Arrowroot Powder vs.

Cornstarch: Why Arrowroot Powder is a Better Choice
Posted on February 15, 2013 by Katie

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a strong, nourished metabolism? I adore the eBook The Nourished Metabolism by Elizabeth Walling and her book will help you do just that! Click here for more info! The other night at our house we had a make-your-own-nacho bar with some friends. My friend, Janina, had shared an amazing Food Renegade recipe for homemade cheese sauce (which is earth shatteringly phenomenal!) a few months prior so I had to make it for our get together!

Instead of thickening the sauce with corn starch or a roux (a flour and butter mixture); you use an egg yolk, milk, and some arrowroot powder. We ended up throwing in a couple more tablespoons of the arrowroot powder and I was amazed to see how it

thickened the milk base like a roux or cornstarch would! Which prompted me to ask myself: what on earth is arrowroot powder?!

What is Arrowroot Powder?
Arrowroot Powder (sometimes known as Arrowroot Starch) is white and powdery just like cornstarch. It is derived from a tropical South American plant and, like cornstarch, is used as a thickener in recipes. The plant was given the name “Arrowroot” because it was once used to treat those injured with wounds from poison arrows. The Native Caribbean Arawak people made arrowroot a foundation of their diet and valued it for its amazing healing benefits (i.e., it would draw out the poison from wounds).

What are the differences between Arrowroot Powder and Cornstarch?
Cornstarch is a powdery substance made from (surprise!) corn and is used to thicken gravies and sauces. However, since the advent of Genetically Modifier Organisms (GMOs), almost all cornstarch is made from corn that has been genetically engineered (which to me is a bad science fiction version of food!). You can buy nonGMO cornstarch but it is usually more expensive. The process of extracting cornstarch can be quite harsh as well, utilizing chemicals and high heat to transform the corn into the powder in the can. Cornstarch is not only for food, it also used in adhesives, batteries, garbage bags, deodorant, make-up, and more. The process of obtaining cornstarch is as follows: the corn is hulled from the cob and then soaked in warm water (around 130 degrees) mixed with sulfur dioxide (which is also used to extract metal from ore and, according to dictionary.com: “used chiefly in the manufacture of chemicals such as sulfuric acid, in preserving fruits and vegetables, and in bleaching, disinfecting, and fumigating.”). It will then soak for one to two days. During this time, the corn and starch separate and create sulfurous acid. The corn is drained and then the endo-sperm is separated from the corn to make the starch. The endo-sperm travels through strainers and screens to

separate the gluten and starch. The separated starch is at this point considered “common” cornstarch and can be converted into fermented products or sweeteners. For any “modified” cornstarch, it is treated in another step with chemicals or enzymes. I would strongly recommending reading this PDF from Corn.org if you would like to learn more about cornstarch and how it is derived. You use cornstarch by making a “slurry”, which is mixing the powder into a cold liquid such as water or milk and whisking until the powder is dissolved. You then pour the “slurry” into the hot liquid creating a thickened sauce. Arrowroot powder is extracted in a much different manner. The arrowroot is a tuberous plant which is washed, peeled, and grated into finer pieces. These arrowroot pieces are strained, allowing the liquid to drip off. The starch is in this liquid. In traditional societies, they would throw sea water on top of the grated arrowroot throughout the process to draw out the starch. They would then catch the liquid and let it settle. The sea water would rise to the top and the starch would settle to the bottom. It is rinsed several more times with clean water and then drained of all liquid. What is left is harden starch ball that will finish drying in a shaded place for another two to three days. It is then broken down into the fine, white powder we can get on our grocery shelves. The modern process of obtaining arrowroot powder is very similar to the process of traditional people with just a few differences in tools and processes. I found this explanation of the extraction process:

“After being soaked in hot water, the tubers are peeled to remove their fibrous covering (this prevents a bitter taste and off-color in the final product.) Next they’re cut into small pieces. The cut tubers are then mashed to a pulp and macerated to break down the tough cells surrounding the starch. The pulp is washed on screens to separate the starch from the fibrous material. The settled starch is then centrifuged or filtered to further separate it from fiber fines and other soluble material (this process can be repeated to obtain greater purity). The separated starch is finally dried and ground to powder.”

How Can I Use Arrowroot Powder?

Arrowroot powder can be used very similarly to cornstarch by way of making a “slurry”. You must be careful to not overheat it though as arrowroot is more delicate than cornstarch and will breakdown quicker when heated too long or at too high of a temperature. You can use arrowroot powder to thicken soups, sauces, and stews. It works exactly like cornstarch but without the scary refinement process or question of: “are there GMOs in this?”. It is one of the easiest starches for the body to digest as well, which gives it bonus points in my book! Tapioca root and arrowroot are commonly confused, but are truly much different things. Due to mislabeling throughout the years be sure to buy the best arrowroot powder you can with only one ingredient: arrowroot, pure. Cheerio! Katie http://girlmeetsnourishment.com/arrowroot-vs-cornstarch/

Arrowroot is a wonderful, clear thickener used in gravies, sauces and pie fillings. It is also more easily digested than other thickening agents. Mix 1 rounded tablespoon arrowroot powder into just a little cool water. Add to 1 cup gravy, or other sauce. Stir constantly over high heat, about 10-15 minutes. Gravy will thicken suddenly. Once thickening occurs, STOP STIRRING so as not to break down the bonding and thin out the gravy.
http://www.thespicehouse.com/spices/arrowroot-powder

Arrowroot Powder From Barry Farm Foods
Click here if you would like to purchase this item or Arrowr look at other items from the same category listing. oot Current pricing and bulk discounts are shown on powder the category page. List of Arrowroot powder is a starch thickener. A member NutritionFacts Ingredie of a group of food additives known as thickeners, per serving: 1 tsp nts 1 tsp starches, gels, stabilizers and emulsifiers. It has Amount per serving several advantages over other thickeners in that Arrowroo Calories 10 arrowroot powder has a more neutral flavor and t 0 especially good as thickener in delicately flavored Calories from fat % Daily Value * liquids. It works at low temperatures, tolerates Total Fat 0g 0% acidic ingredients and prolonged cooking.
Saturated Fat 0g 0% 0% 0% 1% 0%

While some sauces thickened with other starches become spongy if frozen, arrowroot powder thickened sauces stand up under freezing and thawing. Arrowroot powder is not recommended for dairy based sauces however as it tends to turn slimy. It is best for desserts sauces but the visual appearance of meat sauces leaves a less than desirable result. To use Arrowroot powder mix equal parts of powder and liquid to form a slurry. Then stir it into hot liquid for about 30 seconds til blended. One tablespoon of Arrowroot will thicken one cup of liquid. 1 part arrowroot powder replaces 2 parts flour. Common substitutes are: Tapioca Starch or Instant Clearjel or Cornstarch or Kudzu Powder or Potato Starch or Rice Starch or Flour. Keep in mind that each of these can produce undesirable appearance or flavor compared to the use of Arrowroot in a recipe.

Cholesterol 0mg Sodium 0mg Total Carbohydrate 2.4g Dietary Fiber 0.1g Protein 0g

Percent values are based on a 2,000 calorie per day diet. Your daily values may differ. Additional Information 0% of calories from Fat 100% from Carbohydrat

West Indian arrowroot. Bermuda arrowroot. arrowroot starch. The name may also come from the native Caribbean Arawak people's aru-aru (meal of meals). obedience plant. possibly due to its high starch content. Other plants that produce similar starches include East Indian arrowroot (Curcuma angustifolia). Queensland arrowroot (Cannaceae family). reed arrowroot. araruta. This monograph addresses only true arrowroot. The popular name arrowroot may be a corruption of the Aru-root of the Aruac Indians of South America or derived from its legendary use as an antidote for poison-tipped arrow toxins.barryfarm. East Indian arrowroot. Brazilian arrowroot (Euphorbiaceae family).http://www. ash. Note: This plant should not be confused with arrowhead (Sagittaria spp.) or Japanese arrowroot (Pueraria montana). but the term is most commonly used to describe the easily digestible starch obtained from the rhizomes of Maranta arundinacea.html Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) treats Diarrhea Share on printShare on email Generic Name: Arrowroot Category Herbs & Supplements Synonyms Albumen. St. and Florida arrowroot (Zamia pumila orZamia integrifolia). true arrowroot. for whom the plant was a dietary staple.com/nutri_info/thickeners/Arrowroot_powder . bamboo tuber. Vincent arrowroot. Maranta arundinacea. arrowroot cookie. . Arrowroot has been studied as a remedy for diarrhea. Maranta arundinacea. Arrowroot is used in the form of a starchy powder dried from the milky liquid extracted from the grated plant rhizome. Background Arrowroot refers to any plant of the genus Maranta. Marantaceae (family).

weight loss. antidote to poisons (vegetable poisons.com/natstandardcontent/arrowroot . teething. Children (younger than 18 years) There is currently a lack of available scientific information to recommend the use of arrowroot in children. Early study suggests it may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of diarrhea in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. inflammation (mucous membranes). and applied on the skin to soothe painful. Diarrhea: Arrowroot is an edible starch with proposed demulcent (soothing) effects. dehydration.cholera. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below. Dosing Adults (18 years and older) Two 5 milliliter spoonfuls of powdered arrowroot (Thornton & Ross UK Pharmaceutical Company) three times a day with. and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. scientific theories. Grade: C Tradition WARNING: DISCLAIMER: The below uses are based on tradition. gangrene. poison tipped arrows). Additional study is needed in this area. http://www. demulcent (soothes inflammation).healthline. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans. irritated. or limited research. and is a well-known traditional remedy for diarrhea. Evidence DISCLAIMER: These uses have been tested in humans or animals. insect and spider bites. Antibacterial. or as part of. gastrointestinal disorders.Arrowroot has also been taken by mouth as a dietary aid in gastrointestinal disorders. Some of these conditions are potentially serious. Some of these conditions are potentially serious. meals for one month has been taken by mouth. and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. food uses. and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. or inflamed mucous membranes.

gravies. arrowroot. Arrowroot starch is neutral tasting and tolerates acidic ingredients. Gastronomically speaking. In fact. it must be cooked over low heat as it doesn’t endure high temperature cooking and does not reheat well. is native to the Caribbean and thrives in the tropical climate. such as citrus. but bakes well in cakes. It’s an excellent substitute for cornstarch and flour as a thickening agent in sauces. because of its digestibility. The starch also freezes well and dissolves well at lower temperatures.Definition: Arrowroot is a powdery. the starch was used medicinally in Victorian times to wean infants from mother’s milk and nourish those with dietary restrictions. cookies and biscuits made with milk. Arrowroot starch also makes an excellent substitute for talcum powder in cosmetics and it was once used in the paper making industry. which is considered an herb. arrowroot is gluten free. St. The name. The plant. The starch comes from the rhizomes of the Maranta arundinacea plant. Vincent and Jamaica are the main producers of the arrowroot starch. Also. Also Known As: obedience plant Alternate Spellings: arrow root . pie fillings. comes from the indigenous Caribbean people and the manner in which they used the plant to treat wounds from poisoned arrows. and puddings. Also. highly digestible starch that is commonly used in cooking throughout the Caribbean. arrowroot does not do well in milk-based cream sauces (it changes the texture).

.

Tomato From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia For other uses. see Tomato (disambiguation). Tomato .

Synonyms . lycopersicum Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L.Cross-section and full view of a hothouse (greenhouse-grown) tomato Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Genus: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Asterids Solanales Solanaceae Solanum S.

see Nix v.3 Italy 1.) H. which has caused some confusion. It is a perennial in its native habitat. Both the species and its use as a food originated in Mexico.7 Modern commercial varieties  2 Cultivation o o o o o o 2. The fruit is rich in lycopene.S. although often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual.3 Companion plants 2.Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L. and spread throughout the world following the Spanish colonization of the Americas. sauces. it is considered a vegetable for culinary purposes (as well as under U. The plants typically grow to 1–3 meters (3–10 ft) in height and have a weak stem that often sprawls over the ground and vines over other plants.[1] The tomato is the edible.[2][3] Contents [hide]  1 History o o o o o o o 1.2 Diseases and pests 2. Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.1 Mesoamerica 1. salads. An average common tomato weighs approximately 100 grams (4 oz). including raw. and drinks. The tomato belongs to the nightshade family (Solanaceae).5 Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation 2.6 North America 1. While it is botanically a fruit.5 Middle East and North Africa 1. sometimes in greenhouses in cooler climates. Hedden). as an ingredient in many dishes. Karst.4 Pollination 2.6 Picking and ripening . often red fruit of the plant Solanum lycopersicum. customs regulations.4 Britain 1. Its many varieties are now widely grown.2 Spanish distribution 1. The tomato is consumed in diverse ways.1 Varieties 2. commonly known as a tomato plant. which may have beneficial health effects.

[4]:13 The Pueblo people are thought to have believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers ofdivination.1 Plant toxicity 3. lumpy tomato. The exact date of domestication is unknown: by 500 BC.o  2. a mutation from a smoother.4. [4] .1 Pronunciation       11 Tomato records 12 Cultural impact 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links History Mesoamerica Aztecs and other peoples in Mesoamerica used the fruit in their cooking. smaller fruit.4.7 Genetic modification 3 Consumption o o o o 3. originated in Mesoamerica. and may be the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes.1 Nutrition 3.[5] The large.2 Potential health benefits 3.3 Storage 3. it was already being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas.4 Safety   3.2 Salmonella        4 Botanical description 5 Botanical classification 6 Wild species 7 Genome sequencing 8 Breeding 9 Fruit or vegetable? 10 Names o 10.

a Genoese working for the Spanish monarchy. from where it spread to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent.[4]:13 After the Spanish colonization of the Americas. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in an herbal written in 1544 byPietro Andrea Mattioli. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692. wrote to the Medici private secretary informing him that the basket of tomatoes sent from the grand duke's Florentine estate at Torre del Gallo "had arrived safely. cooked and seasoned with salt. although Christopher Columbus. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates. black pepper. Italy The recorded history of tomatoes in Italy dates back to 31 October 1548 when the house steward of Cosimo de' Medici. who suggested that a new type of eggplant had been brought to Italy that was blood red or golden color when mature and could be divided into segments and eaten like an eggplant —that is. The tomato's ability to mutate and create new and different varieties helped contribute . the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. an Italian physician and botanist. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. however. the Florentine aristocrat Giovanvettorio Soderini wrote how they "were to be sought only for their beauty" and were grown only in gardens or flower beds. and oil. the fruit was used solely as a tabletop decoration before it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century. or "golden apple".Spanish distribution Tomatoes that have not ripened uniformly Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan. though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. now Mexico City.[4]:17 In certain areas of Italy." Tomatoes were grown mainly as ornamentals early on after their arrival in Italy. and cultivation began in the 1540s. However it wasn't until ten years later that tomatoes were named in print by Mattioli as pomi d’oro. in 1521. may have taken them back as early as 1493. the grand duke of Tuscany. For example. and was certainly being used as food by the early 17th century in Spain. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced. such as Florence. They also took it to the Philippines.

Christopher Columbus. Britain Tomatoes for sale in a UK supermarket Tomatoes were not grown in England until the 1590s. and Italian Pear. They were not adopted as a staple of the peasant population because they were not as filling as other fruits already available. published in 1597. the plant and raw fruit do have low levels of tomatine. he believed it was poisonous[4]:17 (in fact. and though by 1820 they were described as "to be seen in great abundance in all our vegetable markets" and to be "used by all our best cooks". see below). However. [6] Unique varieties were developed over the next several hundred years for uses such as dried tomatoes. Additionally. Borgo Cellano. and tomatoes for long term storage. but are not generally dangerous. Five different varieties have traditionally been used to make these "hanging" tomatoes. Pomodorino del Piennolo del Vesuvio is the "hanging tomato of Vesuvius". their proximity of growing to the ground suggested low status. pizza tomatoes. Patanara. They are Fiaschella. even in areas where the climate supported growing tomatoes. They were not part of the average man's diet. broths.[4]:17 Nonetheless. Principe Borghese. and Re Umberto. the Encyclopædia Britannica stated the tomato was "in daily use" in soups. These tomatoes are characterized by relatively intense flavor compared to varieties typically grown elsewhere. and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies.[4]:17By the mid-18th century. reference . both toxic and inedible varieties discouraged many people from attempting to consume or prepare them.to its success and spread throughout Italy. These varieties are usually known for their place of origin as much as by a variety name. Gerard knew the tomato was eaten in Spain and Italy. Other tomatoes that originated in Italy include San Marzano. tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain. and largely plagiarized from continental sources.[4]:17 is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. however. Gerard's views were influential. Lampadina.[4]:17Gerard's Herbal.[4]:17 One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard. and as a garnish. a barber-surgeon. sauce tomatoes. and before the end of that century. Costoluto Genovese. For example.

some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time. served fresh in salads (e. North America Handful of different tomatoes from Ho Farms in Kahuku. when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina.[7] Middle East and North Africa The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker. Hawaii.was made to their cultivation in gardens still "for the singularity of their appearance". they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. it was declared that "half of the major varieties were a result of the abilities of the Livingstons to evaluate and . developing different breeds and stabilizing the plants.[10] Today. Israeli salad. British consul in Aleppo circa 1799 to 1825. By the mid-18th century. grilled with kebabs and other dishes. and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. the tomato is a critical and ubiquitous part ofMiddle Eastern cuisine. made into sauces. Livingston was the first person who succeeded in upgrading the wild tomato. and Turkish salad).g.[8][9] Nineteenth century descriptions of its consumption are uniformly as an ingredient in a cooked dish. who ate tomatoes in Paris. The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710. it is described as only eaten in the region "within the last forty years". Arab salad.[4]:25 They may have been introduced from the Caribbean.[4]:28 Alexander W. while their use in cooking was associated with Italian or Jewish cuisine. Thomas Jefferson. In 1881. they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations. The early name used for tomato in Iran was Armani badenjan (Armenian eggplant). Currently. sent some seeds back to America. In the 1937 yearbook of the Federal Department of Agriculture. Possibly. and so on. the name used for tomato in Iran is gojeh farangi [French plum]. and in general.

[12] The Center is named for the late Dr. Livingston had begun his attempts to develop the tomato as a commercial crop. each plant bore perfect tomatoes like the parent vine.perpetuate superior material in the tomato". monogenic mutants and miscellaneous genetic stocks of tomato. Alexander introduced the Paragon and tomato culture soon became a great enterprise in the county. In 1870. In California. The University of California. Charles M. Prior to general introduction of this trait. To his happy surprise. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a gene bank of wild relatives. The following spring he set two rows across his family garden located just below the hill and milk house.[11] Because of the long growing season needed for this heat-loving crop.[13] Research on processing tomatoes is also conducted by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon. uniform in size and having better flavor.[14] In California. tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. He saved the seeds carefully. Today. This technique encourages the plant to send roots deep to find existing moisture in soil that retains moisture. especially with Early Girl tomatoes. Rick.[11] When Alexander W. the Paragon. he introduced the Acme. which was said to be involved in the parentage of most of the tomatoes introduced by him and his competitors for the next twenty-five years. most tomatoes produced more sugar during ripening. several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers. Davis(UC Davis) became a major center for research on the tomato. After five years. was introduced in 1870. California. his aim had been to grow tomatoes smooth in contour. such as clayey soil.M. The C. growers have used a method of cultivation called dry-farming. the crop is grown in every state in the Union. This change occurred after discovery of a variety in the mid 20th century that ripened uniformly. This was widely cross-bred to produce red fruit without the typical green ring around the stem on uncross-bred varieties. Modern commercial varieties The poor taste and lack of sugar in modern garden and commercial tomato varieties resulted from breeding tomatoes to ripen uniformly red. a pioneer in tomato genetics research. and were sweeter and more flavorful. He eventually developed over seventeen different varieties of the tomato plant.[15][16] Cultivation . he passed through his fields. Livingston's first breed of tomato. the fruit became fleshier and larger. picking out particular tomato plants having distinct characteristics and heavy foliage. One year. particularly Florida and California. In 1875. after many attempts.

about 5 mm in diameter. up to beefsteak tomatoes 10 cm (4 in) or more in diameter. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size. black. purple. green. Most cultivars produce red fruit.8 in) size as the wild tomato. and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. but a number of cultivars with yellow.4 in) diameter range. with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types.Tomato plants 7 days after planting 27 days after planting 52 day old plant. about the same 1–2 cm (0. first fruits The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 cm (2. Multicolored and . pink.0–2.4–0. orange. from tomberries. or white fruit are also available. through cherry tomatoes.

215 .950. Roma-type tomatoes are important cultivars in the Sacramento Valley. The definition of an heirloom tomato is vague.298 7 Italy 5. have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower.826.striped fruit can also be quite striking.824. accounted for about one quarter of the global output.S. the largest producer. but unlike commercial hybrids.070 4 Turkey 11.263 6 Iran 6.003.[17] Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and.572. the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2011.921 2 India 16.[17] About 150 million tons of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2009. production and 35% of world production. followed by United States and India. 7–9 cm (3–4 in) long and 4–5 cm (1. China.105. California accounts for 90% of U. all are self-pollinators that have bred true for 40 years or more.6–2. Tomatoes grown for canning and sauces are often elongated.0 in) diameter. and have a lower water content. plum or processing tomatoes.[19] Rank Country Production (MT) 1 China 48. For one variety. along with zucchini.[18] According to FAOSTAT.000 3 United States 12. Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds.433 5 Egypt 8.526. they are known as plum tomatoes.

416.000 Tomato seedlings growing indoors Green tomatoes nestled on the vine Within the EU. there are several areas that grow tomatoes with Protected Geographical Status. These include:  Pomodoro di Pachino (PGI).864.120 10 Uzbekistan 2. in Sicily .Rank Country Production (MT) 8 Brazil 4.652 9 Spain 3.585.

 "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce. in Mt Vesuvius area. Varieties For a more comprehensive list. There are around 7500 tomato varieties grown for various purposes. from Reichenau Island. they are often good choices for container growing. Determinate. since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful crops at the cost of disease resistance and productivity. Cherry tomatoes are small and round. but are smaller than plum tomatoes. There are also varieties high in beta carotenes and vitamin A. a variation on plum tomatoes. Their kidneybean shape. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue . Germany Pomodorino del Piennolo del Vesuvio (PDO).   Oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks. Grape tomatoes. in south Italy Tomaten von der Insel Reichenau (PGI). are smaller and oblong. which usually discourages fruit set. or home growers interested in canning.   Pomodoro S. and shorter shelf life makes commercial use impractical. see List of tomato cultivars. or paste tomatoes (including pear tomatoes). or bush. Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate.  Beefsteak tomatoes are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications. thinner skin. and used in salads. They are bigger than cherry tomatoes. a more recent introduction.[20] Hybrid plants remain common. types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height. and are based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste. and lack of mealiness. Heirloom tomatoes are becoming increasingly popular. used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time. are bred with a higher solids content for use in tomato sauce andpaste. Israeli scientists developed the world's first long shelf-life commercial tomato varieties. low acidity. and are shaped like large strawberries.  Campari tomatoes are also sweet and noted for their juiciness. Early tomatoes and cool-summer tomatoes bear fruit even where nights are cool. particularly among home gardeners and organic producers.    Pear tomatoes are pear-shaped. Marzano dell'Agro Sarnese-Nocerino (PDO). and are usually oblong. often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads. based mostly on shape and size. hollow tomatoes and tomatoes that keep for months in storage. Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories. since they tend to be heavier producers. and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes. Plum tomatoes.[17] In 1973.

white. yellow. ivory. suitability for mechanized picking and shipping. brown. but they can be bought as seed. Home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities. a feature that may have been common to virtually all preColumbian cultivars. Lucky Cross). including green. fuzzy skin on the fruit (Fuzzy Peach. nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries. but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing.producing until killed by frost. and purple. although manure and compost are also used. Red Boar). A fertilizer with an NPK ratio of 5-10-10 is often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer.  Cherry tomatoes  Cherry tomatoes – various colors upon ripening . etc. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced. pink. Burracker's Favorite. As an intermediate form. While virtually all commercial tomato varieties are red. some cultivars – especially heirlooms – produce fruit in other colors. Less common variations include fruit with stripes (Green Zebra). but produce a second crop after the initial crop. although some determinate heirlooms exist.[citation needed] Tomatoes grow well with seven hours of sunlight a day. multiple colors (Hillbilly. black. while commercial cultivars are bred for factors like consistent size and shape. there are plants sometimes known as vigorous determinate or semideterminate. There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars. disease and pest resistance. and ability to ripen after picking. these top off like determinates. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. Such fruits are not widely available in grocery stores. orange.

 Roma or Bangalore Tomatoes (Indian hybrid)  Various heirloom tomatocultivars  A variety of specific cultivars. and A – alternaria. which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters that refer to specific disease resistance. FF – fusarium wilt strain I and II. The most common letters are:V – verticillium wilt. Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease.Black Krim (lower left) andGreen Zebra (top left) Diseases and pests For a more comprehensive list. F – fusarium wilt strain I. includingBrandywine (biggest red). One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. N – nematodes. . see List of tomato diseases. Handling cigarettes and other tobacco products which are infected can result in transmission of the virus to tomato plants.[21] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions. T – tobacco mosaic virus. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants.

making it harder for pests to locate it. or to provide an . or are served by.Tomato fruitworm feeding on unripe tomato Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top. Systemin activates defensive mechanisms.tomato fruitworms. studies supporting this relationship having produced a popular book about companion planting. like alliums (onions. slugs. but similar proteins have been identified in other species since. Carrots Love Tomatoes. red spider mite. chives. tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms. but whose adult form drinks nectar from tiny-flowered plants like umbellifers. spearmint) are simply thought to mask the scent of the tomato plant. Several species of umbellifer are therefore often grown with tomato plants. garlic) and mints (basil. it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. and occasionally dill. In fact. the devastating tomato hornworm has a major predator in various parasitic wasps. These also attract predatory flies that attack various tomato pests. aphids. As the name implies.[25] On the other hand. a large variety of companion plants. whiteflies. ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. The hormone was first identified in tomatoes.[24] Additionally. borage is thought to actually repel the tomato hornworm moth. queen anne's lace. oregano. cabbage loopers. cutworms. flea beetles.[22] and Colorado potato beetles.[26] Other plants with strong scents. carried by the beet leafhopper. such as the production of protease inhibitors to slow the growth of insects. whose larvae devour the hornworm. including parsley. one of the most famous pairings is the tomato plant and carrots. Tomato plants produce the plant peptide hormone systemin after an insect attack. which interrupts the lifecycle. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs.[23] Companion plants See also: List of companion plants and List of beneficial weeds Tomatoes serve.

Tomato plants. associated with a young. Pollination Tomato flower in full bloom. possibly benefiting their companion. [27] These plants may also subtly impact the flavor of tomato fruit. protect asparagus from asparagus beetles. including mints.[28] Ground cover plants. . while asparagus plants (as well as marigolds[28]) contain a chemical that repels root nematodes known to attack tomato plants. tap-root plants like dandelions break up dense soil and bring nutrients from down below a tomato plant's reach. The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant. developing fruit. reducing the odds of the pests from attacking the correct plant. Finally. which come from very humid climates. because they contain solanum that kills this pest.alternative landing point. also stabilize moisture loss around tomato plants and other solaneae. on the other hand. and therefore may prevent moisture-related problems like blossom end rot.

[29] The trait of self-fertility became an advantage. and remain. In an outside setting. and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee. As a floral device to reduce selfing. it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments. entirely within the closed corolla. wind or animals provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. by culturedbumblebees. rather than on the surface. or the original wild halictid pollinator. . such as a bumblebee. as well as high-density plantings. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations. Smaller sized fruit (cherry and grape). the pistil of wild tomatoes extends farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. with the pollen produced within the structure. In more temperate climates. providing fruit during those times of the year when field-grown fruit is not readily available. tomatoes required cross-pollination. (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. and there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. or more often today. but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates.[30] Hydroponic tomatoes are also available.[29] This is not the same as self-pollination. where pollination must be aided by artificial wind.In the wild. Greenhouse tomato production in large-acreage commercial greenhouses and owner-operator stand-alone or multiple-bay greenhouses is on the increase. The stamens were. their traditional pollinators. As tomatoes were moved from their native areas. as in most species.[citation needed] The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube. they were much more self-incompatible than domestic cultivars. original state. or cluster tomatoes (fruit-on-the-vine) are the fruit of choice for the large commercial greenhouse operators while the beefsteak varieties are the choice of owner-operator growers. vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually). The pollen moves through pores in the anther.

At home. tomato sauce. tomatoes are often picked unripe (green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. and was sold only until 1997. and tomato paste. depending on variety.[35] Genetic modification Main article: Genetically modified tomato . [citation needed] They may be recognized by their color. in combination with the development of a suitable harvester. but have poorer flavor and a mealier.[33] Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary cultivars. starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant.[31] Unripe tomatoes are firm. Tomatoes stored cold remain edible. revolutionized the tomato-growing industry. which. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer.Picking and ripening A cluster of tomatoes To facilitate transportation and storage. but are best kept at room temperature. which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor.[citation needed] Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. the product was not commercially successful. fully ripe tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator.[34] Tomatoes stored stem down may also keep from rotting too quickly. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the FlavrSavr. Hanna. They are harvested when ripe and are flavorful when picked. Davis's Gordie C. but tend to lose their flavor permanently. They are harvested 24/7 during a season of 12 to 14 weeks and are immediately transported to packing plants which operate on the same basis.[citation needed] A machine-harvestable variety of tomato (the "square tomato") was developed in the 1950s by University of California. [32] In 1994. California is a center of this sort of commercial tomato production and produces about 1/3 of the processed tomatoes produced in the world. This type of tomato is grown commercially near processing plants which produce canned tomatoes. However.

. making them especially easy to preserve in home canning whole. It is used in diverse ways. often in the sun. The first commercially available genetically modified food was a variety of tomato named (the Flavr Savr). and although none are commercially available now. as tomato sauce or paste. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried. such as increased resistance to pests or environmental stresses. which was engineered to have a longer shelf life. Consumption Vegetarian stuffed tomatoes (stuffed with hard-boiled egg and Parmesan) Suquet de peix (Catalan cuisine) The tomato is now grown and eaten around the world. including raw in salads. The fruit is also preserved by drying. Tomato juice is sold as a drink. Other projects aim to enrich tomatoes with substances that may offer health benefits or provide better nutrition. or pickled. and is used in cocktails such as the Bloody Mary. they have been in the past. in pieces. used to make salsa.Tomatoes that have been modified using genetic engineering have been developed. and processed into ketchup ortomato soup. and sold either in bags or in jars with oil.[36] Scientists are continuing to develop tomatoes with new traits not found in natural crops. Tomatoes are acidic.

594 mg (4%) .Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean cuisine. They are a key ingredient in pizza. They are also used in gazpacho (Spanish cuisine) and pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine).2 g Fat 0.5 g Vitamin A equiv.Dietary fiber 1. B3) 0. B1) 0. and are commonly used in pasta sauces.beta-carotene 449 μg (4%) .5 oz) Energy 74 kJ (18 kcal) Carbohydrates 3. Nutrition Red tomatoes.9 g Water 94. the tomato is a vegetable for culinary purposes. a subset of fruit.9 g . because of its savory flavor (see below).6 g .2 g Protein 0.Sugars 2. 42 μg (5%) .037 mg (3%) Niacin (vit.lutein and zeaxanthin 123 μg Thiamine (vit. raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Though it is botanically a berry.

high levels of anthocyanin (resulting in blue tomatoes). 40 times normal vitamin A (97L97).[37] but other research contradicts this claim. In some studies.[38] Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV rays. lycopene.Vitamin B6 0.[40] Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic plethora of genes that produce lycopene. anthocyanin.08 mg (6%) Vitamin C 14 mg (17%) Vitamin E 0. Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich). carotene. Source: USDA Nutrient Database Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world. has been found to help prevent prostate cancer.114 mg (5%) Phosphorus 24 mg (3%) Potassium 237 mg (5%) Lycopene 2573 µg Link to USDA Database entry Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene). one of the most powerful natural antioxidants.54 mg (4%) Vitamin K 7. and other antioxidants.9 μg (8%) Magnesium 11 mg (3%) Manganese 0.[39] A study done by researchers at Manchester and Newcastle universities revealed that tomato can protect against sunburn and help keeping the skin looking youthful. They contain the carotene lycopene. . especially in cooked tomatoes.

Potential health benefits Lycopene has also been shown to protect against oxidative damage in many epidemiological and experimental studies. or chew plant material.[55] Salmonella . actual cases of poisoning resulting from excessive consumption of potatoes that have high concentration of solanine are rare.[52] Compared to potatoes the amount of solanine in green or ripe tomatoes is low.[53][54] Use of tomato leaves in tea (tisane) has been responsible for at least one death. even in the case of potatoes while solanine poisoning resulting from dosages several times normal human consumption has been demonstrated. The richest source of lycopene in the diet is tomato and tomato derived products. particularly as fried green tomatoes.[49] Tomatoes that are not yet ripe can be kept in a paper bag till ripening.[54] Tomato plants can be toxic to dogs if they eat large amounts of the fruit. Small amounts of tomato foliage are sometimes used for flavoring without ill effect.[47] Tomato consumption might be beneficial for reducing cardiovascular risk associated with type 2 diabetes.[50] Storing stem down can prolong shelf life. a toxic alkaloid found in potato leaves and other plants in the nightshade family. tomato sauces and puree are said to help lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH) and may have anticancer properties. however. and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant contain small amounts of the toxic alkaloid tomatine. In addition to its antioxidant activity. levels of tomatine in foliage and green fruit are generally too small to be dangerous unless large amounts are consumed.[42] head and neck cancers[43] and might be strongly protective against neurodegenerative diseases. [48] Storage Tomatoes keep best unwashed at room temperature and out of direct sunlight. stems.[52] They also containsolanine.[51] Safety Plant toxicity Leaves.[52][53] However.[41] Tomato consumption has been associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. It is not recommended to refrigerate as this can harm the flavor. and the green fruit is sometimes used for cooking. other metabolic effects of lycopene have also been demonstrated. for example.[44][45][46] Tomatoes. as greens.

A sign posted at a Havelock.[57] The 2008 United States salmonellosis outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States . North Carolina Burger King tells customers that no tomatoes are available due to thesalmonellosis outbreak. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced tomatoes might have been the source of asalmonellosis outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states. the U.[56] Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990.S. On 30 October 2006.

While more research is needed in this area. In a recent study. to see what effect lycopene restriction would have on bone health. their oftentimes-rich concentration of lycopene. They also argued for the importance of tomatoes and other lycopene-containing foods in the diet. Researchers have recently found an important connection between lycopene. this tetra-cis form of lycopene turned out to be more efficiently absorbed by the study participants. Tomatoes are widely known for their outstanding antioxidant content. its antioxidant properties. The study investigators concluded that removal of lycopene-containing foods (including tomatoes) from the diet was likely to put women at increased risk of osteoporosis. We don't always think about antioxidant protection as being important for bone health. and the lycopene in orange/tangerine tomatoes is mostly tetra-cis-lycopene. but it is. That's because the lycopene in deep red tomatoes is mostly translycopene. including. and bone health. of course. A small preliminary study on healthy men and women has shown that the lycopene from orange. At the end of 4 weeks.and tangerine-colored tomatoes may actually be better absorbed than the lycopene from red tomatoes. and tomato lycopene (and other tomato antioxidants) may have a special role to play in this area. women in the study started to show increased signs of oxidative stress in their bones and unwanted changes in their bone tissue.What's New and Beneficial About Tomatoes   Did you know that tomatoes do not have to be a deep red color to be an outstanding source of lycopene? Lycopene is a carotenoid pigment that has long been associated with the deep red color of many tomatoes. we're encouraged to find that tomatoes may not have to be deep red in order for us to get great lycopene-related benefits. . A study was designed in which tomato and other dietary sources of lycopene were removed from the diets of postmenopausal women for a period of 4 weeks.

One of these phytonutrients is a glycoside called esculeoside A. But a recent study has shown that we may also want to include antioxidant capacity as a factor when we are choosing among tomato varieties. Fantastic. In addition. LDL cholesterol. and First Lady. or First Lady tomato.) But only recently are researchers beginning to identify some of the more unusual phytonutrients in tomatoes that help provide us with these heart-protective benefits. Fantastic. Jet Star. and we're definitely not ready to recommend these four varieties at the exclusion of all others. and while the differences were not huge. and triglycerides. tomatoes and green beans came out best in their anti-aggregation properties. and yet another is a fatty-acid type molecule . It's only one study. We usually choose our favorite varieties by some combination of flavor. While all tomatoes showed good antioxidant capacity. Jet Star. But these findings are fascinating to us. Intake of tomatoes has long been linked to heart health. you would probably be well-served to place it in your shopping cart. texture. Surprisingly. another is flavonoid called chalconaringenin. (In a recent South American study of 26 vegetables. tomato extracts have been shown to help prevent unwanted clumping together (aggregation) of platelet cells in the blood a factor that is especially important in lowering risk of heart problems like atherosclerosis. the following four varieties of tomatoes turned out to have a higher average antioxidant capacity regardless of whether they were grown conventionally or organically: New Girl. Also. of course. and they suggest that specific types of nutrient benefits may be provided by specific varieties of tomatoes. if you're seeking good antioxidant protection and you're in the grocery standing in front of a New Girl. researchers who compared conventionally grown versus organically grown tomatoes found that growing method (conventional versus organic) made less of an overall difference than variety of tomato.  There are literally hundreds of different tomato varieties. and appearance. Fresh tomatoes and tomato extracts have been shown to help lower total cholesterol.

7% potassium12. As our knowledge of unique tomato phytonutrients expands.1% molybdenum12% . Nutrients in Tomatoes 1.1% vitamin A29. we are likely to learn more about the unique role played by tomatoes in support of heart health.00 cup raw (180. Tomatoes are also likely to rise further and further toward the top of the list as heart healthy foods.called 9-oxo-octadecadienoic acid.9% vitamin K17.00 grams) Nutrient%Daily Value vitamin C38.

6% vitamin B67% folate6.manganese10.5% vitamin B35.3% magnesium4.5% fiber8.6% .9% vitamin E4.8% vitamin B14.7% copper5.

3% protein3. They are sweet and juicy and healthy.1% choline2.7% Calories (32)1% Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).” . the “Love Apple” is a popular vegetable with high anti-oxidant.phosphorus4. Tomatoes are very versatile as they can be eaten as a salad.1% tryptophan3.8% iron2. in a sandwich or as gravy for vegetables – not to forget “the all important sauce.

that it is impossible to believe Health that till the 1800‟s they were considered toxic.Eating tomatoes is great because this fruit /vegetable (whatever you may call it) has plenty of health benefits. Benefits Tomato contains amazing amounts of lycopene which is said to have anti oxidant properties. . This benefit may be related to the antioxidant properties of lycopene. Studies have shown that tomato can reduce prostate cancer especially in synergy with broccoli. found that when tomatoes are cooked with olive oil the body‟s absorption of carotenoid phytochemicals including lycopene can increase. low calorie and play such an important role in American diet today. but other potential mechanisms and other beneficial tomato-based components instead of or combined with lycopene cannot be excluded‟. A study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute suggested that „the intake of tomatoes and tomato products is associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer. Another study published in the Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Tomatoes are non starchy.

Tomatoes are a rich source of potassium. A person who drinks 8 ounces of low sodium tomato juice a day. a cup of tomato juice has 534mg of potassium and half a cup of tomato sauce has 454mg of potassium. Physiologically. - Tomatoes work against impotency and help increase the sperm count. John Cook Bennett of the Institute of Aberdeen found that the yellow gel surrounding tomato seeds could prevent clotting so as to prevent strokes and heart disease. potassium plays an important role in transmission of nerve signals. muscle weakness. Nutrients like Niacin and folate reduce heart problems to a great Other health benefits include extent. . The Vitamin A especially wards off macular degeneration and improves eyesight. fluid balance in the body and many other important chemical reactions. Dr. weight They are good for improving skin porosity and are widely used in the manufacture of skin care and beauty products. They have anti oxidant properties as they are high sources of vitamin C and vitamin A. can prevent inflammatory High in diseases fiber they like are osteoporosis freely used by and Alzheimer‟s. and even bloating and intestinal disorders. Potassium is used to treat high blood pressure. Tomatoes are powerful blood purifiers and clear up urinary tract infections. chronic fatigue syndrome. insulin resistance. watchers.

Lycopene intolerance can cause bloating of the stomach.org) Canned. cost effective and widely available fruit /vegetable. The nutritional benefits are many so there is no reason to avoid this simple. In some individuals eating tomatoes in salads can lead to itching. The tomatoes are picked at peak ripeness. Those diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome will need to go slow on consuming tomatoes. For some. "Processed Tomatoes" are minimally processed. their body cannot absorb and digest them.The Down Side Some people may be allergic to tomatoes. eating tomatoes in any form can result in heart burn and reflux. they will not be harmful in anyway. hives and breathing problems. then cooked and canned or . pain and diarrhea. Eaten in moderation. it would be wise to eat tomatoes in moderation as the high oxalate and calcium bind together and kidney stones are a result. Tomatoes: One of the World's Healthiest Foods (adapted from whfoods. bottled tomatoes and tomato products are available year round. When a person has a history of kidney stones.

The antioxidant function of lycopene-its ability to help protect cells and other structures in the body from oxygen damage-has been linked in human research to the protection of DNA (our genetic material) inside of white blood cells. Health Benefits Antioxidant Benefits of Lycopene In the area of food and phytonutrient research. whose effects have only been studied in animals. they don't have the dessert quality sweetness of other fruits. sweetness. that confers it with so much health value. This chart graphically details the %DV that a serving of tomatoes provides for each of the nutrients of which it is a good. The variety of tomato used in tomato products is a Roma tomato. Although tomatoes are fruits in a botanical sense. olive oil or nuts. about five times as much per weight as a tomato. but breast. endometrial. and pancreatic cancers. recent research discussed below in the section "Protection Due to Synergy of Tomato's Nutrients. rich. (This is because carotenoids are fat-soluble.bottled. very good. can be found under the Food Rating System Chart. All the while.) When Betty Ishida and Mary Chapman at the USDA Agricultural Research Service in Albany. Not Just Lycopene" describes how scientists are finding out that it is the array of nutrients included in tomatoes. Prevention of heart disease has been shown to be another antioxidant role played by lycopene. Instead. but not limited to lycopene. 3 organic and 2 store brands from fast-food chains. One organic brand delivered 183 micrograms of lycopene per gram of ketchup. it seems that it is not the only nutritional star integral for giving this food a red-hot reputation for health promotion. Like other varieties. Additional information about the amount of these nutrients provided by Tomatoes can be found in the Food Rating System Chart. lycopene from tomatoes has been repeatedly studied in humans and found to be protective against a growing list of cancers. In contrast to many other food phytonutrients. they tested lycopene levels and antioxidant activity in 13 ketchup brands: 6 popular ones. decided to investigate whether the lycopene content of purple and green varieties of ketchup was comparable to that of the traditional red. they have a subtle sweetness that is complemented by a slightly bitter and acidic taste. lung. featuring information over 80 nutrients. Roma tomatoes have fleshy internal segments filled with slippery seeds surrounded by a watery matrix. much like our grandmothers used to do. breast. . it's still important to understand the many benefits that lycopene provides. including. prostate. nothing has been hotter in the last several years than studies on the lycopene in tomatoes. While lycopene may play an important role in tomatoes' health benefits. Cooking tempers the acid and bitter qualities in tomatoes and brings out their warm. Lycopene has been shown to help protect not only against prostate. This carotenoid found in tomatoes (and everything made from them) has been extensively studied for its antioxidant and cancer-preventing properties. CA. pancreatic and intestinal cancers. such as avocado. These cancers now include colorectal. or excellent source according to our Food Rating System. especially when consumed with fat-rich foods. meaning they are absorbed into the body along with fats. A link that takes you to the In-Depth Nutritional Profile for Tomatoes.

of the Robert H. Dr. although according to researchers. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center at Northwestern University in Chicago. juice and other tomato products. while only 62% of the animals fed whole tomato powder had died. laboratory animals fed a lycopene-rich diet and treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (a carcinogen) and testosterone to induce prostate cancer had a similar risk of death from prostate cancer as rats fed a control diet. A 14-month study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute underscores the importance of a healthy whole foods diet rich in tomatoes in the prevention of prostate cancer. Colon Health A study published in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that in patients with colorectal adenomas. but the increase in risk was quite substantial: low levels of lycopene increased risk by 230% and smoking by 302%. with one fast-food sample providing just 60 micrograms per gram. Researchers concluded this was due to the fact that tomatoes contain not merely lycopene. and that this complexity limits the usefulness of reductionist approaches that seek to identify single protective compounds. 80% of the control group and 72% of the animals fed lycopene had succumbed to prostate cancer. commented. Gann. They point out that carotenoids and other phytonutrients evolved as sets of interacting compounds. In addition to the controls and those animals receiving lycopene or tomato powder. More Studies Show Tomatoes Promote Prostate Health . animals fed whole tomato powder were 26% less likely to die of prostate cancer. Prostate Health Tomatoes have been shown to be helpful in reducing the risk of prostate cancer." In an accompanying editorial. but a variety of protective phytonutrients and suggest that the lycopene found in human prostate tissue and the blood of animals and humans who remain free of prostate cancer may indicate exposure to higher amounts of not just lycopene but other compounds working in synergy with it. showing a 32% drop in their risk of dying from prostate cancer. Blood levels of betacarotene also tended to be 25. we should eat tomatoes or tomato products and not rely on lycopene supplements alone. In their final (multiple logistic regression) analysis. blood levels of lycopene were 35% lower compared to study subjects with no polyps. for the most lycopene. By the end of the study. a type of polyp that is the precursor for most colorectal cancers. Steven Clinton. Bottomline: It seems highly likely the same rationale will apply to all tomato products. this difference was not significant. only low levels of plasma lycopene (less than 70 microgram per liter) and smoking increased the likelihood of colorectal adenomas. Peter H. so. one of which was given 20% less food than the other subgroup. College Park. choose the deepest red organic ketchup.Non-organic brands averaged 100 micrograms per gram. each group was also divided into two sub-groups. of the University of Maryland. and Frederick Khachik. In contrast. "Our findings strongly suggest that risks of poor dietary habits cannot be reversed simply by taking a pill…if we want the health benefits of tomatoes. tomato sauce. Study leader. Ohio State University.5% lower. Animals on the energy-restricted. remarked that this study supports those who advocate whole foods in the debate about whether cancer prevention is best achieved with whole foods or concentrated single compounds. tomato-based diet fared best of all. In this study.

when the rats' were sacrificed and their prostate tumors weighed. "As nutritionists. and tomato alone by 34%. Tomatoes and Broccoli Team Up to Fight Prostate Cancer Tomatoes and broccoli-two vegetables separately recognized for their cancer-fighting capabilitiesare even more successful against prostate cancer when working as a team in the daily diet. by combining the results of numerous studies. shows a study published in Cancer Research. we see an additive effect. 5% tomato plus 5% broccoli. We think it's because different bioactive compounds in each food work on different anti-cancer pathways. 10% tomato plus 10% broccoli. lycopene. reducing tumor weight by 7% and 18% respectively. provides protection against prostate cancer. so they are thought to provide a more accurate assessment. Said Erdman. After 22 weeks. a carotenoid found in tomatoes. or lycopene (23 or 224 nmol/g diet).) When the data from all 21 studies was combined.in this case. especially cooked tomatoes. Lycopene alone (23 or 224 nmol/g diet) came in last. it was very exciting to compare this drastic surgery to diet and see that tumor reduction was similar. shrinking prostate tumors by 52%. Broccoli alone decreased tumor weight by 42%. The tomato and broccoli given as powders made from the whole vegetable to compare the effects of eating the whole food to simply consuming one active compound as a nutritional supplement. . although it resulted in a 62% reduction in prostate tumor weight-approached the level of protection delivered by the tomato/broccoli diet. "When tomatoes and broccoli are eaten together. they integrate the results that occurred in different settings and include a much larger group of people. Starting one month before male rats were implanted with prostate tumors. Then they compared the cancer-preventive effects of the diets to treatment with finasteride. or surgical castration.A meta-analysis of 21 studies published in Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention confirms that eating tomatoes. men who ate the highest amounts of raw tomatoes were found to have an 11% reduction in risk for prostate cancer." said John Erdman. (Meta-analyses are considered the gold standard in medical research since." said Canene-Adams. Even eating just one 6-ounce serving a day of raw tomato provided some benefit-a reduction in prostate cancer risk of 3%." "Older men with slow-growing prostate cancer who have chosen watchful waiting over chemotherapy and radiation should seriously consider altering their diets to include more tomatoes and broccoli. Professor of Food Science and Human Nutrition at the University of Illinois. Only castration-a last resort option for most men. Those eating the most cooked tomato products fared even better with a 19% reduction in prostate cancer risk. 10% broccoli. a drug commonly prescribed for men with enlarged prostates. The diets contained one of the following: 10% tomato. the 10% tomato/broccoli combination was shown to greatly outperform all other diets. Erdman and doctoral candidate Kirstie Canene-Adams fed the animals one of 5 different diets.

depending on their initial size. said Canene-Adams. suggests research published the Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Jian L.5 cups of fresh tomato. watermelon. those in broccoli will be greatly reduced if this vegetable is overcooked. Men who most frequently enjoyed these foods were 82% less likely to have prostate cancer compared to those consuming the least lycopene-rich foods. broccoli's cancer-preventive compounds form after it has been cut. a 55-year-old man would need to consume 1. but heat denatures the enzyme necessary for this process. and toast your prostate's health with a glass of tomato juice. stronger than the protection afforded by either.To get the prostate health benefits seen in this study. such as onions and mushrooms.4 cups of raw broccoli and 2. For a quick snack. Enjoy a bowl of tomato soup along with a salad including broccoli florets for lunch. pink grapefruit. Add lightly steamed broccoli florets to the tomato-paste toppings on your favorite pizza. apricots. and more bioavailable when eaten with a little oil.) In this case-control study involving 130 prostate cancer patients and 274 hospital controls. et al. "It's better to eat tomatoes than to take a lycopene supplement-and cooked tomatoes may be better than raw tomatoes. Also. Regular consumption of both green tea and foods rich in lycopene resulted in a synergistic protective effect. . dip and crackers. Healthy sauté broccoli florets along with other favorite vegetables. and guava. papaya. Tomatoes and Green Tea Team Up to Prevent Prostate Cancer Choosing to eat lycopene-rich tomatoes and regularly drink green tea may greatly reduce a man's risk of developing prostate cancer. cut broccoli florets in half or into quarters. Broccoli and tomatoes can make a delicious team at virtually any meal or snack:      Healthy sauté broccoli and onion. then add to your favorite breakfast omelet and serve with grilled tomatoes. men drinking the most green tea were found to have an 86% reduced risk of prostate cancer compared. Steam or healthy sauté broccoli no more than 5 minutes. Practical Tips: While the phytonutrients in tomatoes become more concentrated when they are cooked into a sauce or paste. and let sit for 5 minutes before cooking. add to pasta sauce and use to top whole wheat pasta or brown rice. Chopping and heating make the cancer-fighting constituents of tomatoes and broccoli more bioavailable." he said. Erdman noted that this study shows eating whole foods is better than taking isolated nutrients. For optimal nutrient formation. to those drinking the least. the researchers also noted. Lee AH. A similar inverse association was found between the men's consumption of lycopene-rich fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes. 1 cup of tomato sauce or ½ cup of tomato paste daily. serve raw broccoli florets along with the carrot and celery sticks.

tomatoes are an excellent source of vitamin C and vitamin A. Since much epidemiological evidence indicates that lycopene acts synergistically with other phytonutrients to give tomatoes their protective effects. those whose diets were richest in beta carotene or total carotenoids reduced their risk of pancreatic cancer by 43% and 42%. may have identified the unique mechanism through which lycopene protects against cancer: activating cancer-preventive phase II enzymes. respectively. Joseph Levy and colleagues from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. pine nuts. How Tomatoes Promote Optimal Health Research by Dr. individuals with pancreatic cancer were age and gender matched with individuals free of the disease. For example.     Take a quart of iced green tea to work and sip throughout the day or take it to the gym to provide prostate protection while replenishing fluids after your workout.Practical Tips: Get in the habit of drinking green tea and eating lycopene-rich foods. tomatoes are packed with traditional nutrients that have been shown in many studies to be helpful for all of the above conditions. lycopene. Begin lunch or dinner with some spicy tomato juice on the rocks with a twist of lime. a little grated cheese. and phytoene. the data showed men consuming the most lycopene had a 31% reduction in their risk of pancreatic cancer. and reheat until the cheese melts. Start your breakfast with a half grapefruit or a glass of papaya or guava juice. Israel. and recent studies have shown that eating tomato products prevents cancer more effectively than taking lycopene alone. Significant Anti-Oxidant Protection In addition to their center-stage phytonutrient. After adjustment for age. educational attainment. These antioxidants travel through the body neutralizing dangerous free radicals that could otherwise damage cells and cell membranes. the carotenoid triggered the production and activity of certain phase II detoxification enzymes that other carotenoids. smoking. When the researchers incubated breast and liver cancer cells with lycopene. feta cheese and a rich tomato sauce for lunch or dinner. then top with tomato sauce. In this 3-year Canadian study. toast whole wheat bread till crusty. the latter notably through its concentration of carotenoids including beta-carotene. published in the Journal of Nutrition. body mass index. the researchers concluded that other carotenoids stimulate phase II enzymes via different pathways from that used by lycopene. did not. Beer-Sheva. astaxanthin. Among persons who had never smoked. including beta-carotene.  Pancreatic Health One of the deadliest cancers. dietary folate and total caloric intake. pancreatic cancer progresses so rapidly that individuals with the disease who are participating in studies often die before their interviews can be completed-so the benefits noted in the following study of a diet rich in tomatoes and tomato-based products are especially significant. province. Pack a ziploc bag of apricots and almonds in your briefcase or gym bag for a handy snack. Snack on tomato crostini: in the oven. Top whole wheat pasta with olive oil. . herbs.

3% of the daily value for vitamin C. The researchers tracked close to 40. tomatoes are a very good source of fiber. also suggests that enjoying tomatoes raw or in the form of tomato sauce or paste several times each week is a delicious way to protect your cardiovascular system. particularly tomato sauce and pizza. In a cup of tomato. this one conducted in Europe. Women who ate more than 2 servings each week of oil-based tomato products. Diets rich in potassium have been shown to lower high blood pressure and reduce the risk of heart disease.9% of the DV for fiber. During more than 7 years of follow-up. and folate.8% of the DV for folate. plus 22.4% of the DV for vitamin A. This study. Study subjects were divided into four groups in order of increasing blood levels of lycopene. high intakes of these antioxidants have been shown to help reduce the risk or severity of all of these illnesses. which has been shown to lower high cholesterol levels. a high dietary consumption of lycopene may play a role in cardiovascular disease prevention.8 year study. In fact. their risk for cardiovascular disease dropped. The lycopene in tomatoes may also provide cardiovascular benefits. In addition. and 7. A 34% reduction in cardiovascular disease risk was seen in women in the top two groups. High levels of homocysteine. reported that when a group of 12 healthy women ate enough tomato products to provide them with 8 mg of lycopene daily for a period of three weeks. and help prevent colon cancer. benign molecules. 5. keep blood sugar levels from getting too high. are associated with an increased risk of heart attack and stroke. This 4. or just trying to avoid it. All of these nutrients work together to make tomatoes a truly heart-healthy food.6% of the DV for niacin. A cup of fresh tomato will provide you with 57. Research showing tomatoes' cardiovascular benefits continues to accumulate. tomato sauce and pizza) were found to have a 29% lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared to women eating less than 1.0% of the DV for B6. you'll get 11. 7. diabetic complications. tomato juice. Reduction in Heart Disease Risk More good news for those at risk of atherosclerosis.5 servings of tomato products weekly. A study led by Dr. found that as the women's blood levels of lycopene went up. reported in the Journal of Nutrition. had an even better result-a 34% lower risk of CVD. asthma.000 middle-aged and elderly women in the Women's Health Study. vitamin B6. a prospective case-control trial involving almost 40. but even women in the second highest group were still 22% less likely to develop cardiovascular disease compared to women in the . and colon cancer. MA. is that tomatoes are a very good source of potassium and a good source of niacin.4% of the daily value for potassium. including tomatoes. Vitamin B6 and folate are both needed by the body to convert a potentially dangerous chemical called homocysteine into other.escalating inflammation and the progression or severity of atherosclerosis. published in the European Journal of Nutrition. and 6. suggests that in addition to its inverse association with various cancers. Boston. Howard Sesso and published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition further supports Dr. Sesso's earlier studies. Research conducted at Brigham and Women's Hospital. which found that women with the highest intake of lycopene-rich tomato-based foods had a significantly reduced risk of heart disease. Niacin has been used for years as a safe way to lower high cholesterol levels. those who consumed 7 to 10 servings each week of lycopene-rich foods (tomato-based products.000 middle-aged and older women who were free of both cardiovascular disease and cancer when the study began. their LDL cholesterol was much less susceptible to free radical oxidation-the first step in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque formation and a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Another study. which can directly damage blood vessel walls.

In an interview. Protection Due to Synergy of Tomato's Nutrients. those whose plasma lycopene levels were in the three highest groups were found to have a 50% reduced risk of cardiovascular disease compared to those with the lowest blood levels of lycopene. In this study. For persons with type 2 diabetes. . can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease. After just 3 weeks. platelets stick to the lining of the vessel wall. but result from the synergy of lycopene with other phytonutrients naturally present in whole tomatoes. After excluding women with angina. over time. many "regular" tomato juice products are loaded with artery-unfriendly sodium. 20 people with type 2 diabetes were given 250 ml (about 8 ounces) of tomato juice or a tomato-flavored placebo daily. while no such effect was noted in those receiving placebo. who have recently undergone a surgical procedure or who smoke would benefit. which. Platelets are the parts of blood responsible for the preservation of healthy blood vessels. Subjects had no history of clotting problems and were taking no medications that would affect blood clotting ability. and the less talked about hyperactive platelets. Aggregation is the clumping together and clotting of platelets. In addition to an animal study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute that found whole tomato powder was significantly more effective than lycopene alone in preventing the onset of prostate cancer (summarized under prostate cancer) other research is now demonstrating that lycopene may play only a minor role in tomatoes' heart health benefits. tomato juice may be just what the doctor should order. When the health of blood vessels is impaired. currently there is no dietary strategy aimed at reducing high platelet activity. While of special benefit for those with type 2 diabetes who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease." Although dietary strategies have been developed to address other known cardiovascular risk factors. lead researcher Sherri Lazarus explained. those whose work involves traveling long distances.lowest group. high cholesterol and high triglycerides. high blood pressure. the blood thinning effects of tomato juice are noteworthy for anyone at higher risk of blood clot formation. Tomato Juices May Reduce Blood-Clotting Tendencies Tomato juice can reduce the tendency toward blood clotting. as in the case of diabetes. suggests Australian research published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Persons with high cholesterol. Not Just Lycopene Recent research clearly shows that tomatoes' protective effects against prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease are due not simply to their lycopene content. "Diabetes is a multi-faceted disease with problems such as glucose intolerance. platelet aggregation (the clumping together of blood cells) was significantly reduced among those drinking real tomato juice. But be sure to choose a low-sodium tomato juice. We looked at how susceptible the platelets were to clotting before and after the people with type 2 diabetes had taken tomato juice.

cardiovascular disease. Therefore. double-blind crossover trial divided 26 young healthy volunteers into two groups. 2. the data revealed that women who consumed seven to ten servings of tomato-based foods each week (tomato juice.8 mg of the alpha-tocopherol fraction of vitamin E. After Sesso et al. The 17. a carotenoid abundant in tomatoes that other research has linked to a reduced risk of prostate cancer. have a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. was also associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease risk. In three 26-day segments.Animal research from Japan. all participants were free of cardiovascular disease. Research conducted by Howard Sesso and colleagues from the Harvard School of Public Health shows that women who consume the most tomato-containing products. Oxidative stress (the production of excessive amounts of free radicals within cells) and the resulting recruitment of inflammatory compounds such as TNF-alpha have been linked to virtually all chronic degenerative diseases. suggests that a tomatorich diet-which they call an anti-thrombotic diet-is a convenient and effective way to prevent thrombotic diseases such as heart attack and stroke. without enough vitamin K1. however. Tomato Juice-a Natural Anti-Inflammatory Italian researchers. In this study. . osteocalcin levels are inadequate. particularly concentrated foods such as tomato sauce and pizza. Group 2 got Lyco-Mato first. had decided to do this study to see if lycopene.8% of the daily value for vitamin K that is found in one cup of raw tomato is important for maintaining bone health.5 servings of these tomato products each week. Lyc-o-Mato tomato juice contains a mix of potent antioxidants including 5. then nothing. Helping You Bone Up Tomatoes are a very good source of vitamin K. The placebo-controlled. 3. Study subjects continued to eat their normal. and bone mineralization is impaired. cancer. osteoporosis and Alzheimer's disease.2 year period. Sesso et al. Sesso and his team analyzed the results of a prospective cohort study of almost 40. tomato sauce. pizza) had a 32% lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease than women who ate less than 1. smoking.7 mg of lycopene. while consumption of tomato products. The researchers theorize that other phytonutrients found in oil-based tomato products in addition to lycopene are responsible for the cardiovascular benefits seen. publishing in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry have reported that a daily glass of tomato juice (Lyc-o-Mato) can lower one of the primary markers of inflammation-TNF-alpha-by almost 35% in less than one month. including atherosclerosis (hardening of the walls of the arteries). Group One first was given a placebo juice (same taste and flavor but no active compounds). then a daily glass of Lyc-o-Mato. provided cardiovascular protection. and 1. At the beginning of the study.000 middleaged and older women who completed food frequency questionnaires over a 7. the major non-collagen protein in bone. During the study.7 mg of phytoene. then nothing. 1 mg beta-carotene. Osteocalcin anchors calcium molecules inside of the bone. TNF-alpha levels decreased by 34% after 26 days' consumption of the tomato drink while no changes in TNF-alpha levels were seen after placebo. controlled for factors such as age. particularly tomato sauce and pizza. Vitamin K1 activates osteocalcin. then placebo. unrestricted diet. published in the British Journal of Nutrition. 719 of the women developed cardiovascular disease. family history and other health indicators. dietary lycopene intake alone was not strongly associated with a reduction heart disease risk.7 mg of phytofluene.

The name that this fruit was given in various languages reflects some of the history and mystery surrounding it.3% of the DV for riboflavin. but a variety of other nutrients associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease.Feeling Stressed? How about a Nice Cup of Gazpacho? A Tufts University study published in the Journal of Nutrition shows that daily consumption of gazpacho (two bowls of 250 mL/day. while the Italians call it pomodoro or "golden apple. folic acid. . cucumber. tomatoes are a good source of riboflavin. In addition. like a wolf. a number of markers of oxidative stress and inflammation had decreased: F2-isoprostanes." owing to the fact that the first known species with which they were familiar may have been yellow in color.5% of the DV for chromium. The French call it pomme d'amour. This study focused on gazpacho's effect on vitamin C levels and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in 12 healthy subjects (both men and women). and 7. famous for its fried preparation in Southern American cuisine. tomato chunks in salad or tomato slices on a sandwich. onion. In addition to the 6. wine vinegar and sea salt. a mineral of which tomatoes are a good source. has been shown to help diabetic patients keep their blood sugar levels under control. a Mediterranean vegetable soup that typically combines tomato. which has been shown to be helpful for reducing the frequency of migraine attacks in those who suffer from them. and the green tomato. While the focus of this study was gazpacho's vitamin C. They also make a wonderful addition to a heart-healthy and cancer-preventing diet." since they believed it to have aphrodisiacal qualities. for two weeks) significantly increased blood levels of vitamin C and decreased biomarkers of oxidative (free radical) stress and inflammation. tomato sauce. For example. garlic. Also. size and color. and sweet pepper along with olive oil. bright yellow tomatoes. The researchers' final conclusion: increasing vegetable consumption could improve human health. Tomatoes are a great vegetable loaded with a variety of vital nutrients. Gazpacho. and MCP-1 dropped in men and women. and Migraines So how else can tomatoes help? The folate in tomatoes can also help to reduce the risk of colon cancer. researchers noted that other nutrients present in the soup may have synergistically contributed to its positive effects. Within just 7 days. and uric acid decreased significantly in men and slightly in women. A good intake of chromium. this fruit was dangerous. corresponding to 72 mg of vitamin C. including other antioxidants. PGE2. blood levels of vitamin C had increased 26% in the men and 25% in the women and remained elevated throughout the study. not only with vitamin C. or Nightshade family. Lycopersicon means "wolf peach" in Latin and refers to the former belief that. Diabetes.8% of the daily value for folate already mentioned above in relation to its protective actions against cardiovascular disease. when they were measured on day 14. and fiber. is replete. There are small cherry tomatoes. More Help against Colon Cancer. Italian pear-shaped tomatoes. meaning "love apple. the plasma concentration of carotenoids also increased. Description The tomato is the fruit of the plant Lycopersicon lycopersicum and is a member of the Solanaceae. So whether it is by tomato soup. Regardless of its name. a cup of tomatoes contains 5. increasing your intake of tomatoes is an excellent step towards excellent health. the tomato is a wonderfully popular and versatile food that comes in over a thousand different varieties that vary in shape.

natural foods-in this case. but not its fruits. due to this belief. they are actually originally native to the western side of South America. They are prepared and served like other vegetables. which is why they are often categorized as such. a beneficial effect thought to be due to tomatoes' high content of the carotenoids. sweetness. do contain toxic alkaloids. Since new varieties have been developed and more efficient means of transportation established. China and Turkey are among the top selling commercial producers of tomatoes. Although the use of tomatoes spread throughout Europe and made its way to Italy by the 16th century. lycopene and beta-carotene. such as tomato paste. once again confirms that Mother Nature knows best: consuming whole. History Although tomatoes are closely associated with Italian cuisine. beginning the introduction of the tomato into Europe. Italy. orange. Tomatoes have fleshy internal segments filled with slippery seeds surrounded by a watery matrix. Although tomatoes are fruits in a botanical sense. supposedly because the Mexican Indians were intrigued by this fruit since it resembled the tomatillo which was a staple in their cuisine. as the leaves of the tomato plant. despite the fact that tomato peels are usually eliminated during processing. Cooking tempers the acid and bitter qualities in tomatoes and brings out their warm. or brown in color. green. the whole tomato-is best. but rather in Mexico. Spain. tomatoes have become one of the top selling vegetables in this country. When tomato paste that included tomato peels was compared to classically made (without peels) tomato paste. Yet. Russia. The Spanish conquistadors who came to Mexico shortly after Columbus's discovery of the New World "discovered" tomatoes and brought the seeds back to Spain. For the Most Lycopene. however. They can be red. including the Galapagos Islands. The tomato was not cultivated in South America. The first type of tomato grown is thought to have more resembled the smaller-sized cherry tomato than the larger varieties. yellow. Tomatoes made their way to North America with the colonists who first settled in Virginia. Use the Whole Tomato It's well known that a high intake of tomato products is associated with lowered risk of colon and prostate cancers. tomatoes were more often grown as an ornamental garden plant than as a food for many more centuries in several European countries. it was originally not a very popular food since many people held the belief that it was poisonous since it was a member of the deadly Nightshade family. carotenoids were significantly better absorbed in the whole tomato paste. rich. They were wise but not fully accurate. yet did not readily gain popularity until the late 19th century.Only the fruits of this plant are eaten since the leaves contain toxic alkaloids (see Safety section below). have been recommended over whole fresh tomatoes because they concentrate tomatoes and thus deliver more of their protective carotenoids. Study . Today. Tomato products. the United States. purple. A study published in the Journal of Nutrition. they don't have the dessert quality sweetness of other fruits. Instead they have a subtle sweetness that is complemented by a slightly bitter and acidic taste.

In-Depth Nutritional Profile In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart. peanuts. then add 8-10 chopped whole tomatoes. For example. and any other herbs you enjoy. pantothenic acid. For a fancier version. research studies on food allergy consistently report more problems with some foods than with others. and vitamin B1. an in-depth nutritional profile for Tomatoes is also available. soy. spinach. vitamin A. depression. manganese. eggs. tomatoes and mozzarella cheese drizzled with olive oil. hives. vitamin E and protein. yogurt made from cow's milk is also a common allergenic food. potassium. gazpacho. and vitamin K. itchy eyes. chromium. vitamin B2. corn and beef. wheezing. a teaspoon of dried or several teaspoons of fresh chopped oregano. The take home message: look for products that contain whole tomatoes. headache. wheat. runny nose. shrimp. iron. copper. including . strawberries. folate. hyperactivity and insomnia. isolated form in order to trigger an adverse reaction. magnesium. Other foods commonly associated with allergic reactions include: cow's milk. and chili peppers for an easy to make salsa dip. skin rash. chicken. Some of the most common symptoms for food allergies include eczema. phosphorous. dietary fiber. basil. Ice cream made from cow's milk would be an equally good example. Enjoy a classic Italian salad – sliced onions. tomatoes are a good source of vitamin B6. and add sea salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste. gastrointestinal disturbances. A Few Quick Serving Ideas To make your own tomato paste. tomatoes. sauté chopped olives and/or mushrooms along with the garlic and onions. These foods do not need to be eaten in their pure. and simmer for 30-45 minutes. including their peels. It turns out that tomatoes are one of the foods most commonly associated with allergic reactions. Individuals who suspect food allergy to be an underlying factor in their health problems may want to avoid commonly allergenic foods. simply healthy sauté a couple of cloves of chopped garlic and/or 1-2 large chopped onions a couple of minutes until translucent.participants absorbed 75% more lycopene and 41% more beta-carotene from whole tomato paste compared to conventionally made (without peels) tomato paste. niacin. drizzle with olive oil. Nutritional Profile Tomatoes are an excellent source of vitamin C. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients. In addition. pork. oranges. bell peppers and scallions together in a food processor and season with herbs and spices of your choice to make the refreshing cold soup. even though the cow's milk has been processed and fermented in order to make the yogurt. Allergic Reactions to Tomatoes Although allergic reactions can occur to virtually any food. cucumbers. such as parsley or rosemary.     Tomatoes are a great addition to bean and vegetable soups. They are also a very good source of molybdenum. Combine chopped onions. Remove from the heat. Purée tomatoes.

ripe.20 mg 0.3 5.2 3.4 14.01 g 1.53 g 9.14 mg 27.1 2.6 1.7 5.68 mg 0.1 3.4 0.8 9.4 3.5 4.38 mg DV Nutrient World's Healthiest (%) Density Foods Rating 57.9 7.4 DV>=25% OR Density>=1.19 mg 1.4 2.00 mcg 0.3 27.44 mg 43.carbohydrates.00 grams / 37. soluble and insoluble fiber.5 5.7 8.5 AND DV>=10% AND DV>=5% AND DV>=2.60 mg 11.1 2.5 1. vitamins.80 mg 0.22 mcg 17.0 6.5 3.8 6.6 DV>=50% OR Density>=3.3 7. minerals.00 mcg 12.5 5.40 IU 22.3 3.0 4.6 5.00 mcg 0.13 mg 1.4 4.4 4.1 2.3 3.13 mg 0.3 10.00 cup 180. 1.5% .1 1. sugar.09 mg 19.5 7. sodium.5 2. fatty acids.7 2.6 3.0 399.1 Rule DV>=75% OR Density>=7.81 mg 0.5 7. Tomato.11 mg 0.98 g 9.5 excellent excellent excellent very good very good very good very good very good very good good good good good good good good good good good good good 1121.5 3.80 calories Nutrient vitamin C vitamin A vitamin K molybdenum potassium manganese dietary fiber chromium vitamin B1 (thiamin) vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) folate copper vitamin B3 (niacin) vitamin B2 (riboflavin) magnesium iron vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) phosphorus vitamin E tryptophan protein World's Healthiest Foods Rating excellent very good good Amount 34.8 3. amino acids and more.