Mth WSS ee UNS RENAN SSS CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY [ ATUL KAHATE | ww | ™ a So = o m So = So = 5 SM Tata McGraw-Hill Published by the Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, 7 West Patel Nagar, New Delhi 110 008. Copyright © 2003, 2008 by Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise or stored in a daiabase or retrieval system without the prior written permission of the publishers. The program listings (if any) may be entered, stored and executed in a computer system, but they may not be reproduced for publication. Fourth reprint 2008 RALYYDRNRALLA This edition can be exponicu 1rom India only by the publishers, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. ISBN- 13: 978-0-07-064823-4 ISBN- 10: 0-07-064823-9 ‘Managing Director: Afay Shukla General Manager: Publishing —SEM & Tech Ed: Vibha Mahajan ‘Asst. Sponsoring Editor: Shatini Jha Jt. Editorial Executive: Nilanfan Chakravarty Executive—Editorial Services: Sohini Mukherjee General Manager: Marketing—Higher Education & School: Michael J. Cruz Product Manager: SEM & Tech Ed: Biju Ganesan Controller—Production: Rajender P Ghansela Assistant General Manager—Production: B L Dogra Senior Production Executive: Anjali Razdan Information contained in this work has been obtained by Tata McGraw-Hill, from sources believed to be reliable. However, neither Tata McGraw-Hill nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein, and neither Taia McGraw-Hill nor its authers shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This work is published with the understanding that Tata MeGraw-Hill and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services. If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought. ‘Typeset at Tej Composers, WZ-391, Madipur Village, New Delhi 110 063 and printed at Anand Book Binding House, Delhi 110 031 Cover Printer: SDR Printers Foreword Note of Appreciation Preface to the Second Editon Preface to the First Editon Jmportant Terms and Abbreviations 1. Attacks on Computers and Computer Security L1_Intreduction 1 1.2 The Need for Security 1 13 Security Approaches 4 L4 Principles of Security 7 LS Types of Attacks Summary 33 Miultiple-choice Questions 34 Exercises 36 Design/Programming Exercises 37 ._ Cryptography: Concepts and Techniques 2.1 Introduction 2 2.2 Plain Text and Cipher Text _40 2.3 Substitution Techniques 47 2.4 Transposition Techniques 54 2.5 Encryption and Decryption _59 27 Steganography 73 2.8 Key Range and Key Size 74 2.9 Possible Types of Attacks 77 xv Design/Programming Exercises 85 Contents LEEEER 38