsand otherorganizabecauseof such life-cycleconsiderations tionalinstitutionshaveon PSM. One of the perceived and must be functionalareain stategovernment responsibilities. On the other and self-sacrifice makesto society--an organizatheircontribution as a articulated hand. the value and communicating effectiveat celebrating to theiremployees.and mayvaryconsiderably ties and acrossfunctionor levelof government employee with the publicsector. University. in otherareas services. 18 Apr 2013 02:33:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . paper Furthermore. Workers that is moreeffectivethan monetaryincentives.Workers Another must becomeattunedto the Publicorganizations may not perceivesuch a lackof progress. and the analyses opinionspresented relations. reformthat clarifies and undertaking althoughit bears experience goalsand controlledfor the effectsof a can have noting that our analysis positiveeffecton employees empowers are these variable. set of an accompanying on PSM meansrecognizing to cautionthat our resultscome fromone however.111.Perry's multidimenAcknowledgments conceivesof PSM as a superordinate sionalconstruct(Edwards 2001).Clearly. to find that the longer It is somewhatdiscouraging of the remainsa need for additionalanalysis werein theircurrentorganizations. as a research PSM.and othersocialissues. of our analysis First.also at Rutgers of an endorsement not does as relifactorspreviously necessarily imply sociohistorical tested. employeefrustragoals ing organizational commitment(Romzekand tion and strengthens relatedto the generalizability Hendricks1982). so it is unclear of the to centrality employees public communicating would applyto the compassion whetherour results that benefits the real and role in the their organization elementsof PSM. importance suggests on the four different aspectsof PSM. PSM is considered practical preliminary. a conceptualization We would like to thankthe threeanonymousPAR The data for makingvaluablesuggestions.providing (Brewer in the provisionof healthand a basisfor loyalty. that performs to an organization PSM scale.we did not includeother Naturally.100 on Thu. would arguefor the generalizability firstarticleon PSM scaledevelopment Indeed.But socialservicesmaybe particularly likelyto growdisseekto fosterPSM in the toward how can organizations overtime if they see limitedprogress couraged first health place? inadequate solvingthe problemsof poverty. reviewers that is in accordwith the intellectual historyof the the under were collected in this in administration. environment oursis a preliminary model. This is clearlyan empirical havebeen different: quespublicemployeesis a resultof not only individual of PSM. supportfor this viewpointusinga latentvariable and PublicServiceat Rutgers Research the to relates caveat second Policy A independent technique. at leastwith respectto of organizaon the importance the basicargument to policy makingand the of attraction the measure an tionalinstitutionsto PSM and thus represent of PSM. into the publicsectorand strengthens individuals it a dynamicconstruct. the or results This staff. gion and parental 48 Public Administration Review * JanuarylFebruary 2007 This content downloaded from 175.the resultssupport antecedents the lowertheirlevelsof PSM. relatedto PSM. but also the organizational sociohistorical tion and worthyof attentionin futurestudies background in which employeesfind themselves. our respondents of PSM. of our results. PSM has been consistently to manypublic unfamiliar is that trait tional currently which singleconceptwith relatedsubcomponents. This research has respondents than the individual's as workor retirement (rather red some qualifiedinsights:Reducing tape provided with the organization).We arecareful.such support here. analyzed public concept Studies Administrative National of the and auspices empirical provide Pandey(forthcoming) Coursey which is supportedin partby the Forumfor Project. Thoughit would be combinedmeasure over and theoretical advance prior empirical are temptingto believethat publicorganizations knowledge.Perry(1997) found some significant controlson their or restrictions without unnecessary variables in the influenceof independent differences of the research also The efforts. JohnsonFoundationto the Centerfor StateHealth does not test all possiblevariables this Becauseof datalimitations. Other clearly Again. The elementcommon in these Two additionalcaveats of encouraging is the importance public suggestions areworthconsidering. organizational benefitsof PSM is that it both helpsrecruit As othershavenoted.we have that are to feel contributing they personally employees only two of the fourelementsof the standard analyzed a valuableservice.If our surveyhad includedfrontline Conclusion hierarchy.90. a grantfrom the RobertWood under here model the University variables presented employed.our respondents of theirservices institutions the impactof organizational Recognizing reported declininglevelsof PSM. students. employees.

and parental To we the PSM differences that 7. helpingothersand communityservice. sectoremployeesplacegreater emphasison job security. March and Olsen's definition does point to some common attributes among the different approaches-a distinction between institutions and organizations. For example. Our approach to institutions joinswith and extendsPerry's of the workof March application and Olsen (1989. For example. Wilson's (1989) widely cited account of bureaucracy identifies organizational The Role of Organizations in Fostering PublicServiceand Motivation 49 This content downloaded from 175. 1995). numberof measurement to policymaking.90. they found that PSM is significantly and positively relatedto in one but not the other. As Wright(2001) pointsout. tools to trackPSM.which arebasedon emotionalresponses affectionfor to socialcontextsand particular Perry(1996) latertesteda specificprograms. moreconcernedwith weresignificantly managers and than publicor hybrid pay.and affective motives.and compassionand matchingthem to the rational. Although March and Olsen conceive of the public servant in distinctly Weberian terms. 6.status.identifying performance the need for greater empirical testingof this claim. 18 Apr 2013 02:33:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . however. illustrate. 3. formal or informal. sectoraldifferences into maybe explainednot only by self-selection suitablejobs but alsoby a processwhereby employees adapttheirvaluesto suit the organizaand tionalenvironment (see also Hall. the importance of formal rules and informal socialization assumes a institutionsin shaping key rolefor organizational the beliefsand behavior of theseactors. The successof variousstrands of institutional theory-Hall andTaylor(1996) count threeversions.respectively. This acceptance of institutions-although the term institutions is rarely employed in the manner that March and Olsen propose-continues in present scholarship. alternatives 2. 8.Peters(1999) countssixencourages a tendency toward overextension (Hall 1996).Houston (2000) provides furthersupportfor publicemployeereward However.100 on Thu. prestige who placedmuch greater emphasison managers. This is consistent with Marchand Olsen'sargument that individualpreferences arenot exogenousand fixedbut rather endogenousto the institutionsin which the individualinteracts. Offeringa rankingof differentreward Wittmerfound thatprivatesector to respondents. addedself-sacrifice. An acceptance of the role of the workenvironment as a shaperof publicemployeebehavioris central to traditional public administration scholarship. Selznick (1996) notes how deviations from formal structures become embedded normative organizational characteristics over time and the sense of value that institutionalization can infuse in the tasks.It mayalso be the case preexisting that the way employeesperceivetheirorganizationalenvironments makesthem moreor less likelyto maintainPSM beliefsovertime. Rosenberg1957). shapedby a logic of appropriateness consistentwith theseinstitutions. whereas Barnard (1938) points to the role of informal norms. with institutions as rules.He does not. Perry(2000) does not completelyoverlookthe He specifiesthe role of role of the organization: as a sourceof influenceon the workenvironment PSM. in a later work. 58). Alonso and Lewis(2001) offermoremixed evidenceon performance. suggesting workenvironment is of secondary to importance such sociohistorical institutionsas religion. Thereis some empirical evidencein the contextof PSM to supportthis claim. Perry and Wise proposethreemain typesof PSM: rationalmotives. as illustrated by three giants of the field: Gulick (1937) represents an early acceptance of the central role of formal structures and procedures in shaping employee outcomes. Employingtwo separatefederalgovernment datasets.Romzek and Hendricks(1982) suggestthat the inability of publicorganizations to satisfya desireto serve will lead to disinterest or hostilityas PSM turns into frustration. motives.111. Crewson(1997) found that commitmentis partlydependent organizational on the senseof trustand affiliation thatworkers havewith fellowemployees. 4. argue betweenemployeesin different sectorsarenot basedon solelythe productof self-selection PSMlevels. Schneider Nygren 1970. and affective norm-based. noting evidenceon the specialcontextof and the need to develop publicorganizations to the logic of the incentivesthat areappropriate worksetting. we areaware the term institution that any effortto incorporate with risk into an analyticframework is fraught and disagreement.which arebasedon a generalsenseof publicinterestand socialequity.Using a nationalsample.Notes 1. March and Olsen argue that public servants should be directed not only by formal mandates but also by the need to be socialized into "an ethic of administrative duty and conformity to the law" (1995. devisingscalesfor attraction commitmentto publicinterest/civic duty. 5.he also reportsthat public preferences. that are stable over time and have an impact on individual belief and behavior (Peters 1999).in which individualutilityis basedon creatinggood publicpolicy. However.norm-based motives. specifyin detailhow differentaspectsof the publicwork environment that the shapePSM. education. relations. an additionalaspectof Perry of PSM that has been identifiedin discussions publicservice.

100 on Thu. showsa normaldistribustandardized residuals were that the errors tion. literature However.215 in any model. New York: Appleby.PaulH. L. New York: Method. 50 Public Administration Review * JanuarylFebruary2007 This content downloaded from 175. MA:Harvard University Cambridge. Theory -. 11). Public Alonso. PublicServiceMotivation Forthcoming. Press.and RexL. Does Perceived RedTapeand PublicEmployees: Rule DysfunctionAlienateManagers? Journalof and Theory Research PublicAdministration 15(1): 133-48.PhilipE. Individual Conceptionsof Public Review ServiceMotivation. FacerII. betweenredtape 9. in the Federal Civil Service: New Whistleblowers Evidenceof the PublicServiceEthic. Pandey.Don A. and Hal Rainey.PublicAdministration Administrative Review59(1): 19-30..1995. 1990. SallyColemanSelden. 2001. E.Journalof and Theory Public Administration Research 8(3): 413-39.406. DiIulio. Ban. Andrewsforthcoming).American Public Administration 1-17. behavior. BruceII. Public-Service Evidenceof Incidenceand BuildingEmpirical Research Effect. Coursey. Bozeman. 1993.. Multidimensional Edwards. Lawrence: University Pressof Kansas. B. whetherordinary leastsquares was 10.90.the relationship and publicservicemotivationis bidirectional. Mail and Internet Surveys: ed. BigDemocracy. Bureaucratic RedTapeand Formalization: Review of UntanglingConceptualKnots. JournalofPoliticalScience Scott. 18 Apr 2013 02:33:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Managinga Barbed-Wire The Impossible Job of Corrections Bureaucracy: In Impossible Commissioner. 1997. Lewis. Review Administration 50(5): 515-24. Sociological Organizational Review 33(6): 912-30. GeneA. Hargrove Management. oftheExecutive. The highestcorrelations betweenredtapeand hierarchical levels. Organizational Bridging SanFrancisco.and SanjayK. Jeffrey. Glidewell. AlfredA. 1945. 1975. and Patrick Bozeman. Brewer.111. in Public Resources StateGovernment..Administration Perry's Motivation: Crewson. BehaviorResearch: in Organizational Constructs References Aiken.and constraints circumstances. 2000. and SanjayK. HowDo PublicManagers Bureaucratic Constraints." Research and JournalofPublicAdministration 3(3): 273-304.arguingthat who areimbuedwith high levelsof managers and workto publicservicemotivationperceive reduceredtape (Scottand Pandey2005). Carolyn. The Barnard. ArePublic: 1987. The publicbudgeting of administrative processand civil servicesystemsareobjectsof studythat reflectthe way that highlyformaland aspectsof the publicsectorinteract procedural with entrenched normsof appropriate and Moynihanand expectedbehavior(Ingraham. John C.and Deil S. Bureaucracy and RedTape. and between werepositivelycorrelated of culture:bureaucratic the differentmeasures at culturewerecorrelated and developmental culture and and the -. 26(1): GeneA.466.andJeraldHage.we exammulticolined our datafor heteroskedasticity.423. 1968. Rulesand Bureaucratic Personality.396.and Gregory Evidence ServiceMotivationandJob Performance: Review American from the Federal Sector.49-71.Barry.2001. Jossey-Bass: . 2nd Tailored Wiley. for Reform. Ted Hebert. and the squareroot of the variance correlations inflationfactor(VIF)to detectmulticollinearity were (Fox 1991. A scatterplot illustrates and indepenconstant(homoscedastic) relatively We examinedthe bivariate dent of one another. Versionof Measurement: Testinga Shortened & Society. Public and Private Theories. 2005. 1998. Organizational Manage? San Francisco: and thePotential Culture. althoughlengthof organizational at and agewerepositivelycorrelated membership .1999.Barry. RedTapeand the Service Buchanan. DeHart-Davis.4.PublicAdministration 60(3): 254-64. Consistentwith our focuson the influenceof institutions. 6(4): 423-44. Upper SaddleRiver. 2000. Jobsin Public and editedby EdwinC.1998.which at . Knopf. The highestVIF for eachmodelwas the red tapevariable. in the Government Wright.Barry. 1996. I. The Dillman. 1990. of the data. Pablo. All Organizations Bozeman. Quite likely. Jeffrey Brudney.Leisha. Functions Chester. ManagingInformation Caudle.JohnJ. and SallyColemanSelden. None of the othercorwerecorrelated variables betweenthe independent relations exceeded0. A Theoryof Government "RedTape. Organizational American 42(1): 163-89.Journalof PublicAdministration and Theory 7(4): 499-518. althoughthe squareroot of the VIF did not exceed 1.as shapers culture. 1938.NJ: PrenticeHall. ofPublic Administration 31(4): 363-80.some publicadministration focuseson the othercausaldirection. Brewer. Design R. Pandey. Jossey-Bass. To determine the appropriate estimationtechnique. and IntraInterdependence Organizational American Structure. Society Sharon L.A histogram and influential linearity. Reinventing and Explaining States:Measuring American Reform. Scale. developmental group at . Between Ethic:Some UnexpectedDifferences Administration & Publicand Private Managers. 2000.Michael.this studyarguesthat organizational redtape reducespublicservicemotivation. David H.

Pandey. March. 1999. Notes on the Theoryof In Papers on theScience Organization. and EricW. and GloriaSimo. RedTape: Its Origins. Scott. A Goodsell. New York: Lyndall PublicAdministration. The Pursuitof Managerial Does Organization Matter? Entrepreneurship: Public Administration Review 59(1): 31-43.Elliot. Institutions in Public Administration.B. 1991. Culturein Learning Journalof PublicAdministration Research and Theory 7(4): 519-40. Analytical Methods Research 4(2): 144-92. Evaluating Public Administration Review 66(1): 78-90. Approachto Organizational CompetingValues Effectiveness. MotivatingEmployees in a New Governance Era:The Performance Revisited. Pendleton. Sanjay A Multistage Model of Managerial Stereotypes: of RedTape. 2006.Institutional Theory in Political Science. Democratic FreePress. Forces 18(4): Personality.Al. 1990.191-95. Jae. Regression Newbury Diagnostics. and HaroldT Hall. 1993. C. Bringing a Theory SocietyIn:Toward of Public-Service Motivation. JournalofPublic Reliability Administration Research and Theory 6(1): 5-22. Political 44(5): 936-57. EnglewoodCliffs. Translations.2002. Influences in PublicAgencies. Ranger. Manchester. M. JamesL. 1996. . Julianne. 2000. A Quinn.100 on Thu. Public-Service A Multivariate Test. Interpreting Areas:Organizational and Culture. 1999. 6th ed. The Perry.Robert. SanjayK.Olsen. andJohn Crum..1960. Managing StateGovernment: a Decadeof Reform.. SanjayK.Charles. David. and Rosemary PoliticalScienceand the ThreeNew Studies Institutionalisms. to Results: a Gore. NationalAdministrative A NationalSurvey Studies (NASP-II): of Project in State Health and HumanServices Managers Camden..1940. Pandey.90. Guy.and LauriePaarlberg. PublicService JamesL. Katherine forAmerica: Does PublicServiceMotivationMake a Difference? Review ofPublicPersonnel Administration 19(4): 5-16. G.. New York: Pinter. PeterA. ofPolitics. R.. Working Naff. 1999. Moon. of edited by LutherGulickand Administration.DC: Government Gulick. MD: JohnsHopkinsUniversity Press. In Managing editedby John R.Ambiguity. 2003. University of Hierarchy.JournalofPublic and Theory Administration Research 10(4): 713-27.JamesG. Washington.Clare. Management Roadsin Roadless Ginger. Measuring Perry. JournalofPublic Administration Research and Theory 10(2):471-88. Research JournalofPublicAdministration and Theory 553-80. RedTapein Publicand Private Examining Alternative froma Explanations Organizations: SocialPsychological Model. Beyond Pandey. H.New York: Governance.1994. 1989. Instituteof Urwick. in Personal Factors 1970.1997. T. in B. Institutional Theory Science: The New Institutionalism. In Praise Business Review 68(1): 127-33. Kimberly. Park. 2000. Taylor. Washington. Perry.1936. Red K.111.Administration & Society Perceptions 37(5): 542-75. Kimberly Homewood. Baltimore.. Agencies. PublicAdministration and thePublicInterest. Motivational Basesof PublicService. andJohn R. and Lois R.CA:SagePublications. Structure and Merton. to PolicyMandates. and GordonA. Planning.2005. PublicProductivity Review5(2): 122-40. An Assessment Motivation: of Construct and Validity. Formal and Informal Matthew Andrews. New York: . in Political Peters.Journalof Public Administration Research and Theory 10(4): 779-99.1998.PublicPersonnel 24(1): 33-51. Processes. New York: McGraw-Hill.An Integrative Framework.DC: Brookings of Organizational Mahler. RobertE.Uses. Organizational and RobertE. Richard Structures. Donald P Moynihanand Ingraham. The Role of Organizations in Fostering PublicServiceand Motivation 51 This content downloaded from 175. for Resultsin Moynihan. Organizations: Hall.. Patricia W.Public Paradigm Administration Review 66(4): 505-14. Chatham.John. 1996. FromRedTape Creating ThatWorks Better and Costs Less. NJ: PrenticeHall. Nygren. Herbert. TheForest Kaufman. Kingsley. BenjaminSchneider. 295-313. andJohanP. Guy Forthcoming Peters andDonaldSavoie(Eds. Bureaucratic Social 560-68.and Perseverance: for Managerial Practice. C. 1995.. Quinn. Wise. PublicAdministration NJ: ChathamHouse.. Antecedents Motivation.Luther. 1977. and Patrick Pandey.. DouglasT. Institutions: TheOrganizational Basis Rediscovering FreePress. Herring.1937.Gerald Variable SectorMotivationas an Independent AffectingCareerDecisions. and Outcomes.Donald P. Administrative Science Quarterly 15(2): 176-90.NJ: Rutgers University. Motivation: Houston. 1984. Manchester Press. Hall. 1995. 2000. Guidelines Paradox. 18 Apr 2013 02:33:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 12(4): K.).J. andJohn Rohrbaugh.1996. Quinn. JournalofPublicAdministration Research and Theory 7(2): 181-97.. Sanjay of Conceptsand Tape:A ReviewandAssessment Measures. RobertE. 1981. . 1990. of PublicService 1997. DebraMesch. 3rd ed.Public Administration Review 50(3): 367-73. InstitutionPress. andAbuses.2006. Harvard Jaques. Welch.IL:Dow Jones/Irwin. Organizational Fox. Government PrintingOffice. Changein AgencyResponses & Society Administration 29(6): 723-57. Public Gabris. TheCase for Bureaucracy: Polemic.E. JamesL. Organizational Identification.

This method usesthe following elements: * Questionnaire content with well-designed " Surveyquestionnaire formattedin accordance in cognitiveresearch with the latestadvances * Multiplepersonalized contacts. PostalService) The data-collection phaseof the studybeganin the fall of 2002 and concludedin the winterof 2003.Barbara Commitmentand Representative Organizational Can Bureaucracy: We Have It BothWays? Review Science Political American 76(1): 75-82.Journalof Developmental and Theory 7(3): Research PublicAdministration 353-88. 2001.Dennis. (2000) comprehensive the maximize to designmethodwas employed responserate. Red G.NJ: ChathamHouse. 1991. Studiesof and Qualitative Quantitative in Organizational Culture. Francisco: 2nd ed.90. Servingthe Peopleor Serving Preferences for Pay:Reward amongGovernment. agenciesand housingprograms and for Assistance Needy Families.Paperpresented Research NationalPublicManagement PublicPolicyInstitute.S. 1982. Conference. Reward Review American and Private ofPublic Managers.which includes Services relatedto Medicaid. Institutionalism Science Administrative "New. Administration Wildavsky. York: Wittmer. Pandey.111. Productivity the Reinvent We Must Patrick 1997. xiii-xix. October9-11. StephenHendricks. Review andManagement 14(4):369-83. 1996. Occupations Rosenberg. and Barry Hal.Review PublicPersonnelAdministration 25(2): 155-78.Public 55(6): 567-74. Wolf. Public Review Administration 50(3): 374-82. 1957. New York: and Culture Schein.was a primary surveyadministraquestionnaire tailored Dillman's tion goal. and 1990. and SanjayK.Research Organizational 83-114. one week followingthe initialalert Approximately was mailedto the letter. conducta census).. Given statesandWashington. Organizational Bass. and Values. Arno Press. 1996. LynnandAaronWildavsky. without Aaron. PublicAdministration: editedby Naomi B. J. Pandey. 1989. of human the aid of the most widelyused directory APHSA the serviceagencymanagers.Hal. the from 50 of in a samplingframe 570 managers size the small D. "Old"and Selznick. Culture: Science Studies. A Conceptualand and PublicServiceMotivation: Synthesisof Goal Theoryand Public Empirical at the 7th ServiceMotivation. Bureaucracy: Do It.Preferences amongPublic Rainey.a fax a and phone call at key points in the message. Zammuto. was thankyou/reminder postcard sent to all responand enwho had responded those dents. and. namely.the surveyquestionnaire a combination 10 About later. Chatham. Publicand Private Perceptions Manager's Review Administration RedTape.Bradley and a Literature Motivation:Reviewof Current RevisedConceptualModel. andJackY.a new coverletterand replacement The finalstep in surveyweresent to nonrespondents.Philip. Quarterly 2005. Romzek.JamesQ.Primary humanserviceagencieswereidentifiedon the basisof the definitionusedby the AmericanPublicHuman Association(APHSA). Understanding .DC. thanking as to thosewho had not respond soon as couraging they possiblycould. EmployeeInvestment Romzek. Toward 2003. resulted of the studycriteria The application directory. Patrick of Tapeand PublicServiceMotivation. What Wilson. items. Georgetown Washington. PublicSectorWork Wright.1982.Barbara.when nonrespondents letterand a secondreplacement surveywith a request to completethe survey. of 1995.Administrative Organization 41(2): 229-41. HybridSector.. Temporary The samplingframewas developedwith child welfare. Krakower. and Development 5: Change for PhaseIIof Appendix1: DataCollection StudiesProject the NationalAdministrative The theoretical populationof interestfor this study consistedof managers engagedin information health in state-level activities primary management and health service human and agencies.each craftedmessageto a by carefully accompanied to the encourage respondent completethe survey questionnaire * Use of realstampson returnenvelopes * Use of features such as a pre-noticeletter. SanjayK. Rainey. 18 Apr 2013 02:33:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . took placeabouttwo months surveyadministration weresent a new cover later. 1990.a decisionwas made to the surveyto the entiresamplingframe administer (i. days respondents. both to the surveyand to specific nonresponse. Use of specialdelivery(combination Mail and Airborne Express Priority deliveryby serviceof U. Theory Task.100 on Thu. surveyadministration of two-day . of the samplingframe.RaymondE.1992.Mission. Nearlya month afterthis postcardwas mailed.e." 41(2): Quarterly 279-27. Scott. Administration 16(4): 288-302. Bozeman. Public Business and Managers. In withoutAuthority? Bureaucracy Hierarchy? TheStateof theDiscipline. New Do and Government WhyThey Agencies BasicBooks. San Jossey Leadership. E. As with most surveyresearch minimizing projects. Why Historical Government? Federal Putting Claimsto the Test. The MissingConceptin .C.Edgar. Morris. 52 Public Administration Review * JanuaryIFebruary2007 This content downloaded from 175.Journalof Public and Research Administration 11(4): 559-86. Commitment:TheTies ThatBind. 1991.J.

Inwhatyearwereyouborn? to age inyears) (Converted * People involved. Note:NASP-I refers to Phase Iof the National Administrative * Bureaucratic whatpeopledo. to PublicInterest/Civic Commitment Duty see Hierarchical Authority(fromNASP-I.000(4) 1=strongly 5= strongly disagree.100 on Thu. RedTape(fromNASP-I. (adaptedfrom Perry1996) and Scott Bozeman 2000. of authority. The principalreasonfor deletion had fromthe samplingframewas that managers beforesurveyadministration left the organization efforts.collectedduringthis Basedon the information of the the size samplingframewas reduced period.67) responses (Cronbach's alpha= inyour assessthe extentof hierarchical authority takenfromPerry (1996). 1 = where from taken (1996). ANA) Zammuto and Krakower 1991) * Yes (1) 1=strongly disagree. with0 Please entera number me.(reversed) is a dirty procedures * Thegive-and-take to doesn't of public performance. layers * Meaningful isveryimportant to me. Which of the following bestdescribes yourincome categories * Myagencyis a verypersonal place. * Less than$50. Age * A major concern iswithgetting thejobdone. and5=strongly agree. agree * Over $150.000(2) Culture Developmental (adaptedfrom * Between $75. from 570 to 518. Perry following and5=strongly agree. Project (Brudney.By samplingframewereretirement concludedin the the time the surveyadministration had been winterof 2003. aren't verypersonally Membership Lengthof Organizational and (adaptedfromZammuto GroupCulture Howmany forthisorganization? yearshaveyouworked Krakower 1991) Income 1=strongly 5= strongly agree disagree. 18 Apr 2013 02:33:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ..111. 2002) Pandey the of to index Summative . Wright's following andWright Administrators 1999): Hebert. a total of 274 responses ratefor the studywas 53 received.72)of responses (Cronbach's alpha= see Bozeman2000.the response percent. Thus. Professional Identification (based on Aikenand Hage 1968) * People arewilling to sticktheirnecks out andtakerisks. Areyoua member of a professional APHSA.Otherreasonsfor deletionfrom the and death.Please overthe lastfour eachof thefollowing agencyas implemented 5= changes considered. AMA. following between0 and10. with Please entera number organization. society? (e.90. * Iunselfishly to mycommunity.000and$100.ASPA. ReformOrientation to the Summative index .000(5) * Myagencyis a verydynamic andentrepreneurial place.000(3) Zammuto and Krakower 1991) * Between $100.000and$75.000and$150.77)of responses (Cronbach's alpha= American State taken from Deil question. strongly Pandeyand Scott 2002) questions. The Role of Organizations in Fostering PublicServiceand Motivation 53 This content downloaded from 175. procedures generally govern Studies Project. contribute Education Level " Some college(1) Culture Rational (adaptedfromZammuto * Bachelor's degree(2) and Krakower 1991) * Graduate degree(3) 1= strongly 5=strongly agree disagree. fullyimplemented): years(1=no changes " Training or customer service to improve client programs * Systems satisfaction formeasuring customer " Benchmarks formeasuring outcomes program * Strategic to produce clear mission statements planning * Quality to empower employees improvement programs * Simplification resource rules of human * Greater to carry overfunds discretion * Reduction in hierarchical levels * Decentralization of decision making * Greater in procurement discretion of Appendix2: Measurement StudyVariables to PolicyMaking(adaptedfrom Perry1996) Attraction to the index Summative .where1= strongly Please questions. pleaseassessthe levelof redtapeinyour appeal making policy between0 and 10. Hierarchical Culture (adaptedfrom APHA.g. in from the the agency previous year? * Itis an extended family. disagree of authority and 10 signifying the many 0 signifying few layers " Iconsider service public mycivic duty.(reversed) organization.000(1) * People seemto share a lotof themselves. the highest levelof red no redtapeand10 signifying * Idon'tcaremuch forpoliticians. service public Gender * Iwouldprefer officials do whatis bestforthe seeingpublic Areyoumale(0)orfemale(1)? evenif it harmed wholecommunity myinterests. signifying (reversed) tape. the way undertake to change timeto time. * Between $50. 5=strongly agree * No(0) * Myagencyis a very formalized andstructured place. disagree rules and Ifredtapeis defined as burdensome administrative effectson the organization's thathavenegative * Politics word.stateagencies From to whichyour indicate the extent inwhichtheydo things. * Myagencyisveryproduction oriented.