MAZLINA BINTI JAAMAT (0917956) ANIZA HAZA BINTI MOHD TAHAR (0919110

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€ BIOGRAPHY € THE THEORY OF THE CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS € HUNTINGTON¶S CRITICS € REACTIONS TO HUNTINGTON¶S THEORY .

1927. in New York City € earned his Master's degree from the University of Chicago. and completed his Ph. 2008 at age 81 € . € Born April 18.Samuel Phillips Huntington. € Huntington died on December 24.D. at Harvard University € American Political Scientist & Professor at Harvard University.

blood and belief.€ The world will experience and witness cultural conflicts along cultural and religious lines. are what people identify with and what they will fight and die for. ¾ Faith and family. ¾ Conflicts between civilization rather than nations or ideologies. .

€ Divides the world into seven/ eight major civilizations( based on religion. geographical proximity and language): ¾ Western ¾ Latin America ¾ Orthodox ¾ Islamic Civilization ¾ Hindu Civilization ¾ Sinic Civilization ¾ Japanese Civilization ¾ Sub-Saharan Africa .

€ Sinic and Islamic civilizations.future threats to the West. the West is likely to have consistently strained and often highly antagonistic relations´ (p. Islam and China. 184) ¾ An µIslamic-Confucian connection¶ is emerging against the West. ¾ Early actions need to be taken to prevent conflicts from spreading into world wars. x ³W ith the challenger civilizations. . € Western civilization may lose its predominance if fail to recognize cultural conflicts.

Eg: Turkey.¾ The challenge for Western policy-makers is to make sure that the West gets stronger. € ³Torn countries´-countries that are seeking to affiliate with another civilization. with the potential to move in different directions. € The Orthodox. € . Hindu and Japanese civilizations are ³swing´ civilizations. Continued insistence towards democratizations and interventionism will only further antagonize other civilizations.

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What is a Civilization? Three attributes: 1) Objective -language.variable levels of selfidentification 3) Dynamic .they rise and fall. religion. divide and merge . institutions 2) Subjective . history. customs.

The Two Levels of the Clash 2) macro level states from different civilizations compete for political and economic power 1 ) micro level groups clash along the ³fault lines´ of adjacent civilizations .

. Absurd because it is often easier for the people of different cultures to get along because they suspend their standard judgements. His advocacy to take early actions to prevent world wars ± explains US policy of attacking countries that are not currently a threat but could potentially be one in the future.Huntington¶s Critics His theory serves as the theoretical basis to legitimize USled W est aggression against others.

conflicts within the same culture: -the Hutus and Tutsis -North and South Korea -China and Taiwan -the Falkland Island Crisis His identified civilizations present little unity e.g.E. -Vietnam (Sinic Civ) stills keeps a massive army.g.Cultural differences between Korean and China are not less important than between Japan and China . mostly to guard against China -The Muslim world divided along ethnic and religious lines .

Became famous after the United Nation (UN) adopted a resolution to name the year 2001 as the ³YEAR OF DIALGUE AMONG CIVILIZATIONS´ .Introduced by Muhammad Khatami.A theory in international relations .There are currently several international organizations that are directly or indirectly pursuing the idea . former President of Iran .As a response to Huntington¶s theory .1) ³Dialogue Among Civilizations´ .

the High-Level Group (HLG) for the Alliance of Civilization (AoC) consists of eminent policy-makers. 2nd meeting (Feb 2006) - - - . leaders of societies and media 1st meeting (Nov 2005). Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero in the 59th General Assembly of the UN Supported by Turkish Prime Minister A committee. academicians.2) ³Allience of Civilization´ - A proposed conference to overcome cultural and social barriers between mainly the Christian and Muslim world Proposed by Spanish PrimeMinister.

Or ³China¶s Peaceful Development´ - First used by Zheng Bijian. and that other nations will benefit from the rise of PRC Emphasizes multilateral cooperation through institutions like µSix Power Talks¶.3) ³China¶s Peaceful Rise´ . a leader of CCP in 2003 To reassure the nations of East Asia and United States that the PRC in military and economic prominence will not be a threat to peace and stability. and calls for peaceful diplomacy over border disputes Seeks to avoid confrontation with the US - - .