WHAT IS WORKLOAD Workload is the amount of work assigned to a worker in a specified time period.

We might not always have full control over total workload, but we CAN recognize its effects and take some action. Everyone is different in their capabilities, and capability varies with task complexity, environmental factors, and personal behaviors (self awareness, confidence, etc.).



WORKLOAD MANAGEMENT Prioritize Prioritize and schedule tasks effectively. By understanding the priorities in your job, you can focus on important activities and minimize work on other tasks as much as possible. This helps you get the greatest return from the work you do, and keep your workload under control. Delegate Delegate tasks among the crew, checks and corrects appropriately. Expand available time Use time available efficiently to complete tasks. Put off less important tasks until latter; break large tasks up into a series of smaller ones. Follow Procedures Follow procedures appropriately and consistently. Expand available time Use time available efficiently to complete tasks. Put off less important tasks until latter; break large tasks up into a series of smaller ones. Follow Procedures


Rational problem solving. Creative. Progress change. try to finish more into a shorter time frame. Optimum Workload Everything works great here!. Satisfaction. 3 . Need to maintain so not overburdened to the point where performance breaks down. We're challenged enough to stay awake and alert. Error rates may also increase. SLOJ (Sudden loss of judgment) Loss Situational Awareness Irrational Problem Solving Poor Decision Making Exhaustion Illness Work faster.Follow procedures appropriately and consistently. when the individual’s workload exceeds the ability to cope well. Overload Overload occurs at very high levels of workload. Overall concept of flight breaks down.

American Public Human Services Association [APHSA]. improve staff retention. as well as administrative requirements. Manageable caseloads and workloads can make a real difference in a worker's ability to spend adequate time with children and families. addressing worker turnover. and ultimately have a positive impact on outcomes for children and families. Agencies face a number of challenges. 2008). The complexity of cases requiring intensive intervention. confusion. INTRODUCTION Large caseloads and excessive workloads in many jurisdictions make it difficult for child welfare workers to serve families effectively. & Child Welfare League of America [CWLA]. 4 . failure to prioritize & anger. Approaches range from adding and retaining staff to improving worker effectiveness to implementing system improvements. Nevertheless. including negotiating budget crises and hiring freezes. Overload also can make the aircrew experiences stress . and managing multiple reforms simultaneously (Day & Peterson. finding qualified applicants for open positions. sometimes by double or more (Alliance for Children and Families. States are addressing these challenges and successfully implementing a variety of strategies to make caseloads and workloads more manageable. this can make the pilot fixates on one item. The average caseload for child welfare workers often exceeds recommended levels. further adds to a caseworker's workload. Even the basic determination of what caseloads and workloads currently are and what they should be can be thorny.Attention reduced. . Reducing and managing caseloads and workloads are not simple tasks for child welfare administrators. 2001). implementing time-intensive best practices.

Ortega. GAO. In addition to this “active management” functionality. General Accounting Office [GAO]. High staff turnover resulting from heavy caseloads can have a negative impact on the timeliness.Workload management balances the resource consumption of applications running in a data center with meeting business goals and achieving predictable performance all while minimizing resource requirements. 2003. and capacity planning. and permanency planning—is time intensive and requires frequent workerclient contact. The benefits of reasonable caseloads and manageable workloads relate to:  Retaining staff and reducing turnover.  Engaging families and building relationships. 2003. Social Work Education Consortium. Heavy caseloads and workloads have been cited repeatedly as key reasons that workers leave the child welfare workforce (Zlotnik. there is also a monitoring component to workload management that collects data on resource usage as a basis for application profiling. & Tropman. DePanfilis. relationship building. Ellett.. especially during peak load periods. and quality of services provided by an agency (National Council on Crime and Delinquency. 2005. Gonzalez. BENEFITS OF WORKLOAD MANAGEMENT Caseload and workload management often appear as key ingredients in a State's comprehensive strategy to produce better outcomes for children and families. 5 . U. D. chargeback.S. McCarthy.. 2007. J. Heavy workloads and caseloads reduce the amount of time available for these processes. 2006. & Sumski. Faller. Strolin. McDonald.  Delivering quality services. 2002). & Caringi. A. Ellet. C. continuity. 2005. Essential child welfare processes—including family engagement. Daining. assessment. & Lane. 2003). Flower. & Rugutt. 2009.

. and Milwaukee. GAO. 2006).g. For examples of existing legislation. After the first round of CFSRs. Florida. MD. Indiana. supervision. see Delaware. Provisions in settlement agreements and consent decrees often require jurisdictions (for example. CATALYSTS AND MOTIVATING FACTORS Some States set out specifically to reduce caseloads and workloads. Several State legislatures have mandated State and local jurisdictions to assess workload issues. In a nationwide survey. Illinois. 2007). others have reforms imposed on them. 2003). retention.  Staffing needs. State administrators identified reducing caseloads. States continue to address workloads/caseloads and related issues (e. meet identified standards. The impetus for caseload and workload reduction efforts typically emerges from one or more of the following catalysts:  CFSRs. and systems reform) in the second round PIPs as a means to improve CFSR outcomes and to achieve compliance with Federal standards. District of Columbia. WI) to meet specific caseload standards. 2006. Class-action litigation across the country— frequently resulting from high-profile fatalities—has brought attention to child welfare system reform and generated workforce improvements (Farber & Munson. Baltimore. Positive outcomes for children and families. recruitment.  Litigation and consent decrees. training. and Texas. and still others arrive at caseload and workload reduction as an unintended effect of other initiatives. Workloads and caseloads have been linked to performance on Federal Child and Family Services Reviews (CFSRs) and achievement of safety and permanency outcomes (Children's Bureau. and report on progress. about half the States' Program Improvement Plans (PIPs) noted the need for improvements in workloads or caseloads (Children's Defense Fund and Children's Rights. implement specific strategies such as hiring additional staff.  Legislation. workloads. and supervisory ratios as the most important 6 .

While caseload/workload reduction may not be a stated goal of these reform efforts. When developing caseload management strategies. 7 . others strive to meet the Council on Accreditation (COA)standards in order to achieve accreditation. Currently. family engagement. and system of care initiatives. Unions representing child welfare workers have played an important role in negotiating improved caseload ratios. some States are engaged in developing new practice models and implementing systemwide reform efforts.  Systems reform. such as differential response.  Union negotiations. it sometimes is a necessary component or a resultant outcome. States have had varying success in achieving and maintaining these standards.action for child welfare agencies to take to retain qualified frontline staff (APHSA. 2005).  Standards and accreditation. some States and localities take into consideration the caseload standards and guidance recommended by the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA).

requests of a specific resource are always routed to the same region. In CICSPlex SM. The dynamic routing program can route:     Transactions initiated at a terminal Eligible EXEC CICS® START requests that are associated with a terminal Eligible EXEC CICS START requests that are not associated with a terminal Dynamic program link (DPL) requests that are received using: o o o o The CICS Web Interface The CICS Gateway for Java™ External CICS interface (EXCI) client programs Any CICS client workstation products using the External Call Interface (ECI) 8 . resources such as transactions and programs required in one region may be owned by another. You can specify the location of a resource when you are designing your system. Typically. the location of the resource is specified in the installed resource definition. Then. the decision on where to run a piece of work is made by the userreplaceable dynamic routing program (called the dynamic transaction routing program in previous releases). you may have a terminal-owning region (TOR) that requires access to transactions owned by an application-owning region (AOR). the location of the resource is decided at run time. The user-replaceable program EYU9XLOP creates the environment necessary for CICSPlex SM-based dynamic routing. and sets up the runtime environment. For example. This is known as static routing.WHAT IS DYNAMIC ROUTING? In a CICSplex or BTS-set. With dynamic routing.

the requesting region and the routing region are typically TORs. and the target region is typically an AOR. dynamic routing is managed by the Workload Manager component of CICSPlex SM. the requesting region and the routing region are typically TORs. The CICS regions involved in dynamic routing may act as one or more of the following: Requesting region The CICS region in which the work request originates. Routing region The CICS region in which the decision is taken on where the work will run. For inbound DPL client requests.o Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) remote procedure calls (RPCs) o o o o   Open Network Computing (ONC) RPCs Internet Inter-Object Request Block Protocol (IIOP) The Link3270 bridge Any function that issues an EXEC CICS LINK PROGRAM request CICS business transaction services (BTS) processes and activities Enterprise beans executing in CICS-provided CorbaServers In CICSPlex SM. the requesting region is typically an AOR. and the target region is typically an AOR. and the target region is typically an AOR. Target region The CICS region where the request is actioned. For EXEC CICS START commands associated with a terminal. For dynamic transaction routing. the routing region is typically a TOR. 9 .

the requesting region is typically the external client code (but can be Enterprise JavaBean code in another CICS region) that invokes the enterprise bean. routing region. for CICS business transaction services processes and activities. EXEC CICS START commands that are not associated with a terminal. the requesting region. and target region are typically AORs. and the target region is typically an AOR. the routing region is a CICS listener region.For peer-to-peer DPL requests. Dynamic routing models There are two possible dynamic routing models:   The traditional "hub" model The distributed model 10 . and for Link3270 bridge requests. For enterprise bean invocations.

THE TRADITIONAL HUB MODEL The traditional hub model is shown in Figure 17. This is the model used for the dynamic routing of transactions. that is. Normally. each hub routing region will need access to this data. compared with the distributed model. you may have problems with distributed data. where the program is executed. which may be maintained in a local temporary storage queue. if the routing program keeps a count of routed transactions for load balancing purposes. The request is initiated in the requesting region. typically a TOR. which also acts as the routing region. This model has the advantage of being relatively simple to implement. in which routing is controlled by one region (the routing region. The request is routed to a target region. selected from the specified target group. EXEC CICS START commands associated with a terminal. a routing program runs only in the routing region. The "hub" model is hierarchical. the hub routing region is a single point-offailure. For example. the TOR). The disadvantages of the hub model are:  If you use only one hub to route transactions and program-link requests across your target regions. For example.\ 11 .  If you use more than one hub to route transactions and program-link requests across the same set of target regions. and inbound client DPL requests. there are few inter-region connections to maintain.

and target region. A distributed routing program runs in each region. Each CICS system in the target group may act as a requesting region. the dynamic routing program EYU9XLOP performs also the distributed routing function. routing region. Figure 18.DYNAMIC ROUTING USING A HUB ROUTING MODEL THE DISTRIBUTED MODEL The distributed model is shown in Figure 18. and Link3270 bridge requests. for CICSPlex SM. enterprise bean and BTS activities. This is the model used for the dynamic routing of EXEC CICS START requests that are not related to a terminal. 12 . Dynamic routing using a distributed routing model. Note that.

For example. any data used to make routing decisions must be available to all regions. With CICSPlex SM. The disadvantages are:  Compared with the hub model. there are a great many inter-region connections to maintain.The advantage of the distributed model is that there is no single point of failure.  You may have problems with distributed data. this problem is solved by the use of data spaces. 13 .

WLM FUNCTIONS CICSPlex SM’s dynamic routing program supports:    Workload separation: see topic Workload separation Workload balancing: see topic Workload balancing Intertransaction affinity: see topic Intertransaction affinity Advantages of WLM CICSPlex SM’s WLM function is of particular benefit in those enterprises that are running CICS/ESA on Parallel Transaction Servers (PTSs). you have:  The ability to route all types of program link request dynamically to improve the performance and reliability of inbound client and peer-topeer DPLs. 14 . because CICSPlex SM can route work throughout the sysplex. With WLM in your enterprise.

15 . CICS Web support.  The ability to integrate BTS processes and activities fully into the workload separation and workload balancing functions. CICS clients. and started tasks. Reduced risk of bottlenecks Individual target regions taken out of service without impact to the enduser.     Work routed away from a failing target region to an active target region. non-terminal-initiated transactions. EXCI clients.  The ability to integrate workload balancing for terminal-initiated transactions.  Optimum performance and response times for a variable and unpredictable workload. The ability to route EXEC CICS START TRANSID TERMID commands dynamically to improve the performance and reliability of the applications using these commands.  The ability to integrate enterprise bean invocations into the workload balancing and workload separation functions. IIOP. CICS Transaction Gateway. Opportunities for increased throughput and improved performance.  The ability to perform workload balancing and separation for Link3270 bridge requests.

 Less operator intervention. 16 .

and have made the division to reflect use of CICS systems by different groups of users. and provides opportunities for increased throughput and performance. because it prevents full exploitation of CICSPlex SM’s workload balancing functions.PLANNING FOR WLM This section provides some instructions to help you determine the extent to which you can use CICSPlex® SM’s workload management in your enterprise. If you have defined more than one CICSplex. user. it’s possible that you will be able to use simple workload 17 . terminal. Workload separation (by process type. and transaction) should be implemented only where strictly necessary. for example. Workload balancing or workload separation? Workload balancing should be used wherever possible because it makes the best use of the available CICS® systems.

There are two major activities in your planning for WLM:   Identifying the workloads in your enterprise Identifying intertransaction affinities and trying to remove them Identifying the workloads Begin by identifying the workloads processed in your enterprise. Customization of the supplied dynamic routing program is described in CICSPlex System Manager Managing Workloads.)  A routing region must be: o o A CICS TS region. confirm that the current CICSPlex SM configuration of CICS systems supports the identified workloads. A local MAS. and a 18 . the supplied dynamic routing program cannot route transactions beyond the confines of the CICSplex. o For a BTS transaction.balancing rather than workload separation within the CICSplex. If you haven’t taken this approach. that is. Next. you might consider it necessary to recognize such groupings by implementing workload separation. (It is possible to route transactions outside of the CICSplex by customizing the supplied dynamic routing program. the routing region cannot be running on an MVS™ image on which there is no CMAS. These are certain to be apparent in any underlying TOR-AOR-FOR configurations that existed prior to your interest in CICSPlex SM. That is. if you have separated the CICS systems used by group A from the CICS systems used by group B by defining two CICSplexes. o In only one workload. For example. then within each CICSplex you can implement workload balancing. the routing region can be associated with only one active workload specification at a time. a non-terminal-related EXEC CICS START command. that is. a terminal-related EXEC CICS START command. In particular:  Routing regions and target regions from a single workload must be in the same CICSplex.

Version 2 Release 2 and later. a non-terminal-related EXEC CICS START command. o For an enterprise bean invocation. CICS Transaction Server for z/OS. Version 2 Release 3 and later. CICS Transaction Server for OS/390® Version 1 Release 3 and later. CICS Transaction Server for OS/390 Version 1 Release 3 and later o For an enterprise bean invocation. Version 2 Release 2 and later. Version 2 Release 2 and later. CICS Transaction Server for z/OS. a terminal-related EXEC CICS START command. 19 .dynamic program link.  A target region can be: o o o o a local MAS in multiple workloads any CICS system managed by CICSPlex SM For a BTS transaction. o For a Link3270 bridge request CICS Transaction Server for z/OS. o For a Link3270 bridge request CICS Transaction Server for z/OS®.

or you can use the IBM® CICS Interdependency Analyzer for z/OS . see the CICS/ESA publication Dynamic Transaction Routing in a CICSplex. BTS will wait for the region to start. gauge the duration of the affinity and try to minimize it. You can define an intertransaction affinity to CICSPlex SM as lasting:        While the user’s session is active For the duration of the terminal session While the target region remains active While the workload is active For the duration of a pseudoconversation While the BTS activity is active While the BTS process is active Be aware that CICSPlex SM must honor an active affinity: if an affinity is active but the target region becomes unavailable. or because of a requirement to coordinate the processing of two or more transactions. you should make every attempt to remove them. Having identified any affinities in a workload. If you cannot remove them completely. In general. For a detailed discussion of intertransaction affinities and ways of identifying them. the transaction isn’t routed. you can run CICStraces.IDENTIFYING INTERTRANSACTION AFFINITIES Intertransaction affinities. 20 . For example. which require related transactions to be processed by the same target region. prevent optimum workload distribution. but there are some methods you can use. they arise either because of the way in which one transaction passes data to another. you can review application design documentation or source code. In the case of a BTS transaction. Identifying affinities isn’t always easy.

21 .

many States and counties across the country have conducted workload studies using various methodologies to address their workforce issues. 22 . 2008). completing other administrative tasks. 2008)  Justifying resource allocations and building stakeholder support for caseload/workload management strategies Often working with expert consultants. Several States are now moving from point-in-time studies to periodic and automated tracking of workloads and caseloads to inform ongoing workforce decisions. Johnson.WORKLOAD STUDIES AND OTHER TOOLS The process of caseload and workload management often begins with workload and time studies. Analytic tools. traveling. serve as further supports to routinely assess caseload data and their implications for staffing and workflow management. and then identifying more efficient processes and practices  Exploring how various case characteristics (such as risk levels. which can lead to higher work satisfaction and boost staff morale (Edwards & Reynolds. number of siblings. In other States and counties. time. Workload studies can provide a foundation for:  Determining how many workers are needed to handle cases effectively in different program areas and then setting caseload standards and staff allocations accordingly  Understanding how much time workers spend on providing services to clients. 2002)  Managing work expectations. and frequently compare the actual data with estimations of what is needed to deliver quality services and best practices. etc. documenting their work. or other reasons to conduct workload studies. immigrant status) can influence workload and assessing workflow implications (Tooman & Fluke. like those used in Minnesota and New Jersey. it has not been feasible for cost. These studies analyze how work is being done and how time is spent. These jurisdictions can still improve their workforce management by learning from other workload study findings to approximate their staffing and workforce needs (Wagner.. however. & Healy.

enabling job sharing and flex time. Delaware. While adding staff may be the most obvious approach to reducing caseloads and workloads. In addition. providing mentoring initiatives. Several States that have added large numbers of new positions (e. and providing stipends for bilingual staff or for masters in social work. To reduce turnover—which is both a consequence and a cause of high workloads—agencies are introducing employee recognition and reward programs. 23 ..g. Caseload/workload strategies related to staffing reflect:  Recruitment of new staff.  Retention of existing staff. including adopting new outreach strategies. enhancing supervision and support. and offering opportunities for professional development and advanced education.Maine. internships. 2008). and New Jersey) have been supported by legislation or consent decrees.STRATEGIES FOR WORKLOAD MANAGEMENT Strategies to reduce caseloads and workloads include targeted efforts as well as broader initiatives in three categories:    Staffing Improving worker effectiveness Implementing program and practice changes Staffing Manageable caseloads and workloads are functions in large part of the number of qualified staff available to handle cases. and use of videos that provide recruits with a more realistic view of child welfare work (for examples. offering higher salaries. Agencies are implementing a range of activities to attract qualified applicants. revising hiring practices. retention efforts include practices intended to improve the match between the worker and the job through competency-based hiring (Bernotavicz. see Realistic Job Preview Videos from Colorado. it often is constrained by available funding and the lack of qualified applicants for open positions. Indiana.

 Reallocation of staff. Good supervision helps workers gain knowledge and build the skills needed to conduct their work more effectively and efficiently. Improving Worker Effectiveness Agencies also address workload management through practices that aim to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of workers.  Specialized and support staff.. others assign support staff to help lessen caseworker paperwork and administrative tasks. In making reallocation and case assignment decisions.. research points to supportive supervision as a critical factor in 24 . Agencies are delivering a variety of training initiatives to build competencies and align skills with new practice models. 2006). funding for child welfare staff to pursue graduate social work degrees (e. Well-trained staff is able to complete tasks accurately and in a timely manner. studies suggest that educational programs provide workers with both competencies and increased commitment to their jobs. agencies (e. in some cases.  Supervision. Some States develop specialized staff units or positions to allocate workloads more efficiently.. In some instances. In addition. Many States also are conducting exit interviews to determine why staff leaves and using findings to inform new retention initiatives (Robison. so that once in place.and North Carolina). In addition.g. 2005). Some States have formed university-agency partnerships that provide training and.g. staff can handle more cases or work in less time. Strategies include:  Training and professional development. which are associated with retention (Zlotnik et al. New York's Social Work Education Consortium). States may consider not only the number of cases but also the type of case and level of effort required. in Maryland and Idaho) have been reallocating staff to more efficiently address workloads and caseload distribution.

2003. scheduling.  Quality assurance. and make use of waiting time. workers in Vermont carry cell phones that not only offer telephone service but also email. Design teams. Bringing together staff of every level from frontline workers and supervisors up through managers and administrators. and workers in Iowa are using SACWIS as a case management tool and resource for decision-making.reducing turnover (Zlotnik et al. mentoring opportunities. access information that supports decision-making.  coaching initiatives. GAO. 2007.  Tools and technology. Juby & Scannapieco. 2005. and feedback mechanisms. workers in parts of Texas. 25 .. and modem functions. and Oklahoma take tablet PCs into the field to aid in streamlined documentation. For example. and improve the supervisor-caseworker relationship through supervisory training. build supervisor skills. design teams in New York State and elsewhere are used first to identify workforce issues and their causes and then to develop and implement workable solutions.) Agencies are working to reduce staff/supervisor ratios. Agencies are using current technologies and mobile devices to help workers document casework more efficiently. Wisconsin. States and localities are implementing case review processes and quality assurance efforts to ensure effectiveness.

 Permanency initiatives. nevertheless.. they can. Arizona and Idaho are among the States that recognize prevention and early intervention as part of their workload/caseload management strategies. others approach caseload/workload management by reducing the "work. n. While systemwide reforms such as new practice models and systems of care may not always be identified as caseload/workload management. or remain in the system. decreasing the number of children and families who enter. and other avenues to permanency as a means to reduce caseloads.  Prevention and early intervention. employing initiatives related to kinship care. Other States and jurisdictions—for example.." i.e. slide 15). yield significant results in reducing caseloads and workloads. Some argue that such efforts will not be effective without attention to caseload and workload (Children's Bureau.  Other systems reforms. Agencies seek to reduce the number of cases entering the child welfare system through in-home and other prevention services as well as differential/alternative response initiatives. reenter. New York (Levy Credits Foster Care. 2009)—focus on the backend of the system. 26 . Suffolk County.IMPLEMENTING PROGRAM AND PRACTICE CHANGES While some States focus on enlarging or enhancing the workforce. adoption.d.

responsibilities and activities necessary as part of your job (activity and demand). A continuous cycle of analysis and planning is necessary to ensure time is available for all activities and that the workload is 'balanced'. Sort them into the four activity clusters identified above. Is there a balance? Discuss with your manager or supervisor strategies to cope with an imbalance between demand/activities and capacity.   Reflect on your capacity to do the required work/activity. 27 .  Brainstorm all the roles.WORKLOAD MANAGEMENT & YOU A workload analysis process is necessary for Allied Health Professionals to ensure that time available to perform required activities is consistent with the time available.  Discuss with your manager the percentage of time that should be allocated to each cluster (and if possible each role).