PROJECT WORK 1/2010

- 1 -

Content

- 2 -

Introduction

The diagram below shows the gate of an art gallery. A concrete structure is
built at the upper part of the gate and the words ǮART GALLERYǯ is written on
it. The top of the concrete structure is flat whereas at the bottom is parabolic
in shape. The concrete structure is supported by two vertical pillars at both
ends.
The distance between the two pillars is 4 metres and the height of the pillar is
5 metres. The height of the concrete structure is 1 metre. The shortest
distance from point A of the concrete structure to point B, that is the highest
point on the parabolic shape, is 0.5 metres.

- 3 -

- 4 -

Question:
(a) The parabolic shape of the concrete structure can be represented by
various functions depending on the point of reference. Based on
different points of reference, obtain at least three different functions
which can be used to represent the curve of this concrete structure.
(b) The front surface of this concrete structure will be painted before the
words ǮART GALLERYǯ is written on it. Find the area to be painted.

Solution:
(a)Function 1

ݕ ൌ ܽሺݔ െ ܾሻ

൅ ܿ
b ൌ Ͳǡ c ൌ ͶǤͷ
ݕ ൌ ܽሺݔ െ Ͳሻ

൅ ͶǤͷ
ݕ ൌ ܽݔ

൅ ͶǤͷ െ െെ ሺͳሻ
Substitute ሺʹǡͶሻ into ሺͳሻ
Ͷ ൌ ܽሺʹሻ

൅ ͶǤͷ
Ͷܽ ൌ െͲǤͷ
ܽ ൌ െͲǤͳʹͷ
׵ ݕ ൌ െͲǤͳʹͷݔ

൅ ͶǤͷ
Naximum point ሺͲǡͶǤͷሻ anu pass thiough point ሺʹǡͶሻ

- 5 -
Function 2

ݕ ൌ ܽሺݔ െ ܾሻ

൅ ܿ
b ൌ Ͳǡ c ൌ ͲǤͷ
ݕ ൌ ܽሺݔ െ Ͳሻ

൅ ͲǤͷ
ݕ ൌ ܽݔ

൅ ͲǤͷ െ െെ ሺʹሻ
Substitute ሺʹǡ Ͳሻ into ሺʹሻ
Ͳ ൌ ܽሺʹሻ

൅ ͲǤͷ
Ͷܽ ൌ െͲǤͷ
ܽ ൌ െͲǤͳʹͷ
׵ ݕ ൌ െͲǤͳʹͷݔ

൅ ͲǤͷ
Naximum point ሺͲǡ ͲǤͷሻ anu pass thiough point ሺʹǡ Ͳሻ

- 6 -
Function 3

ݕ ൌ ܽሺݔ െ ܾሻ

൅ ܿ
b ൌ ʹǡ c ൌ ͶǤͷ
ݕ ൌ ܽሺݔ െ ʹሻ

൅ ͶǤͷ െ െെ ሺ͵ሻ
Substitute ሺͲǡ Ͷሻ into ሺ͵ሻ
Ͷ ൌ ܽሺͲ െ ʹሻ

൅ ͶǤͷ
Ͷܽ ൌ െͲǤͷ
ܽ ൌ െͲǤͳʹͷ
׵ ݕ ൌ െͲǤͳʹͷሺݔ െʹሻ

൅ ͶǤͷ
Naximum point ሺʹǡ ͶǤͷሻ anu pass thiough point ሺͲǡ Ͷሻ

- 7 -
(b)

iea to be painteu
ൌ iea of iectangle Ǧ iea unuei the cuive
ൌ Ͷ ݔ ͳ െ ʹ ׬
ሺെͲǤͳʹͷݔ

൅ͲǤͷሻ݀ݔ

ൌ Ͷ െ ʹ ቂ
ି଴Ǥଵଶହ௫

൅ͲǤͷݔቃ

ൌ Ͷ െ ʹ ቀ

െͲቁ
ൌ ʹ

m

- 8 -
Further Exploration
(a) You are given four different shapes of concrete structures as shown
in the diagrams below. All the structures have the same thickness of
40cm and are symmetrical
(i) Given that the cost to construct 1 cubic metre of concrete is
RM840.00, determine which structure will cost the minimum to
construct.
(ii) As the president of Arts Club, you are given the opportunity to
decide on the shape of the gate to be constructed. Which shape
would you choose? Explain and elaborate on your reasons for
choosing the shape.

- 9 -
Solution:
(i) Structure 1

ܣݎ݁ܽ ൌ ʹ
ʹ
͵
݉

ܸ݋݈ݑ݉݁ ൌ ܣݎ݁ܽ ݔ ݄ܶ݅ܿ݇݊݁ݏݏ
ൌ ʹ
ʹ
͵
݉

ݔ ͲǤͶ ݉

ͳ͸
ͳͷ
݉

ܥ݋ݏݐ ൌ
ͳ͸
ͳͷ
݉

ݔ ܴܯͺͶͲ
ൌ ܴܯͺͻ͸

- 10 -
Structure 2

ܣݎ݁ܽ ൌ ܣݎ݁ܽ ݋݂ ܴ݁ܿݐ݈ܽ݊݃݁ െܣݎ݁ܽ ݋݂ ܶݎ݈݅ܽ݊݃݁
ൌ ͳ݉ ݔ Ͷ݉ െ
ͳ
ʹ
ݔ Ͷ݉ ݔ ͲǤͷ݉
ൌ Ͷ݉

െ ͳ݉

ൌ ͵݉

ܸ݋݈ݑ݉݁ ൌ ܣݎ݁ܽ ݔ ݄ܶ݅ܿ݇݊݁ݏݏ
ൌ ͵݉

ݔ ͲǤͶ݉
ൌ ͳǤʹ݉

ܥ݋ݏݐ ൌ ͳǤʹ݉

ݔ ܴܯͺͶͲ
ൌ ܴܯͳͲͲͺ

- 11 -
Structure 3

ܣݎ݁ܽ ൌ ܣݎ݁ܽ ݋݂ ܴ݁ܿݐ݈ܽ݊݃݁ െܣݎ݁ܽ ݋݂ ܶݎܽ݌݁ݖ݅ݑ݉
ൌ ͳ݉ ݔ Ͷ݉ െ
ሺͶ݉ ൅ͳ݉ሻ
ʹ
ݔ ͲǤͷ݉
ൌ Ͷ݉

ͷ
Ͷ
݉

ൌ ʹǤ͹ͷ݉

ܸ݋݈ݑ݉݁ ൌ ܣݎ݁ܽ ݔ ݄ܶ݅ܿ݇݊݁ݏݏ
ൌ ʹǤ͹ͷ݉

ݔ ͲǤͶ݉
ൌ ͳǤͳ݉

ܥ݋ݏݐ ൌ ͳǤͳ݉

ݔ ܴܯͺͶͲ
ൌ ܴܯͻʹͶ

- 12 -
Structure 4

ܣݎ݁ܽ ൌ ܣݎ݁ܽ ݋݂ ܴ݁ܿݐ݈ܽ݊݃݁ െܣݎ݁ܽ ݋݂ ܶݎܽ݌݁ݖ݅ݑ݉
ൌ ͳ݉ ݔ Ͷ݉ െ
ሺʹ݉ ൅Ͷ݉ሻ
ʹ
ݔ ͲǤͷ݉
ൌ Ͷ݉

െ ͳǤͷ݉

ൌ ʹǤͷ݉

ܸ݋݈ݑ݉݁ ൌ ܣݎ݁ܽ ݔ ݄ܶ݅ܿ݇݊݁ݏݏ
ൌ ʹǤͷ݉

ݔ ͲǤͶ݉
ൌ ͳ݉

ܥ݋ݏݐ ൌ ͳ݉

ݔ ܴܯͺͶͲ
ൌ ܴܯͺͶͲ

׵ ܵݐݎݑܿݐݑݎ݁ Ͷ ݓ݈݈݅ ܿ݋ݏݐ ݐ݄݁ ݉݅݊݅݉ݑ݉ ݐ݋ ܿ݋݊ݏݐݎݑܿݐǡ ݐ݄ܽݐ ݅ݏ ܴܯ ͺͶͲǤ
(ii) As the president of the Arts Club, I will decide Structure 4 as the shape of
the gate to be constructed. It is because Structure 4 will cost the minimum and
it is easier to be constructed compared to Structure 1 which is a curve.

- 13 -
(b) The following questions refer to the concrete structure in the diagram
below.
If the value of k increases with a common difference of 0.25 m;
(i) Complete Table 1 by finding the values of k and the corresponding
areas of the concrete structure to be painted.
(ii) Observe the values of the area to be painted from Table 1. Do you see
any pattern? Discuss.

k (m) Area to be painted(݉

)
0.00
Ͷ ݔ ͳ െ
Ͳ ൅Ͷ
ʹ
ݔ ͲǤͷ ൌ ͵
0.25
Ͷ ݔ ͳ െ
ͲǤʹͷ ൅ Ͷ
ʹ
ݔ ͲǤͷ ൌ ʹǤͻ͵͹ͷ
0.50
Ͷ ݔ ͳ െ
ͲǤͷ ൅ Ͷ
ʹ
ݔ ͲǤͷ ൌ ʹǤͺ͹ͷ
0.75
Ͷ ݔ ͳ െ
ͲǤ͹ͷ ൅ Ͷ
ʹ
ݔ ͲǤͷ ൌ ʹǤͺͳʹͷ
1.00
Ͷ ݔ ͳ െ
ͳ ൅ Ͷ
ʹ
ݔ ͲǤͷ ൌ ʹǤ͹ͷ
1.25
Ͷ ݔ ͳ െ
ͳǤʹͷ ൅ Ͷ
ʹ
ݔ ͲǤͷ ൌ ʹǤ͸ͺ͹ͷ
1.50
Ͷ ݔ ͳ െ
ͳǤͷ ൅ Ͷ
ʹ
ݔ ͲǤͷ ൌ ʹǤ͸ʹͷ
1.75
Ͷ ݔ ͳ െ
ͳǤ͹ͷ ൅ Ͷ
ʹ
ݔ ͲǤͷ ൌ ʹǤͷ͸ʹͷ
2.00
Ͷ ݔ ͳ െ
ʹ ൅ Ͷ
ʹ
ݔ ͲǤͷ ൌ ʹǤͷ

- 14 -
(ii) There is a pattern in the area to be painted.

The area to be painted decreases as the k increases 0.25m and form a series of
numbers:

3, 2.9375, 2.875, 2.8125, 2.75, 2.6875, 2.625, 2.5625, 2.5

We can see that the difference between each term and the next term is the
same.

ʹǤͻ͵͹ͷ െ ͵ ൌ െͲǤͲ͸ʹͷ
ʹǤͺ͹ͷ െ ʹǤͻ͵͹ͷ ൌ െͲǤͲ͸ʹͷ
ʹǤͺͳʹͷ െ ʹǤͺ͹ͷ ൌ െͲǤͲ͸ʹͷ
ʹǤ͹ͷ െ ʹǤͺͳʹͷ ൌ െͲǤͲ͸ʹͷ
ʹǤ͸ͺ͹ͷ െ ʹǤ͹ͷ ൌ െͲǤͲ͸ʹͷ
ʹǤ͸ʹͷ െ ʹǤ͸ͺ͹ͷ ൌ െͲǤͲ͸ʹͷ
ʹǤͷ͸ʹͷ െ ʹǤ͸ʹͷ ൌ െͲǤͲ͸ʹͷ
ʹǤͷ െ ʹǤͷ͸ʹͷ ൌ െͲǤͲ͸ʹͷ

׵ We can deduce that this series of numbers is an Arithmetic Progression (AP),
with a common difference, ݀ ൌ െͲǤͲ͸ʹͷ

In conclusion, when k increases 0.25m, the area to be painted decreases by
-0.0625m

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(c) Express the area of the concrete structure to be painted in terms of k. Find
the area when k approaches the value of 4 and predict the shape of the
concrete structure.

he aiea of the conciete stiuctuie to be painteu
ൌ Ͷ ݔ ͳ െ
ሺ ௞ାସ ሻ

ݔ ͲǤͷ
ൌ Ͷ െ

൅ ͳ
ൌ ͵ െ

׵ ݇ ՜ Ͷ
݇
Ͷ
՜ ͳ
iea of conciete stiuctuie to be painteu ՜ ͵ െͳ
՜ ʹm

The shape of the concrete structure will be a rectangle with length 4m and
breadth 0.5m, which may look like this:

- 16 -
Reflection