(21st May’ 2012 – 30th June’ 2012) On


Submitted By: RAHUL ROY Roll No. – 0902038 Branch – Electrical Engineering


With profound respect and gratitude, I take the opportunity to convey my thanks to Ms. Rachna Singh Bhal, DGM-HR, BTPS for allowing me to pursue my industrial training in BTPS (NTPC Badarpur). I am also extremely grateful to Mr. G. D. Sharma, TRAINING INCHARGE, BTPS for his peerless guidance during the entire training period. I extend my heartfelt thanks to the entire management of BTPS as well for their co-operation and help during my stay in this esteemed organization.



 Introduction to NTPC

 Introduction to BTPS

 Operation Of a Thermal Power Plant

 Electrical Maintenance Division – I (EMD – I)

 Electrical Maintenance Division – II (EMD – II)

” Mission: “Develop and provide reliable power. which is the mainstay of the company. Forbes Global 2000’ ranking of the only four companies to be awarded this status. powering India’s growth. Apart from power generation. NTPC has embarked on plans to become a 75. 7 stations are coal based & another station uses naptha/LNG as fuel. located across the country. with a significant presence in the entire value chain of power generation business. NTPC has already ventured into consultancy. NTPC was set up in 1975 to accelerate power development in India. related products and services at competitive prices. ash utilisation and coal mining.000 MW company by 2017. NTPC ranked 341st in the ‘2010. Vision: “To be the world’s largest and best power producer. was set up in 1975 to accelerate power development in India. integrating multiple energy sources with innovative and eco-friendly technologies and contribute to society. It is emerging as an ‘Integrated Power Major’. power trading.174 MW (including JVs) with 16 coal based and 7 gas based stations. one of the .INTRODUCTION TO NTPC ABOUT NTPC ~ NTPC. Forbes Global 2000’ ranking of the World’s biggest companies. NTPC ranked 341st in the ‘2010.” Overview: India’s largest power company.174 MW. NTPC is emerging as a diversified power major with presence in the entire value chain of the power generation business. With a current generating capacity of 39. In addition under JVs. India's largest power company. The company has set a target to have an World’s biggest companies. The total installed capacity of the company is 39. 2010. NTPC became a Maharatna company in May.

Best Workplace in India among large organisations and the . In February 2010. Although the company has have a diversified fuel mix comprising 56% coal. 11% Nuclear and 17% Renewable 17. 28. The capacity will Energy Sources(RES) including hydro. NTPC thus became a listed company in November 2004 with the Government holding 89.1. In October 2004. the Shareholding of Government of India was reduced from 89. by the Great Places to Work Institute.5% to 84.25% as fresh issue and 5. The rest is held by Institutional Investors and the Public.installed power generating capacity of 1. non fossil fuel based generation capacity shall make up nearly 28% of NTPC’s portfolio. NTPC has been operating its plants at high efficiency levels.75% of the total national capacity. NTPC launched its Initial Public Offering (IPO) consisting of 5. By 2032. 16% Gas. At NTPC. 000 MW by the year 2032. People before Plant Load Factor is the mantra that guides all HR related policies.5% through Further Public Offer.25% as offer for sale by Government of India. best PSU for the year 2010.5% of the equity share capital.40% of total power generation due to its focus on high efficiency. it contributes 27. India Chapter in NTPC has been awarded No.

In line with the Corporate Plan. The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility is deeply ingrained in NTPC's culture.IV( 500) 3.768 Andhra Pradesh Tamilnadu Tamilnadu Assam Maharashta Uttar Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Bihar Bihar Bihar Bihar 500 500 500 500 750 500 500 500 390 1000 1320 1980 STATE MW . Singrauli CW Discharge(Small Hydre) Total Himachal Pradesh Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh 800 520 8 9. Through its expansive CSR initiatives. Vallur I -JV with TNEB ( 500) 4. Barh I (3 X 660) Hydro 1. Future Capacity Additions: NTPC has formulated a long term Corporate Plan upto 2032. Nabinagar TPP-JV with Railways (4 x 250) 11. Vindhyachal-IV (500) 9. Rihand Stage-III(500) 8. the capacity addition under implementation stage is presented below: PROJECT Coal 1. Simhadri II Unit . Muzaffarpur Expansion (2x195) – JV with BSEB 10. Vallur Stage-I Phase-II -JV with TNEB ( 1 x 500) 5. Koldam HEPP ( 4 x 200) 2. Mauda 7.JV with IPGCL & HPGCL (500) Haryana 2.collaboration with The Economic Times. Tapovan Vishnugad HEPP (4 x 130) 3. Indira Gandhi STPP. Barh II (2 X 660) 12. NTPC strives to develop mutual trust with the communities that surround its power stations. Bongaigaon(3 x 250) 6.

340 1. Kahalgaon 8. Of Plants MW 30.000 2.” Installed Capacity: Be it the generating capacity or plant performance or operational efficiency.855 3. With an installed capacity of 39.855 MW. NTPC is the largest power generating major in the country. oil & gas exploration. NTPC is well NTPC Owned Coal Gas/Liquid Fuel Total Owned By JVs Coal & Gas Grand Total Coal Based Power Stations: 7 30 16 7 23 No. Talcher Kaniha STATE Uttar Pradesh Chhattisgarh Andhra Pradesh West Bengal Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Bihar Uttar Pradesh Orissa COMMISSIONED CAPACITY(MW) 2.000 . power equipment manufacturing. Dadri 9. With an increasing presence in the power value chain. Singrauli 2. Ramagundam 4. The company has a coal based installed capacity of 30. COAL BASED (Owned by NTPC) 1. Korba 3.810 4. trading & distribution. Farakka 5.600 2.174 MW. power on its way to becoming an “Integrated Power Major.500 2.820 3.POWER GENERATION ~ Presently.174 With 16 coal based power stations. Rihand 7.100 3.600 2. NTPC’s Installed Capacity and performance depicts the company’s outstanding performance across a number of parameters.364 39. It has also diversified into hydro power. Vindhyachal 6. coal mining. NTPC is the largest thermal power generating company in the country. NTPC generates power from Coal and Gas.955 34.760 2.

Faridabad Total COMMISSIONED CAPACITY(MW) 413 652 645 817 648 350 430 3. Feroze Gandhi. Simhadri 13. Vallur Total STATE West Bengal Orissa Chhattisgarh Bihar Haryana Tamil Nadu COMMISSIONED CAPACITY 120 120 574 110 1000 500 2.000 440 705 2. Tanda 14. Auraiya 3.955 STATE Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Kerala Haryana . Unchahar Uttar Pradesh 11. Rourkela 3. Rajiv Gandhi CCPP Kayamkulam 7.424 Gas/Liquid Fuel Based Power Stations: The details of NTPC gas based power stations is as follows: GAS BASED (Owned by NTPC) 1. IGSTPP. Talcher Thermal 12. Anta 2. Jhanor-Gandhar 6. Jhajjar 6.980 500 30.050 460 2.855 COAL BASED (Owned by JVs) 1. Sipat 16. Dadri 5. Mauda Total Orissa Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Delhi Chhattisgarh Maharashta 1.10. Durgapur 2. Badarpur 15. Kanti 5. Kawas 4. Bhilai 4.

Total . RGPPL Total STATE Maharashtra COMMISSIONED CAPACITY 1940 1940 Hydro Based Power Projects (Under Implementation): NTPC has increased thrust on hydro development for a balanced portfolio for long term sustainability.GAS BASED (Owned by JVs) 1. Singrauli CW Discharge(Small Hydro) STATE Himachal Pradesh Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh APPROVED CAPACITY(MW) 800 520 8 1. Koldam (HEPP) 2. The first step in this direction was taken by initiating investment in Koldam Other hydro project under construction is Tapovan Vishnugad. HYDRO BASED 1. Tapovan Vishnugad (HEPP) 3.328 Hydro Electric Power Project located on Satluj river in Bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh.

The boiler of Stage-I Units (Units 1. Being an old plant. In 1978 the management of the plant was transferred to NTPC from CEA. Kota. All the turbines are of Russian Design. U.P. The instrumentation (BADARPUR THERMAL POWER PLANT) . 2 and 3) are of Czech design. Currently it has 5 units with 3 units. 2006. Its Jammu and Kashmir.INTRODUCTION TO BTPS ABOUT BTPS ~ Badarpur Thermal Power Station (BTPS) is situated in south east corner of Delhi on Mathura Road near Faridabad. The coal for the plant is derived from the Jharia Coal Fields. each of 210 MW capacity. later it was transferred to NTPC. The 95 MW units have indirectly fired boilers while 210 MW units have directly fired boilers. It was the first central sector power plant conceived in India. Badarpur Thermal Power Station (BTPS) has little automation. provided by M/S Instrumentation Ltd. and Delhi. boilers of Units 4 and 5 are designed by Combustion Engineering (USA). each of 95 MW capacity and 2 units. sole beneficiary. It was owned and conceived by Central Electric Authority (CEA). But since year 1987 Delhi has become its construction was started in year 1968. Rajasthan. and the first unit was commissioned in 26 July 1973. This was constructed under ownership of Central Electric Authority. is of Kent design.. The of the Stage-I Units and Unit 4 are of Russian design. in 1965. and the Instrumentation of Unit 5. It receives cooling water from Agra Canal. Both turbine and boilers have been supplied by BHEL. The performance of the plant increased significantly and steadily after the ownership was transferred to NTPC with effect from June 1. It was originally conceived to provide power to neighbouring states of Haryana. Punjab.

95 MW .210 MW .July 1973 Unit II .95 MW .August 1974 Unit III .December 1978 Unit V .ORGANIZATION CHART ~ Installed capacity Derated Capacity Annual Load Factor (2011-12) Annual Load Factor (Maximum) Location Coal Source Water Source Beneficiary States Unit Sizes 720 MW 705 MW 78 % 88 % New Delhi Jharia Coal Fields Agra Canal Delhi 3 X 95 MW 2 X 210 MW Units Commissioned Unit I .210 MW .March 1975 Unit IV .95 MW .December 1981 .

Coal is burnt in a boiler. which converts water into steam. the heat of combustion of fossil fuels (coal. The steam after expansion in prime mover (turbine) is usually condensed in a condenser to be fed into the boiler again. however. which produces mechanical power driving the alternator coupled to the turbine. In practice. a large number of modifications and improvements have been made so as to affect economy and improve the thermal efficiency of the plant.OPERATION OF A THERMAL POWER PLANT In thermal power plants. The steam so produced is used in driving the steam turbines or sometimes steam engines coupled to generators and thus in generating electrical energy. air and flue gas circuit 3. Steam power plant basically operates on the Rankine Cycle. fuel and ash circuit 2. oil or gas) is utilised by the boilers to raise steam at high pressure and temperature. The entire arrangement of a thermal power plant may be divided into four main circuits namely: 1. feed water and steam circuit 4. cooling water circuit A schematic diagram of a thermal power plant is shown below: (Schematic Diagram of a Thermal Power Plant) . The steam is expanded in a turbine.

The steam passes through a manifold in the .A general layout of a thermal power plant is shown below: (General Layout of a Thermal Power Plant) Detailed description of the operation of a thermal power plant: Coal is conveyed (14) from an external stack and ground to a very fine powder by large metal spheres in the pulverised fuel mill (16). There it is mixed with preheated air (24) driven by the forced draught fan (20). where it turns into steam. where steam is separated from any remaining water. The hot air-fuel mixture is forced at high pressure into the boiler where it rapidly ignites. and is passed to the boiler drum. Water of a high purity flows vertically up the tubelined walls of the boiler.

The exiting steam. before being returned to the boiler drum. the first of a three-stage turbine process. and from there passed directly to the low pressure turbine set (6). now a little above its boiling point. creating near vacuum-like conditions inside the condenser chest. first in a feed heater (13) powered by steam drawn from the high pressure set. The steam is exhausted from the high pressure turbine. The three turbine sets are sometimes coupled on the same shaft as the three-phase electrical generator (5) which generates an intermediate level voltage (typically 20-25 kV). where it condenses rapidly back into water. and reduced in both pressure and temperature. creating a highly visible plume of water vapour. sufficient to make the tube walls glow a dull red. The condensed water is then passed by a feed pump (7) through a deaerator (12). is returned to the boiler reheater (21). and then in the economiser (23). . This is stepped up by the unit transformer (4) to a voltage more suitable for transmission (typically 250-500 kV) and is sent out onto the three-phase transmission system (3). Exhaust gas from the boiler is drawn by the induced draft fan (26) through an electrostatic precipitator (25) and is then vented through the chimney stack (27). The steam is piped to the high pressure turbine (11). is brought into thermal contact with cold water (pumped in from the Cooling tower) in the condenser (8).roof of the drum into the super heater (19) where its temperature and pressure increase rapidly to around 200 bar and 540°C. before being pumped back to the condenser (8) in cooling water cycle. The cooling water from the condenser is sprayed inside a cooling tower (1). A steam governor valve (10) allows for manual control of the turbine. The reheated steam is then passed to the intermediate pressure turbine (9). and pre-warmed.

Switchgear A detailed description of the above sections is given below: NEW COAL HANDLING PLANT (NCHP) ~ The schematic diagram of NCHP is shown below: (Schematic diagram of NCHP. BTPS) . Electrostatic Precipitator (EP) 3.ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE DIVISION – I (EMD-I) In BTPS. New Coal Handling Plant (NCHP) 2. This division includes the following 4 sections: 1. I was assigned EMD-I from 21st May’ 2012 to 9th June’ 2012. Motor Workshops 4.

The wagon tippler employs a slip-ring induction motor for providing the necessary torque.6 KV. BTPS) The major constituents of NCHP are as follows: 1. If coal is oversized (>400 mm sq) then it is broken manually so that it passes the hopper mesh. The coal requirement of BTPS is 13-14 metric tonnes per day. 1400 rpm. Motor specifications: 3-phase. 200 KW. 6. 11B. star-connected. The received coal has the following specifications:  Moisture ~ less than 3 %  Ash content ~ 25-30 %  Volatile material ~ 17-19 %  Calorific value ~ 4500-5300 kcal/kg (Coal Handling Division. Wagon Tippler: The coal arrives in wagons via railways and is tippled by the wagon tippler into the coal hoppers.BTPS receives coal from the Jharia coal fields. From the hopper mesh it is taken to the transfer point TP-6 via conveyors 11A. .

17B are used to transport the coal from the reclaim hopper to TP-7.(Wagon Tippler. BTPS) 3. The breaker house has rotary breakers which render the size of the coal to 100 mm. the size of coal is reduced to 20 mm. This coal is then taken to transfer point TP-8 via conveyors 15A. In the crusher house. 18B to the reject bin house. . Any metal impurities present are removed using metal separators employed in conveyors 10A. Required amount of coal is being taken to transfer point TP-7 via conveyors 13A. 16B. 15B and is finally exited from conveyors 10A. Larger pieces of stones or other impurities left are rejected via conveyors 18A. BTPS) 2. Breaker House: Coal from TP6 is taken to the breaker house by the conveyors 12A. 10B. Crusher House: Coal from TP-7 is taken to the crusher house via conveyors 14A. 10B. 12B. 13B and the extra coal is taken to the reclaim hopper via conveyors 16A. Conveyors 17A. (Coal Storage Area. 14B.

a rectangular collection chamber. electrostatic precipitators accomplish particle separation through the use of an electric field in the following three steps. industrial emission-control unit. and an outlet convergent duct known as an outlet evase. (Storage Yard for Crushed Coal. Pulverised coal is finally transferred to the pulverised coal bunkers from where they are taken to the coal burners. While the flue gas flows through the collection area. Pulveriser: BTPS employs bowl mill pulveriser. A typical ESP consists of an inlet diffuser known as an inlet evase. The arrangement consists of 2 stationary rollers and a power driven bowl in which pulverization takes place as the coal passes through the sides of the rollers and the bowl. using electrical forces to separate the dust particles from the flue gas. Perforated plates are placed inside the inlet and the outlet evase for the purpose of flow distribution. The classifier separates the pulverized coal from the coarse one. A primary air induced draught fan draws a stream of heated air through the mill carrying the pulverized coal into a stationary classifier at the top of the pulveriser.4. The electrical field does the following: . The particle-laden flue gas from the boiler flows through the ESP before it enters the environment. Inside the collection chamber there are a number of discharge electrodes (DEs) and collection electrodes (CEs). BTPS) ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR (EP) ~ An electrostatic precipitator is a large. It is designed to trap and remove dust particles from the exhaust gas stream of an industrial process. The ESP works as a cleaning device. A set of discharge electrodes is suspended vertically between two collection electrodes in a typical wire-plate ESP channel.

Common types of discharge electrodes include:        Straight round wires Twisted wire pairs Barbed discharge wires Rigid masts Rigid frames Rigid spiked pipes Spiral wires Discharge electrodes are typically supported from the upper discharge frame and are frame is in turn supported from the roof of the precipitator casing. Tumbling hammers may also be used to dislodge ash.  Attracts the charged particles to oppositely charged collection electrodes. within the precipitator. Plate baffles shield the precipitated particles from the gas flow while smooth surfaces provide for high operating voltage. the discharge electrodes are held taut by weights at the lower end of the wires. Rapping systems may be actuated by electrical or pneumatic power. held in alignment between the upper and lower discharge frames. Description of major equipments in EP: 1) Discharge/Emitting Electrodes . These collecting plate functions are incorporated into the precipitator design. The upper discharge 2) Collecting Plates .Discharge electrodes emit charging current and provide voltage that generates an electrical field between the discharge electrodes and the collecting plates.Rappers are time-controlled systems provided for removing dust from the collecting plates and the discharge electrodes as well as for gas distribution devices (optional) and for hopper walls (optional). In weighted wire systems. Imparts a positive or negative charge to the particles by means of discharge electrodes. Rapping methods include:     Electric vibrators Electric solenoid piston drop rappers Pneumatic vibrating rappers Tumbling hammers . or by mechanical means. Collecting plates are also part of the electrical power circuit of the precipitator. The electrical field forces dust particles in the gas stream to migrate toward the collecting plates. Collecting plates are suspended from the precipitator casing and form the gas passages 3) Rapping System . High-voltage insulators are incorporated into the support system.Collecting plates are designed to receive and retain the precipitated particles until they are intentionally removed into the hopper. The particles then precipitate onto the collecting plates.  Removes the collected particles by vibrating or rapping the collection electrodes.

and the collecting area served by one rapper.4 minute range. progressing to the lowest frequency. Sonic horns (do not require transmission assemblies) possible of accumulated particulate. normally starting with the highest frequency (the least time between raps). electrical field height and length. depending on the size and inlet particulate loading of the precipitator. Adjustment may be required for factors such as dust resistivity. the optimum rapping cycles for the downstream electrical fields can be established. With anvil beam support. The rapping system for the discharge electrodes should be operated on a continuous schedule with repeat times in the 2 . Ideally. For direct casing support. The first field plates should be rapped often enough so that their precipitated layer of particulate is about 3/8-1/2" thick. The times that are actually available may be limited. dust layer cohesiveness. d) Improving Rapping System Performance: All precipitator rapping systems allow adjustment of rapping frequency. gas temperature effects. the impact of the rapping . The collecting plate rapping system of the first field has a repeat time T equal to the time it takes to build a 3/8-1/2"layer on the collecting plates. The plates in the second field should have a repeat time of about 5T. Gas distribution plates in the outlet of the precipitator may be rapped less often (every 30-60 minutes). There is no advantage in rapping more often since the precipitated dust has not yet agglomerated to a sheet which requires a minimum layer thickness. Rapping less frequently typically results in a hooks from the precipitator casing. Pneumatic or electric vibrators allow adjustments of without re-entrainment into the gas stream. depending on the inlet particulate loading of the precipitator and the nature of the particulate. discharge electrodes should be kept as free as b) Collecting Plate Rapping: Collecting plate rapping must remove the bulk of the precipitated dust. The collecting plates are supported from anvil beams or directly with system is directed into the beams located at the leading and/or trailing edge of the collecting plates. The first electrical field generally collects about 60-80% of the inlet dust load. Sheet formation is essential to make the dust drop into the precipitator hopper deterioration of the electrical power input by adding an additional resistance into the power circuit. a) Discharge Electrode Rapping: In general. Rapping systems with pneumatic or electric actuators allow variations of the rapping intensity. the impact is directed into the rapper beams located at or near the centre of the top of the collecting plates. and the plates in the third field should have a repeat time of 25T. c) Gas Distribution Plate and Hopper Wall Rapping: The gas distribution plates should also be kept free of excessive particulate build-up and may require rapping on a continuous base with a cycle time in the 10-20 minute range. Once an optimum rapping cycle has been found for the first electrical field (which may vary across the face of a large precipitator). these repeat times yield a deposited layer of 3/8-1/2" for the plates in all three fields.

Heaters are added to ensure hot metal surfaces immediately above the fly ash discharge. It requires a substantial amount of time for stabilization after each adjustment. The only rapping system requiring optimization is the collecting plate rapping system. the rapping frequency of the inlet field should be increased or decreased frequency of the other fields should be adjusted in sequence until their electrical power should then be operated with repeat times of 2-3 minutes for the inlet and 2-3 hours for process. and vibration. selection of individual rappers. changes the repose angle of the particles. Optimization of the rapping system starts with the discharge electrode rapping system operating on its own time schedule. Next. These can operate on the outside wall of the hopper or on an internal hopper baffle. These hoppers are insulated from the neck above the discharge of the hopper wall may be heated. Hopper wall temperature retention discourages condensation on the inside of the hopper. The rapping system for the gas distribution screens in the inlet and outlet of the precipitator the outlet screens. for example with repeat times of 2-4 minutes. Discharge diameters are generally 8"-12". Compaction characteristics are affected by moisture content.Precipitator hoppers are designed to completely discharge dust load on demand. head of material. d) Ash handling system: The fly ash handling system evacuates the fly ash from the hoppers. Next. If the stack opacity trace shows rapping spikes. the rapping intensity should be reduced while observing the electrical power input of the precipitator. The adjustment of the rapping system for optimum precipitator performance is a slow 4) Hoppers . flange with the insulation covering the entire hopper area. In addition. b) Facilitating hopper discharge: Hopper discharge problems are caused by compaction of the fly ash in the hopper. The ash handling system should above. and provide anti-coincidence schemes which allow only one rapper to operate at a given time. the rapping inputs remain constant. the lower 1/4-1/3 a) Insulation: Insulation provides protection for facility personnel as well as working to retain as much hopper wall temperature as possible. precipitator hoppers are rectangular in cross-section with sides of at least 60-degree slope. and transports the fly ash to reprocessing or to disposal. . particle size and shape.the rapping time. The flow of fly ash out of the hopper can be facilitated by the use of external vibrators. State-of-the-art rapper controls allow selection of rapping sequences. Typically. Rapping systems can be optimized for top precipitator performance using precipitator power input and stack opacity as criteria. c) Hopper fluidizers: Hopper fluidizers have a membrane that permits air flow to the fly ash directly above. and promotes gravity flow. This air flow fills the voids between the fly ash particles at a slight pressure. The optimization should start with the Collecting Plate Rapping Schedule determined until the electrical power input of the inlet field remains constant.

16 emitting motors and 2 GD motors)  16 hoppers EPs of Units IV and V are identical. Pass C and Pass D  20 control panels  20 rectifier transformers  40 hoppers  40 rapping motors (20 collecting motors and 20 emitting motors) . BTPS) EPs of Units designed and operated to remove the collected fly ash from the hoppers without causing re-entrainment into the gas flow through the precipitator. II and III are identical. (Ash Handling Plant. Three types of handling systems are in use:   Negative pressure or vacuum system: Connects to the hopper by a simple discharge valve Positive pressure dilute phase system: Uses an airlock-type feeder. EP of either Unit has:  4 passes – Pass A. EP of either Unit has:  2 passes – Pass A and Pass B  16 control panels  16 rectifier transformers  26 rapping motors (8 collecting motors. the feeder is separated from the hopper by an inlet gate and from the conveying line by a discharge gate  Positive pressure dense phase system: Connects to the hopper with an airlock type feeder. Either the precipitator hopper or the feeder hopper is used for temporarily storing material prior to discharge. The design of the ash handling system should allow for flexibility of scheduling the hopper discharges according to the fly ash being collected in these hoppers. Pass B.

. 1-phase SMs include reluctance motors. There are primarily two types of motors. An over-excited SM used to supply lagging kVAr to loads for improving the pf of supply system is called a synchronous condenser. Most popular methods of starting a 3-phase SM are (i) induction motor starting.MOTOR WORKSHOPS ~ An electric motor is an electromechanical energy conversion device which transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another via magnetic medium and delivers the output in the form of mechanical energy. A SM always runs at a constant speed. A 3-phase SM has a 3-phase winding on stator (armature winding) and distributed dc winding on rotor (field winding). namely main winding and auxiliary winding. and (ii) auxiliary motor starting. only ac motors are employed. Synchronous motors . Most popular methods include (i) resistance split-phase starting (ii) capacitor-start starting (iii) capacitor-start capacitor-run starting (iv) capacitor-run starting (v) shaded-pole starting (vi) reluctance motor starting (vii) repulsion motor starting. called synchronous speed irrespective of the load. namely. It’s not a self-starting motor and must be started by some auxiliary means. Hence. ac motors and dc motors. They are singly excited machines and don’t require any dc field excitation. the discussion will be restricted to ac motors only. In BTPS. (3-phase synchronous motor) 2. Induction motor – Induction motors are mainly classified as 3-phase and 1-phase motors. It’s not a self-starting motor and must be started by some auxiliary means.Synchronous motors are mainly classified as 1-phase and 3-phase motors. A 1-phase IM has two windings on the stator. sub-synchronous motors and hysteresis motors. Types of ac motors: 1. 1-phase SMs are constant speed machines of small ratings.

They are used in conveyors. When the stator is energised from a balanced 3-phase supply. namely (i) squirrel-cage IM. The rotor currents in turn produce a rotating magnetic field which interacts with the stator magnetic field to produce an electromagnetic torque which sets the rotor in motion.5 kW  Speed – 2950 rpm  Ambient temperature – 50 °C . Specifications of a LT motor in BTPS:  Manufacturer – BHEL  Frame – LE 200  Stator – Delta connected  Voltage rating – 415 V  Current rating – 21 A  Power – 18. pumps. The speed at which the magnetic fields rotate is called synchronous speed and the motor always runs at a speed below the synchronous speed. we see that a 3-phase IM is a self-starting motor. a rotating magnetic field is produced. etc. There are two types of 3-phase IMs. In this way.A 3-phase IM has 3-phase windings on stator (carries armature winding) as well as rotor (carries field winding). Since the rotor winding is short-circuited. This rotating magnetic field interacts with the rotor windings to induce balanced 3-phase emfs in the rotor windings. (Squirrel-cage Induction Motor) (Slip-ring Induction Motor) LT Motor Workshop – Motors with voltage rating in the range of 415-440 V are called LT motors. and (ii) slip-ring IM. all the motors in the LT motor workshop are squirrel-cage IMs. In BTPS. balanced 3-phase currents circulate in the rotor windings.

The apparatus used for switching. Specifications of a HT motor of ID fan in BTPS:  Manufacturer – BHEL  Stator – Star connected  Voltage rating – 6.e. Switchgear essentially consists of switching and protecting devices such as switches. . these horns are spread farther and farther apart and the arc is lengthened until is finally broken. circuit breakers. etc. a) Air Switches – Contacts are opened in air. In BTPS. controlling and protecting the electrical circuits and equipments is known as SWITCHGEAR. These are of two types-: 1) Air break switches – Equipped with arcing horns (pieces of metal between which the arc resulting from opening a circuit carrying current is allowed to form) As the switch opens. transmission lines.HT Motor Workshop – Motors with voltage rating of 6. to ensure maximum continuity of supply and protection of the system during faults means must be provided to switch on or off generators. relays etc. They are used in the main plant. all the motors in the HT motor workshop are squirrel-cage IMs. ID and FD fan motors. fuses.6 kV  Power – 1300 kW  Speed – 990 rpm  Peak load – 240% FLT  Temperature rise at rated load – 50 °C  Insulation – Class F  Current rating – 138 A SWITCHGEAR ~ In power supply system. by the simple motion of a knob or handle to connect together or disconnect two terminals to which wires or cables are connected. Switchgear Equipments:  Switches – A switch is used in an electric circuit as a device for making or breaking the electric circuit in a convenient way i. distributors and other equipments under both normal and abnormal conditions.6 kV and above are classified as HT motors. for instance. This is achieved by an apparatus called switchgear.

moulded plastic chute fitted with organic glass inserts. 3. .Accomplishes a sudden change in the control quantity such as closing of the operative current circuit. Three main circuits: 1. b) Oil Switches – Contacts are opened in oil. causes the breaker to open and to isolate the faulty element. Primary winding of CT connected in services with the main circuit to be protected. if the abnormality is of a dangerous character.Responds to change in actuating quantity. Sensing element . The arc extinguishing device of the load interrupter is made in the form of a split. the current in a protected system in case of over-current relay. Isolators must not be opened until the circuit is interrupted by some other means. Comparing element . This chute surrounds the moving knife of the arc extinguishing system. Acted upon the high temperature of the arc. Lever arm manually operating mechanisms are employed for closing and opening the load interrupter switches. which in turn. 2. c) Load Interrupter Switches – These switches are designed and used to close and open high voltage circuits under normal working conditions (at normal load).  Protective relays – It is an electrical device interposed between the main circuit and the Circuit breaker in such a manner that any abnormality in the circuit acts on the relay. Secondary winding of CT and the relay operating winding. Control element . The switch is normally operated from a handle on the outside of the case/ tank containing oil. An isolator isolates one portion of the circuit from another and is not intended to be opened while current is flowing. Tripping circuit. When the switch is opened the working contacts between which the arc is drawn separate. the walls of the organic material inserts generate gases (mainly H2) which create a longitudinal blast serving to extinguish the arc. While closing a circuit the isolator is closed first then the circuit breaker. The stationary acting contact is located in the lower part of the chute. 2.2) Isolators – Isolators (or disconnect switches) aren’t equipped with arc quenching devices and therefore not used to open circuits carrying current. As the switch opens the arc formed between the blade and contact is quenched by the oil.Serves to compare the action of the actuating quantity on the relay with a pre-selected relay setting. 3. Functional elements: 1.

3) Bulk Oil and Minimum Oil Circuit Breakers – In bulk oil circuit breakers. In this type of a circuit breaker. Types of circuit breakers: 1) Air-Break Circuit Breakers – Air-break circuit breakers are quite suitable for high current interruption at low voltage. The tank of a bulk oil circuit breaker is earthed. oil performs two functions.(Thermal Overload Relay)  Circuit Breakers – A circuit breaker is a mechanical device designed to close or open contact members. air at atmospheric pressure is used as an arc extinguishing medium. Due to this very reason it is not used at higher voltages. Its main drawback is that it requires a huge amount of oil at higher voltages. At present. It acts as an arc extinguishing medium and it also serves as insulation between the live terminals and earth. the principle of high resistance is employed for arc interruption. compressed air at a pressure of 20-30 kg/cm2 is employed as an arc quenching medium. It is so designed that it can be operated manually under normal conditions and automatically under fault conditions. A minimum oil circuit breaker does not . An automatic circuit breaker is equipped with a trip coil connected to a relay or other means. Air blast circuit breakers are suitable for operating voltage of 132kV and above. SF6 circuit breakers are preferred for 132 kV and above. Air-break circuit breakers are available in the voltage range 400 to 12 kV. such as over-current. designed to open or break automatically under abnormal conditions. 2) Air-Blast Circuit Breakers – In air blast circuit breakers. They have also been used in 11 kV – 33 kV range for certain applications. In air-break circuit breakers. thus closing or opening an electrical circuit under normal or abnormal conditions.

The gas removes the heat from the arc by axial convection and radial dissipation. SF6 circuit breakers are manufactured in the voltage range of 3. The lower chamber acts as an insulating support and it contains the operating mechanism. Its container is made of porcelain or other insulating material. In order to extinguish the arc. Minimum oil circuit breakers are available in the voltage range 3. These two chambers are filled with oil but they are physically separated from each other. (Oil Circuit Breaker) 4) SF6 Circuit Breakers. .employ a steel tank.3kV to 420kV. the turbulent flow of the gas is introduced. As a result of this. However. the SF6 gas is blown axially along the arc during the arcing period. The upper chamber contains an arc control device.3 kV to 765 kV.In SF6 circuit breakers. namely an upper chamber and a lower chamber. In SF6 circuit breakers. The arc diameter becomes very small at current zero. the diameter of the arc is reduced during the decreasing node of the current wave. This type of a circuit breaker consists of two sections. they are preferred for voltages of 132 kV and above. fixed and a moving contact. SF6 is used as an arc quenching medium.

Immediately after current zero. an electron avalanche due to multiple collisions can’t form. It is connected between the line and earth and so diverts the incoming high voltage wave to the earth. when the current decreases.In vacuum.(SF6 Circuit Breaker) 5) Vacuum Circuit Breakers. So. switching or other disturbances which would otherwise flash-over insulators or puncture insulation. Near current zero. In vacuum. the remaining vapour condenses and the dielectric strength increases rapidly. the rate of vapour emission tends to zero. arc electrons don’t come from the medium in which the arc is drawn but they come they come from the electrodes due to the evaporation of their surface material. resulting in a line outage and possible failure of equipment. vapour emission decreases. Lightning arresters act as safety valves designed to discharge electric surges resulting from lightning strokes. Vacuum circuit breakers have now become popular for voltage ratings upto 36 kV. In ac. the mean free path of gas molecules increases.  Lightning Arresters – It is a surge diverter and is used for the protection of power system against the high voltage surges. .

I was assigned EMD-II from 10th June’ 2012 to 30th June’ 2012. ac power is generated. The stationary part of the alternator is called stator whereas the rotating part is called rotor. There are two types of alternators. Generator – Excitation and Protection 3. The synchronously rotating magnetic field links with the armature winding and induces emf in it. our discussion will be restricted to AC generators only. Alternators have mainly two major parts. In this way. Hence. Generator – Overview 2.ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE DIVISION – II (EMD-II) In BTPS. Depending upon the type of power generated. The stator carries the armature winding whereas the rotor carries the field winding. When the rotor is driven by a prime-mover. namely. generators are mainly classified as DC generators and AC generators. Characteristics of a turbo generator are: a) Rotor in the form of smooth cylinder having no physical poles projecting out. Since thermal power stations employ AC generators. hydro-generators and turbogenerators. namely stator and rotor. . turbo-generators are used in thermal power plants. The field winding is excited from a DC source. the field poles on the rotor rotate at a speed called synchronous speed. while. Hydro-generators have salient-pole rotor construction whereas turbogenerators have cylindrical-rotor construction. Hydro-generators are used in hydro power plants. therefore. Transformer & Switchyard A detailed description of the above sections is given below: GENERATOR – OVERVIEW ~ A generator is an electromechanical device which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. our discussion will be restricted to turbo-generators. Synchronous generators (alternators) are commercially employed for the purpose of power generation. This division includes the following 3 sections: 1.

3 of 210 MW each and 2 of 95 MW each. there are 5 generating units. In BTPS.85 (lagging)  Excitation current – 1860 A  Slip-ring voltage – 210 V  Rated speed – 3000 rpm  Rated frequency – 50 Hz  Coolants – Water(stator) and Hydrogen(rotor)  Efficiency – 98. d) Works at relatively higher speeds as compared to hydro generators. The specifications of the alternators are given below: ALTERNATOR (95 MW) –  Manufacturer – BHEL  Phase connection – Y-connected  Rated stator current – 6475 A  Rated power factor – 0. neglecting the slot openings. c) Uniform air-gap between stator and rotor.b) Field winding is distributed in rotor slots. BTPS) ALTERNATOR (210 MW) –  Manufacturer – BHEL  Phase connection – Y-connected  Rated terminal voltage – 15.75 kV  Rated stator current – 9050 A .5 kV (95 MW Generator.4 %  Direction of rotation viewed – Counter-clockwise  Rated terminal voltage – 10.

a 3-phase transformer steps down the alternator voltage to the desired value. Static Excitation: In this method.4 %  Coolant – Water(stator) and Hydrogen(rotor)  Direction of rotation viewed – Counter-clockwise (210 MW Generator. The controlled power output from thyristors unit is delivered to the field winding of main alternator through brushes and slip-rings.85 (lagging)  Excitation current – 2600 A  Slip-ring voltage – 310 V  Rated speed – 3000 rpm  Rated frequency – 50 Hz  Efficiency – 98. BTPS) GENERATOR – EXCITATION & PROTECTION ~ Excitation of Alternators: There are various schemes for providing dc excitation to the field windings. This 3-phase voltage is fed to the 3-phase full-converter bridge using thyristors. static excitation is used for providing dc excitation to the field windings. For . STATIC EXCITATION and BRUSHLESS EXCITATION. In BTPS. The firing angle of these thyristors id controlled by means of a regulator which picks up the signal from alternator terminals through potential transformer and current transformer. For this purpose. Major excitation systems include DC EXCITERS. the excitation power for the main alternator field is drawn from the output terminals of the main 3-phase alternator. Rated power factor – 0.

As it is accompanied by prime-mover. the polarity of the secondary voltage of the upper CT is reversed.initiating the process of static excitation. voltage regulator. first of all. A modern generating set is generally provided with the following protective schemes. Protection of Alternators: A generator is the most important and costly equipment in a power system. field winding is switched on to the station battery bank to establish the field current in alternator. the inlet and outlet temperatures of the cooling medium which may be hydrogen/water are compared for detecting overheating. phase to phase and phase to ground faults. i. b) Protection against Stator Interturn Faults: Longitudinal percentage differential protection does not detect stator interturn faults. etc. Modern generators employ two methods to detect overheating both being used in large generators (above 2 MW).. Now the operating coil carries the sum of the currents sent by the upper CT and the lower CT and it operates and trips the circuit breaker. It protects against winding faults. c) Stator-overheating Protection: Overheating of the stator may be caused by the failure of the cooling system.e. For an internal fault. When the . In the operating coil. It is subjected to more types of troubles than any other equipment. the temperature sensing elements is embedded in the stator slots to sense the temperature. the current sent by the upper CT is cancelled by the current sent by the lower CT and the relay does not operate. In the other method. excitation system. its protection becomes very complex and elaborate. In one method.  Stator Protection: a) Percentage Differential Protection: It is used for the protection of generators above 1 MW. the alternator field winding is disconnected from battery bank and is switched on to the thyristors bridge output. overloading or core faults like short-circuited laminations and failure of core bolt insulation. The alternator speed is adjusted to rated speed. After the output voltage from alternator has build up sufficiently. A transverse percentage differential protection is employed for the protection of the generator against stator interturn faults. This type of protection is used for generators having parallel windings separately brought out to the terminals. cooling system.

the relay sounds an alarm. An emergency centrifugal overspeed device is also incorporated to trip emergency steam valves when the speed exceeds 110 %. Moreover. the locus of the equivalent generator impedance moves from the first quadrant. a DC voltage is impressed between the field circuit and earth through a polarised moving iron relay. It is designed to prevent any speed rise even with a 100 % load rejection.  Rotor Protection: a) Field Ground-fault Protection – In rotor earth protection. This type of locus is not traced in any other conditions. The speed governor normally controls its speed. TRANSFORMER & SWITCHYARD ~ Transformer: A transformer is an electromagnetic device which transfers electrical energy from one electrical circuit to another electrical circuit via magnetic medium. In thermal power plants. When a generator loses its excitation. irrespective of initial conditions. it is possible to bypass the steam before the speed reaches a limit above which a dangerous overvoltage can be produced.  Miscellaneous: a) Overvoltage Protection – Overvoltage may be caused by a defective voltage regulator or it may occur due to sudden loss of electrical load on generators. b) Loss of Excitation – Field failure may be caused by the failure of excitation or maloperation of a faulty field breaker. It is not necessary to trip the machine when a single field earth fault occurs. the use of automatic voltage regulators helps in controlling the overvoltage due to overspeed. Then immediate steps are taken to transfer the load from the faulty generator and to shut it down as quickly as possible to avoid further problems.temperature exceeds a certain preset maximum temperature limit. The electrical circuit which receives energy from the supply mains is called primary winding and the other circuit which delivers electric energy to the load is called the secondary winding. . A protective scheme employing offset mho or directional impedance relay is recommended for large modern generators. b) Overspeed Protection – A turbo-generator is provided with a mechanical overspeed device. The relay trips the field breaker and the generator is disconnected from the system. Usually an alarm is sounded.

two major types of transformers are used. the windings surround a considerable part of steel core. In the shell type. In the core type. namely. For a given output and voltage rating.There are two general types of transformers. For transmission and distribution purposes.5 kV  Rated current (HV) – 0. power transformers are disconnected during light load periods. (Core-type and Shell-type Transformers) Power Transformers: Power transformers are used at the sending and receiving ends of a long. the steel core surrounds a major part of the windings. In view of this.536 kA  Rated current (LV) – 11. power transformers and distribution transformers. Therefore. core-type transformer requires less iron but more conductor material as compared to a shell-type transformer. the core type and the shell type. a power transformer is designed to have maximum efficiency at or near its full load (rated) kVA. These transformers are manipulated to operate almost always at or near their rated capacity (kVA rating). high-voltage power transmission line for stepping up or stepping down the voltage. POWER TRANSFORMER (125 MVA) –  Manufacturer – BHEL  Rated voltage (HV) – 233 kV  Rated voltage (LV) 10.9 kA  Oil quantity – 40180 litres  Weight of oil – 34985 kg  Weight of core and winding – 84325 kg  Total weight of transformer – 147725 kg .

suppress insulation between internal live parts. and some types of high voltage switches and circuit breakers. Because it also provides part of the electrical temperatures for an extended period. fluorescent lamp ballasts. To improve cooling of large power transformers.(Power Transformer. the core loss takes place continuously. The primary of distribution transformers is always energised and. Its functions are to insulate. some types of high voltage capacitors. BTPS) Distribution Transformers: Distribution transformers are those which change the voltage to a level suitable for utilisation purposes at the consumer’s premises. and to serve as a coolant. therefore. the oil-filled tank may have external radiators through which the oil circulates by natural . In view of this. transformer oil must remain stable at high corona and arcing. the distribution transformers are designed to have very low value of core loss. It is used in oil-filled transformers. The load on a distribution transformer varies over a wide range during a 24 hour day. (Distribution Transformer) Transformer Oil: Transformer oil is usually a highly-refined mineral oil that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical insulating properties.

These are safety devices that detect the build up of gases (such as acetylene) inside the transformer (a side effect of corona or an electric arc in the windings) and switch off the transformer. Switchyard: A switchyard is a junction which connects a generating station to its nearest grid. and even oil-to-water heat exchangers. Combustion-resistant vegetable oil-based dielectric coolants and synthetic added expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer pentaerythritol tetra fatty acid (C7. This helps prevent corona formation and subsequent electrical breakdown under load. Very large or high-power transformers may also have cooling fans. Oil filled transformers with a conservator tend to be equipped with Buchholz relays. using electrical selfheating.convection. and have a lower volatility and a higher flash point than mineral oil. readily biodegradable. 220 kV Switchyard of BTPS has the following –  Main bus–1  Main bus–2  Auxiliary bus  5 power transformers  4 station transformers  1 bus coupler  1 bypass  Unit auxiliary transformers . polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were often used as a dielectric fluid since they are not flammable. They are toxic. and under incomplete combustion. Today. Esters are non-toxic to aquatic life. Large. where the vault. high voltage transformers undergo prolonged drying processes. the application of a vacuum. non-toxic. stable silicon-based or fluorinated hydrocarbons are used. Well into the 1970s. oil pumps. C8) esters are also becoming increasingly common as alternatives to naphthenic mineral oil. can form highly toxic products such as furan. or both to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapour before the cooling oil is introduced. Transformers without conservators are usually equipped with sudden pressure relays which perform a similar function as the Buchholz relay. BTPS has a 220 kV switchyard.

 SF6 circuit breakers  Current transformers  Isolators  Surge arrestors  CVTs (capacitance voltage transformers)  Wave trap  10 outgoing feeders: 1) Sarita Vihar line 1 2) Sarita Vihar line 2 3) Okhla line 1 4) Okhla line 2 5) Mehrauli line 1 6) Mehrauli line 2 7) Ballabhgarh line 1 8) Ballabhgarh line 2 9) Noida line 10) Alwar line (Switchyard. BTPS) *** .