Campbell's Biology, 9e (Reece et al.

) Chapter 22 Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life Chapter 22 details the history of evolutionary thought, presents the conceptual background of the evolutionary mechanisms proposed by Lamarck and Darwin, and introduces students to the major lines of evidence supporting the theory of evolution. Questions concerning history are mostly concentrated at the lower levels of loom!s ta"onomy, whereas those concerning the conceptual background and evidence for evolution involve higher levels of loom!s ta"onomy. # set of three scenario$based %uestions concerning Darwin!s finches is new to this edition. &ultiple$Choice Questions '( )hich of the following statements best describes theories* #( +hey are nearly the same things as hypotheses. ( +hey are supported by, and make sense of, many observations. C( +hey cannot be tested because the described events occurred only once. D( +hey are predictions of future events. +opic, Concept 22.' -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension 2( Catastrophism, meaning the regular occurrence of geological or meteorological disturbances 0catastrophes(, was Cuvier1s attempt to e"plain the e"istence of #( evolution. ( the fossil record. C( uniformitarianism. D( the origin of new species. 2( natural selection. +opic, Concept 22.' -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension 3( )ith what other idea of his time was Cuvier1s theory of catastrophism most in conflict* #( gradualism ( the fi"ity of species C( island biogeography D( uniformitarianism 2( the scala naturae +opic, Concept 22.' -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension

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8( )hat was the prevailing belief prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin* #( 2arth is a few thousand years old, and populations are unchanging. ( 2arth is a few thousand years old, and populations gradually change. C( 2arth is millions of years old, and populations rapidly change. D( 2arth is millions of years old, and populations are unchanging. 2( 2arth is millions of years old, and populations gradually change. +opic, Concept 22.' -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension 9( During a study session about evolution, one of your fellow students remarks, :+he giraffe stretched its neck while reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result.: )hich statement is most likely to be helpful in correcting this student1s misconception* #( Characteristics ac%uired during an organism1s life are generally not passed on through genes. ( -pontaneous mutations can result in the appearance of new traits. C( <nly favorable adaptations have survival value. D( Disuse of an organ may lead to its eventual disappearance. 2( 7f the giraffes did not have to compete with each other, longer necks would not have been passed on to the ne"t generation. +opic, Concept 22.' -kill, #pplication/#nalysis =( )hich of the following is the most accurate summary of Cuvier1s consideration of fossils found in the vicinity of 6aris* #( e"tinction of species yes; evolution of new species yes ( e"tinction of species no; evolution of new species yes C( e"tinction of species yes; evolution of new species no D( e"tinction of species no; evolution of new species yes +opic, Concept 22.' -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension >( 7n the mid$'?55s, the -oviet geneticist Lysenko believed that his winter wheat plants, e"posed to ever$colder temperatures, would eventually give rise to ever more cold$tolerant winter wheat. Lysenko1s attempts in this regard were most in agreement with the ideas of #( Cuvier. ( @utton. C( Lamarck. D( Darwin. 2( Lyell. +opic, Concept 22.' -kill, #pplication/#nalysis

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A( Charles Darwin was the first person to propose #( that evolution occurs. ( a mechanism for how evolution occurs. C( that 2arth is older than a few thousand years. D( a mechanism for evolution that was supported by evidence. 2( that population growth can outpace the growth of food resources. +opic, Concept 22.2 -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension ?( )hich of these conditions should completely prevent the occurrence of natural selection in a population over time* #( #ll variation between individuals is due only to environmental factors. ( +he environment is changing at a relatively slow rate. C( +he population siBe is large. D( +he population lives in a habitat where there are no competing species present. +opic, Concept 22.2 -kill, #pplication/#nalysis '5( Catural selection is based on all of the following except #( genetic variation e"ists within populations. ( the best$adapted individuals tend to leave the most offspring. C( individuals who survive longer tend to leave more offspring than those who die young. D( populations tend to produce more individuals than the environment can support. 2( individuals adapt to their environments and, thereby, evolve. +opic, Concept 22.2 -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension ''( )hich of the following represents an idea that Darwin learned from the writings of +homas &althus* #( +echnological innovation in agricultural practices will permit e"ponential growth of the human population into the foreseeable future. ( 6opulations tend to increase at a faster rate than their food supply normally allows. C( 2arth changed over the years through a series of catastrophic upheavals. D( +he environment is responsible for natural selection. 2( 2arth is more than '5,555 years old. +opic, Concept 22.2 -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension

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'2( Diven a population that contains genetic variation, what is the correct se%uence of the following events, under the influence of natural selection* '. )ell$adapted individuals leave more offspring than do poorly adapted individuals. 2. # change occurs in the environment. 3. Denetic fre%uencies within the population change. 8. 6oorly adapted individuals have decreased survivorship. #( 2 E 8 E ' E 3 (8E2E'E3 C( 8 E ' E 2 E 3 D( 8 E 2 E 3 E ' 2( 2 E 8 E 3 E ' +opic, Concept 22.2 -kill, -ynthesis/2valuation '3( # biologist studied a population of s%uirrels for '9 years. During that time, the population was never fewer than 35 s%uirrels and never more than 89. @er data showed that over half of the s%uirrels born did not survive to reproduce, because of both competition for food and predation. 7n a single generation, ?5F of the s%uirrels that were born lived to reproduce, and the population increased to A5. )hich inference0s( about this population might be true* #( +he amount of available food may have increased. ( +he parental generation of s%uirrels developed better eyesight due to improved diet; the subse%uent s%uirrel generation inherited better eyesight. C( +he s%uirrels of subse%uent generations should show greater levels of genetic variation than previous generations, because s%uirrels that would not have survived in the past will now survive. D( +hree of the statements above are correct. 2( +wo of the statements above are correct. +opic, Concept 22.2 -kill, -ynthesis/2valuation '8( )hich of the following must e"ist in a population before natural selection can act upon that population* #( genetic variation among individuals ( variation among individuals caused by environmental factors C( se"ual reproduction D( +hree of the responses are correct. 2( +wo of the responses are correct. +opic, Concept 22.2 -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension

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'9( )hich of Darwin1s ideas had the strongest connection to Darwin having read &althus1s essay on human population growth* #( descent with modification ( variation among individuals in a population C( struggle for e"istence D( the ability of related species to be conceptualiBed in :tree thinking: 2( that the ancestors of the DalGpagos finches had come from the -outh #merican mainland +opic, Concept 22.2 -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension '=( 7f Darwin had been aware of genes, and of their typical mode of transmission to subse%uent generations, with which statement would he most likely have been in agreement* #( 7f natural selection can change one gene1s fre%uency in a population over the course of generations then, given enough time and enough genes, natural selection can cause sufficient genetic change to produce new species from old ones. ( 7f an individual1s somatic cell genes change during its lifetime, making it more fit, then it will be able to pass these genes on to its offspring. C( 7f an individual ac%uires new genes by engulfing, or being infected by, another organism, then a new genetic species will be the result. D( # single mutation in a single gene in a single gamete will, if perpetuated, produce a new species within just two generations. +opic, Concept 22.2 -kill, #pplication/#nalysis '>( +he role that humans play in artificial selection is to #( determine who lives and who dies. ( create the genetic variants, which nature then selects. C( choose which organisms breed, and which do not. D( train organisms to breed more successfully. 2( perform artificial insemination. +opic, Concept 22.2 -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension 'A( Currently, two e"tant elephant species 0H and I( are placed in the genus Loxodonta, and a third species 0J( is placed in the genus Elephas. +hus, which statement should be true* #( -pecies H and I are not related to species J. ( -pecies H and I share a greater number of homologies with each other than either does with species J. C( -pecies H and I share a common ancestor that is still e"tant 0in other words, not yet e"tinct(. D( -pecies H and I are the result of artificial selection from an ancestral species J. 2( -pecies H, I, and J share a common ancestor, but nothing more can be claimed than this. +opic, Concepts 22.2, 22.3 -kill, #pplication/#nalysis

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'?( +he rise of methicillin$resistant Staphylococcus aureus 0&K-#( can be considered to be an e"ample of artificial selection because #( humans purposefully raise &K-# in large fermenters in an attempt to make the bacteria ever$more resistant. ( S. aureus is cultivated by humans to replenish the soil with nutrients. C( humans synthesiBe methicillin and create environments in which bacteria fre%uently come into contact with methicillin. D( @umans are becoming resistant to bacteria by taking methicillin. +opic, Concepts 22.2, 22.3 -kill, #pplication/#nalysis 25( 7n a hypothetical environment, fishes called pike$cichlids are visual predators of algae$eating fish 0in other words, they locate their prey by sight(. 7f a population of algae$eaters e"periences predation pressure from pike$cichlids, which of the following is least likely to be observed in the algae$eater population over the course of many generations* #( selection for drab coloration of the algae$eaters ( selection for nocturnal algae$eaters 0active only at night( C( selection for larger female algae$eaters, bearing broods composed of more, and larger, young D( selection for algae$eaters that become se"ually mature at smaller overall body siBes 2( selection for algae$eaters that are faster swimmers +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, -ynthesis/2valuation 2'( DD+ was once considered a :silver bullet: that would permanently eradicate insect pests. +oday, instead, DD+ is largely useless against many insects. )hich of these would have been re%uired for this pest eradication effort to be successful in the long run* #( Larger doses of DD+ should have been applied. ( #ll habitats should have received applications of DD+ at about the same time. C( +he fre%uency of DD+ application should have been higher. D( Cone of the individual insects should have possessed genomes that made them resistant to DD+. 2( DD+ application should have been continual. +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, #pplication/#nalysis 22( 7f the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus e"periences a cost for maintaining one or more antibiotic$ resistance genes, then what should happen in environments from which antibiotics are missing* #( +hese genes should continue to be maintained in case the antibiotics ever appear. ( +hese bacteria should be outcompeted and replaced by bacteria that have lost these genes. C( +he bacteria should try to make the cost worthwhile by locating, and migrating to, microenvironments where traces of antibiotics are present. D( +he bacteria should start making and secreting their own antibiotics. +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, #pplication/#nalysis

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23( <f the following anatomical structures, which is homologous to the bones in the wing of a bird* #( cartilage in the dorsal fin of a shark ( bones in the hind limb of a kangaroo C( chitinous struts in the wing of a butterfly D( bony rays in the tail fin of a flying fish 2( bones in the flipper of a whale +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension 28( 7f two modern organisms are distantly related in an evolutionary sense, then one should e"pect that #( they live in very different habitats. ( they should share fewer homologous structures than two more closely related organisms. C( their chromosomes should be very similar. D( they shared a common ancestor relatively recently. 2( they should be members of the same genus. +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension 29( -tructures as different as human arms, bat wings, and dolphin flippers contain many of the same bones, these bones having developed from very similar embryonic tissues. @ow do biologists interpret these similarities* #( by identifying the bones as being homologous structures ( by the principle of convergent evolution C( by proposing that humans, bats, and dolphins share a common ancestor D( +hree of the statements above are correct. 2( +wo of the statements above are correct. +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, #pplication/#nalysis 2=( <ver evolutionary time, many cave$dwelling organisms have lost their eyes. +apeworms have lost their digestive systems. )hales have lost their hind limbs. @ow can natural selection account for these losses* #( Catural selection cannot account for losses, only for innovations. ( Catural selection accounts for these losses by the principle of use and disuse. C( Lnder particular circumstances that persisted for long periods, each of these structures presented greater costs than benefits. D( +he ancestors of these organisms e"perienced harmful mutations that forced them to find new habitats that these species had not previously used. +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, #pplication/#nalysis

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2>( )hich of the following pieces of evidence most strongly supports the common origin of all life on 2arth* #( #ll organisms re%uire energy. ( #ll organisms use essentially the same genetic code. C( #ll organisms reproduce. D( #ll organisms show heritable variation. 2( #ll organisms have undergone evolution. +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, -ynthesis/2valuation 2A( Logically, which of these should cast the most doubt on the relationships depicted by an evolutionary tree* #( Cone of the organisms depicted by the tree ate the same foods. ( -ome of the organisms depicted by the tree had lived in different habitats. C( +he skeletal remains of the organisms depicted by the tree were incomplete 0in other words, some bones were missing(. D( +ransitional fossils had not been found. 2( Kelationships between DC# se%uences among the species did not match relationships between skeletal patterns. +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, -ynthesis/2valuation 2?( )hich of the following statements most detracts from the claim that the human appendi" is a completely vestigial organ* #( +he appendi" can be surgically removed with no immediate ill effects. ( +he appendi" might have been larger in fossil hominids. C( +he appendi" has a substantial amount of defensive lymphatic tissue. D( 7ndividuals with a larger$than$average appendi" leave fewer offspring than those with a below$ average$siBed appendi". 2( 7n a million years, the human species might completely lack an appendi". +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, -ynthesis/2valuation 35( &embers of two different species possess a similar$looking structure that they use in a similar fashion to perform the same function. )hich information would best help distinguish between an e"planation based on homology versus one based on convergent evolution* #( +he two species live at great distance from each other. ( +he two species share many proteins in common, and the nucleotide se%uences that code for these proteins are almost identical. C( +he siBes of the structures in adult members of both species are similar in siBe. D( oth species are well adapted to their particular environments. +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, -ynthesis/2valuation

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3'( 7chthyosaurs were a%uatic dinosaurs. Mossils show us that they had dorsal fins and tails, as do fish, even though their closest relatives were terrestrial reptiles that had neither dorsal fins nor a%uatic tails. +he dorsal fins and tails of ichthyosaurs and fish are #( homologous. ( e"amples of convergent evolution. C( adaptations to a common environment. D( +hree of the responses above are correct. 2( +wo of the responses above are correct. +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension 32( oth ancestral birds and ancestral mammals shared a common ancestor that was terrestrial. +oday, penguins 0which are birds( and seals 0which are mammals( have forelimbs adapted for swimming. )hat term best describes the relationship of the bones in the forelimbs of penguins and seals, and what term best describes the flippers of penguins and seals* #( homologous; homologous ( analogous; homologous C( homologous; analogous D( analogous; analogous +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, #pplication/#nalysis 33( )hat must be true of any organ that is described as vestigial* #( 7t must be analogous to some feature in an ancestor. ( 7t must be homologous to some feature in an ancestor. C( 7t must be both homologous and analogous to some feature in an ancestor. D( 7t need be neither homologous nor analogous to some feature in an ancestor. +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension 38( )hat is true of pseudogenes* #( +hey are composed of KC#, rather than DC#. ( +hey are the same things as introns. C( +hey are unrelated genes that code for the same gene product. D( +hey are vestigial genes. +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension

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39( 7t has been observed that organisms on islands are different from, but closely related to, similar forms found on the nearest continent. +his is taken as evidence that #( island forms and mainland forms descended from common ancestors. ( common environments are inhabited by the same organisms. C( the islands were originally part of the continent. D( the island forms and mainland forms are converging. 2( island forms and mainland forms have identical gene pools. +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension 3=( 7f one wanted to find the largest number of endemic species, one should visit which of the following geological features 0assuming each has e"isted for several millions of years(* #( an isolated ocean island in the tropics ( an e"tensive mountain range C( a midcontinental grassland with e"treme climatic conditions D( a shallow estuary on a warm$water coast +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension 3>( # high degree of endemism is most likely in environments that are #( easily reached and heterogeneous. ( isolated and heterogeneous. C( isolated and homogeneous. D( isolated and e"tremely cold. 2( easily reached and homogeneous. +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension

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#rt Questions +he following %uestions refer to Migure 22.', which shows an outcrop of sedimentary rock whose strata are labeled #D.

Figure 22. 3A( 7f x indicates the location of fossils of two closely related species, then fossils of their most$recent common ancestor are most likely to occur in which stratum* #( # ( C( C D( D +opic, Concept 22.' -kill, #pplication/#nalysis 3?( 7f x indicates the fossils of two closely related species, neither of which is e"tinct, then their remains may be found in how many of these strata* #( one stratum ( two strata C( three strata D( four strata +opic, Concept 22.' -kill, #pplication/#nalysis

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85( Currently, two e"tant elephant species 0H and I( are placed in the genus Loxodonta and a third species 0J( is placed in the genus Elephas. #ssuming this classification reflects evolutionary relatedness, which of the following is the most accurate phylogenetic tree* #(

(

C(

D(

2(

+opic, Concept 22.2 -kill, #pplication/#nalysis

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+he following %uestions refer to the evolutionary tree in Migure 22.2. +he horiBontal a"is of the cladogram depicted below is a timeline that e"tends from '55,555 years ago to the present; the vertical a"is represents nothing in particular. +he labeled branch points on the tree 0N OJ( represent various common ancestors. Let1s say that only since 95,555 years ago has there been enough variation between the lineages depicted here to separate them into distinct species, and only the tips of the lineages on this tree represent distinct species.

Figure 22.2 8'( @ow many separate species, both e"tant and e"tinct, are depicted in this tree* #( two ( three C( four D( five 2( si" +opic, Concepts 22.2, 22.3 -kill, #pplication/#nalysis 82( #ccording to this tree, what percent of the species seem to be e"tant 0in other words, not e"tinct(* #( 29F ( 33F C( 95F D( ==F 2( >9F +opic, Concepts 22.2, 22.3 -kill, #pplication/#nalysis

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83( )hich of the five common ancestors, labeled N$J, has given rise to the greatest number of species, both e"tant and e"tinct* #( N () C( J D( oth ) and J can be considered to have given rise to the greatest number of e"tant and e"tinct species. 2( oth H and I can be considered to have given rise to the greatest number of e"tant and e"tinct species. +opic, Concepts 22.2, 22.3 -kill, #pplication/#nalysis 88( )hich of the five common ancestors, labeled N$J, has been least successful in terms of the percent of its derived species that are e"tant* #( N () C( H D( I 2( J +opic, Concepts 22.2, 22.3 -kill, #pplication/#nalysis 89( )hich of the five common ancestors, labeled N$J, has been most successful in terms of the percent of its derived species that are e"tant* #( N () C( H D( I 2( J +opic, Concepts 22.2, 22.3 -kill, #pplication/#nalysis 8=( )hich pair would probably have agreed with the process that is depicted by this tree* #( Cuvier and Lamarck ( Lamarck and )allace C( #ristotle and Lyell D( )allace and Linnaeus 2( Linnaeus and Lamarck +opic, Concepts 22.', 22.2 -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension

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8>( 2volutionary trees such as this are properly understood by scientists to be #( theories. ( hypotheses. C( guesses. D( dogmas. 2( facts. +opic, Concepts 22.2, 22.3 -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension -cenario Questions #bout '3 different species of finches inhabit the DalGpagos 7slands today, all descendants of a common ancestor from the -outh #merican mainland that arrived a few million years ago. Denetically, there are four distinct lineages, but the '3 species are currently classified among three genera. +he first lineage to diverge from the ancestral lineage was the warbler finch 0genus Certhidea(. Ce"t to diverge was the vegetarian finch 0genus Camarhynchus(, followed by five tree finch species 0also in genus Camarhynchus( and si" ground finch species 0genus Geospiza(. 8A( 7f the si" ground finch species have evolved most recently, then which of these is the most logical prediction* #( +hey should be limited to the si" islands that most recently emerged from the sea. ( +heir genomes should be more similar to each other than are the genomes of the five tree finch species. C( +hey should share fewer anatomical homologies with each other than they share with the tree finches. D( +he chances of hybridiBation between two ground finch species should be less than the chances of hybridiBation between two tree finch species. +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, #pplication/#nalysis 8?( #ccording to a '??? study, the vegetarian finch is genetically no more similar to the tree finches than it is to the ground finches, despite the fact that it is placed in the same genus as the tree finches. ased on this finding, it is reasonable to conclude that the vegetarian finch #( is no more closely related to the tree finches than it is to the ground finches, despite its classification. ( should be re$classified as a warbler finch. C( is not truly a descendent of the original ancestral finch. D( is a hybrid species, resulting from a cross between a ground finch and a tree finch. +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, #pplication/#nalysis

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95( # '8th species that descended from the original ancestral finch, the Cocos 7sland finch, is endemic to its namesake island, located 995 km off Costa Kica. +he Cocos 7sland finch is genetically much more similar to the tree finches than is the vegetarian finch, yet it is classified in its own genus Pinarolaxias. &oreover, the Cocos 7sland finch and the vegetarian finch are the two finch species that are most genetically different from the ancestral DalGpagos finch. +hus, if classification is to reflect evolutionary relationships, the vegetarian finch should #( remain in the genus Camarhynchus. ( be switched from Camarhynchus to Certhidea. C( be switched from Camarhynchus to Pinarolaxias. D( be switched from Camarhynchus to Geospiza. 2( be placed in its own genus. +opic, Concept 22.3 -kill, -ynthesis/2valuation 2nd$of$Chapter Questions +he following %uestions are from the end$of$chapter P+est Iour LnderstandingQ section in Chapter 22 of the te"tbook. 9'( )hich of the following is not an observation or inference on which natural selection is based* #( +here is heritable variation among individuals. ( 6oorly adapted individuals never produce offspring. C( -pecies produce more offspring than the environment can support. D( 7ndividuals whose characteristics are best suited to the environment generally leave more offspring than those whose characteristics are less well suited. 2( <nly a fraction of an individual1s offspring may survive. +opic, 2nd$of$Chapter Questions -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension 92( )hich of the following observations helped Darwin shape his concept of descent with modification* #( -pecies diversity declines farther from the e%uator. ( Mewer species live on islands than on the nearest continents. C( irds can be found on islands located farther from the mainland than the birds1 ma"imum nonstop flight distance. D( -outh #merican temperate plants are more similar to the tropical plants of -outh #merica than to the temperate plants of 2urope. 2( 2arth%uakes reshape life by causing mass e"tinctions. +opic, 2nd$of$Chapter Questions -kill, .nowledge/Comprehension

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93( )ithin si" months of effectively using methicillin to treat S. aureus infections in a community, all new infections were caused by &K-#. @ow can this result best be e"plained* #( S. aureus can resist vaccines. ( # patient must have become infected with &K-# from another community. C( 7n response to the drug, S. aureus began making drug$resistant versions of the protein targeted by the drug. D( -ome drug$resistant bacteria were present at the start of treatment, and natural selection increased their fre%uency. 2( +he drug caused the S. aureus DC# to change. +opic, 2nd$of$Chapter Questions -kill, #pplication/#nalysis 98( +he upper forelimbs of humans and bats have fairly similar skeletal structures, whereas the corresponding bones in whales have very different shapes and proportions. @owever, genetic data suggest that all three kinds of organisms diverged from a common ancestor at about the same time. )hich of the following is the most likely e"planation for these data* #( @umans and bats evolved by natural selection, and whales evolved by Lamarckian mechanisms. ( Morelimb evolution was adaptive in people and bats, but not in whales. C( Catural selection in an a%uatic environment resulted in significant changes to whale forelimb anatomy. D( Denes mutate faster in whales than in humans or bats. 2( )hales are not properly classified as mammals. +opic, 2nd$of$Chapter Questions -kill, #pplication/#nalysis 99( DC# se%uences in many human genes are very similar to the se%uences of corresponding genes in chimpanBees. +he most likely e"planation for this result is that #( humans and chimpanBees share a relatively recent common ancestor. ( humans evolved from chimpanBees. C( chimpanBees evolved from humans. D( convergent evolution led to the DC# similarities. 2( humans and chimpanBees are not closely related. +opic, 2nd$of$Chapter Questions -kill, #pplication/#nalysis

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