Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum.

3(1): 87-96 (1993)

ISSN: 0128-7702 © Penerbit Universiti Pertanian Malaysia

Physical Fitness Test Battery for Malaysian Schoolchildren Aged 13 - 15 Years
JABAR HA}I JOHARI and TAN KOK SIANG
National Sports Council o f Malaysia Stadium Negara, Jalan Hang Jebat P.O. Box 10440, 50714 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Keywords: reliability, test battery, physical fitness, test and re-test, interclass coefficient, test for independence
ABSTRAK Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk menentukan anggaran kebolehpercayaan tujuh sub-ujian yang terdapat di dalam Ujian Kecergasan Fizilak Majlis Sukan Negara untuk menguji subjek bagi Projek Sarawak dan Projek Tunas Cemerlang. Bateri ujian tersebut telah diuji dan ulang-uji dengan menggunakan sampel yang terdiri daripada 25 pelajar (min. umur 14.2 tahun, s.d. 0.51). Ulang uji dilaksanakan selepas tiga hari, dan anggaran intrakelas R dikira menggunakan kaedah ANOVA. Ujian F (tahap keertian 0.05) digunakan untuk menguji kebebasan ulangan mendapati kesan peergantungan bagi ujian-ujian 1500 meter dan duduk dan jangkau. Pada keseluruhannya nilai koefisien kebolehpercayaan intrakelas yang tinggi telah diperolehi, yakin 0.97 (lari 1500 meter); 0.96 (duduk -jangkau); 0.96 (pecut 50 m); 0.95 (larian ketangkasan); 0.94 (gayut siku bengkok); 0.94 (lom^at saijan) dan 0.86 (bangkit tubi). ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to estimate the reliability of 7 subtests in the National Sports Council physical fitness test battery as used in their Sports Science Division’s ‘Sarawak Project’ and Talent Development Division’s ‘Budding Talent’ (Tunas Cemerlang) programmes. The test battery was administered to a sample class of 25 students (mean age 14.2 years, s.d. 0.51) on 2 occasions, three days apart, to estimate the intraclass R using ANOVA procedures. The F-test for independence of trials (significance level of 0.05) detected a dependency for the 1500m run and the sit and reach test. High values of intraclass reliability coefficient were obtained: 0.97 (1500 m run); 0.96 (sit and reach, and 50 m run); 0.95 (agility run); 0.94 (flexed-arm hang, and sargent jump) and 0.86 (sit-up).

INTRODUCTION

The Sports Science Division of the National Sports Council of Malaysia (NSC) has developed the National Sports Council Physical Fitness Test Battery. It was the aim of this study to establish the validity and reliability of this national fitness test battery, which could contribute significandy towards the development of a truly Malaysian physical fitness test battery. The test was used by the Sports Science Division to assess the physical fitness of Sarawak schoolchildren aged 13-15 in the ‘Sarawak Project’. The test was again used to assess the physical fitness of schoolchildren aged 13-15 throughout Malaysia who were selected for the ‘Budding Talent’ programme by the Talent Development Division of the National Sports Council. With the availability of a valid

and reliable instrument for testing physical fitness parameters, the process of talent identification in Malaysia could be enhanced and rendered reliable and scientific. It is also perceived that the findings of this study could contribute significantly towards the development of a fitness test battery for both the schools and the general population of Malaysia. T he NSC physical fitness test battery comprises seven subtests. The testing procedures were carried out by trained schoolteachers and NSC officials so that the validity and reliability of the test battery, including the subtests, could be thoroughly investigated. A review of Western literature yielded only reported values of the validity and reliability for each of the tests. It was deemed pertinent to re-examine the validity and

A sample class was obtained from Form 2A of Tun Dato’ Tuanku Haji Bujang The NSC physical fitness test battery consists of 2 sections. Section 2 comprises the subtests. & Hum. Furthermore. On 29th July 1991. the sargent jum p. Since face validity for each of the tests was accepted (Klesius 1968. The NSC research officer was the research co-ordinator and was assisted by Md. Sarawak. Soc. an estimate of the intraclass reliability R. Section 1 contains the subjects’ biodata (name. picked it up. Subjects ran as fast as they could on a marked 50-metre grass track. The training for the testers was conducted on 22-23 July 1991. as applied in Malaysia. protection and privacy of the hum an subjects were stricdy observed. b. It measures the agility of the subjects in run n in g and changing position. of the sit-up.Jabar Haji Johari and Tan Kok Siang reliability for each of the tests as applied in Malaysia. It involved 25 subjects (9 males and 16 females). Subjects stood behind the starting line. the 50 metre run. and on the signal “go” they ran to a baton placed 10 metres away. The 1500 metre run test was included to gauge cardiorespiratory fitness. of the sargent jum p. the agility run. the NSC physical fitness test battery was administered to the subjects in Trial 1. of the sit and reach. sitting height and reaching height}. an estimate of the intraclass reliability R. 1 1995 . sex. namely the 1500 metre run. and the sit-up. f. 3 No. socio-cultural and physical education background from those of Malaysian schoolchildren. of the flexed-arm hang. returned to the starting line. the flexed-arm hang. The agility run test was adapted from the AAHPER Shuttle Run (Safrit 1976). The training culminated with a mock trial in the administration of the test battery on a selected class of 30 schoolchildren from Miri. The sample class was randomly selected from a list of all secondary schools in Sarawak by a computer using the Lotus 123 version 2. an estimate of the intraclass reliability R. The 50 metre run test measures speed. The sampling procedure was carried out in May 1991. this paper was designed to look into a reliability estimation of the tests as applied in Malaysia. The subjects ran as fast as they could on a marked 400-metre grass track. Sarawak. any modification of the testing procedures. the sit and reach. protocols. of the 1500 metre run. standing height. No studies on the reliability estimation of similar physical fitness tests in Malaysia were found. Sarawak in JulyAugust 1991. of the agility run. Nelson and Johnson 1986. an estimate of the intraclass reliability R. g. placed the baton behind the line and repeated the process to pick up the second baton. Two attempts were allowed. Face validity was accepted for this test. m easurem ent techniques and safety procedures to be used in the tests. Three days later. Saadon Abd. METHOD The pilot study was undertaken by the NSC Sports Science Division in Miri. the same test battery was again administered to the same subjects in Trial 2. Description of Tests Reliability estimates reported in the various sources of literature were obtained from samples which vary a great deal in age. of the 50 metre run. Research has indicated that distance runs over one kilometre adequately assess cardiorespiratory capacity (Dinucci et a l 1990). Timing was done manually (to 2 decimal places) on a digital stop-watch. date of birth. These samples were drawn from American populations of 6-12 and 15-17 year-old ch ild re n an d adolescents.3 software. Significance College. A standing start was used. Face validity was accepted for this test (Nelson and Johnson 1986). make such reported values inapplicable. an estimate of the intraclass reliability R. Sci. an estimate of the intraclass reliability R. OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper was to field-test and obtain: a. Shukor and four local research assistants or testers employed on a contract basis. on 1st August 1991. d. Miri. an estimate of the intraclass reliability R. It was comprised of the test procedures. weight. Guidelines for the safety. e. The above comprise the subtests containe in the NSC physical fitness test battery. The score was the time taken (to the nearest second) to complete the run. with a 5-minute rest 88 Pertanika J. Dinucci et a l 1990). c. Vol.

Group C to Station C. On arrival at a station. Data Analysis Subjects reported to the research co-ordinator at 0730 hours.e. with the same test battery repeated on the same subjects. which was conducted after a one-hour rest interval. The research assistant and the remaining testers were responsible for supervising the recording of laps and finishing times. The sargent jum p test was adapted from the sargent chalk jum p. all groups moved to the grass track for the 50 metre run. Subjects were given 3 attempts. Group B to Station B. iii. The flexed-arm hang test is used to measure upper body muscular strength and endurance. With the assistance of a spotter. One subject performed situps and the other played the role of supporter and counted the num ber of sit-ups completed. 89 Pertanika J. the subject raised h is/h er body off the floor so that the chin was above the bars and the elbows flexed. The rotating group system was employed. sargent jum p. It is used to measure the power of the legs in jum ping vertically upwards. recording the num ber of laps and the final times as called out by the timekeeper.. The starter was the research co-ordinator who followed standard starting procedures. Vol.3 and dBase IV computer programs. 3 No. C and D) was followed by ten minutes of standard warming-up conducted by the research co­ ordinator. Subjects were divided into pairs to utilize All the data collected were centrally processed at the NSC Sports Science Division by the research co-ordinator. sit and reach. Division into four groups (A. Group A. iv. subjects were given instructions to move to one of the following testing stations: i. until the subject’s eyes dropped below the horizontal bar). Three days later. Subjects stood with one side against a wall. Group A to Station A. with a onem inute rest between each one. The subject was then required to jum p as high as possible and make another mark on the wall. flexed-arm hang. at the same place. The testers were the timekeepers and scorers. Face validity was accepted for this test (Nelson and Jo h n so n 1986). The timekeeper was a tester. A horizontal bar 3. 1921 (Nelson and Johnson 1986). Group C to Station D and Group D to Station A subsequently.Physical Fitness Test Battery for Malaysian Schoolchildren between them. Sci. Timing was done manually (to 2 decimal places) on a digital stop­ watch.78 has been reported for this test (Nelson and Johnson 1986). moved to Station B. The first test administered was the sit-up test. measured in centimetres (to 1 decimal place). Group B to Station C. to 1 decimal place) this position was held (i. A validity of 0. The score was the best of the 3. Three attempts were given. With the heels on the floor h e/sh e then reached as high as possible to make a mark on the wall. who also acted as the scorer. A new score sheet was used to ensure that the testers did not have access to the previous test scores. agility run. Between tests. Testing Protocol the partner system. For each 50 metre run. An overhand grip was used. Face validity was accepted for this test. ii. The data were analysed using Lotus 123 version 2. each group was briefed on the testing procedures by the tester. 1 1995 . Reliability estimates for interclass R were com puted using Pearson Product-Moment. and utilizing the same testing protocol in the exact order as Trial 1. heels together. and held a one inch piece of chalk in the hand nearest to the wall. The last test item was the 1500 metre run. Trial 2 was conducted. No rest was given between attempts. there were 4 subjects (one from each group). A fter the sit-up test. The score was the distance in centimetres (to the nearest half centimetre) between the reach (lower) mark and the highest jum p mark attained by the subject. the subjects were given a ten-minute rest. The score was the length of time (seconds. Upon completion of the four stations. B. Group D to Station D. The research co-ordinator was the starter who followed standard starting procedures. The partner system was utilized with one subject being the testee and the partner as the supporter. It was administered according to instructions as contained in the modified sit and reach test (Johnson 1977). The score was the faster time taken to complete the course. Soc. 8c Hum. At the end of each test. The sit and reach test is used to evaluate hip and back flexion as well as extension of the hamstring muscles of the legs.5 centimetres in diam eter was raised to a height such that the tallest subject could not touch the ground from the flexed-arm hang position. This m ethod is most appropriate in looking at correlation between Trial 1 and Trial 2.

05 level between the two trials.6 13.5 seconds.1 14. There was no significant difference (df24.31 cm and mean weight was 47.6 158.85 seconds.31 168.3 Reliability estimates for intraclass R were computed using ANOVA procedures. the mean score for Trial 1 was 12.5 49.05 level between the two trials.0 160.05 level between the two trials.18 0.5 14.0 51. In the 50 metre run (Table 3) the mean score for Trial 1 was 8. the mean score for Trial 1 was 11.0 42.5 13.5 44.3 14.0 168.0 155.0 38.22 65.0.0 41.0 55.0 46.21 seconds.22 + 0.03 seconds.0 14.9 14. F = 4.7 13.5 46.7 154.22 kg.5 154. height and weight o f subjects Date of Birth 26-04-78 28-10-77 09-07-77 21-11-77 09-10-77 23-10-76 24-09-77 17-07-77 30-10-77 12-05-77 03-01-77 27-01-77 01-07-77 06-12-75 22-02-77 26-01-77 11-09-77 04-01-77 19-10-77 03-08-77 19-11-77 15-12-77 04-07-77 23-03-77 23-04-77 No.7 13. and Safrit (1981).0 150. RESULTS Data collected in the study are presented in the following tables.0 Weight (kg) 42. the mean score for Trial 1 was 489.0 65.2 .5 150.2 144.0 164.0 43.5 60.90 + 55.2 164.8 13.0 33.5 47.0 158.8 14.6 14.0 48. mean height was 155.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Adeline Alison Aloysius Siran Annie Chua Collin Tang Devrin Jack Eii Meng Yin Florence Freda Wan Irene Tulsa Jacey Jerey Awang Kelvin Lahat Wan Marina Tan Nellie Philomena Polly Raymond Ruth Salvia Simbah Susan Terrance Ting Chek Chang Mean S.0 43.5 164.2 166.5 158.Jabar Haji Johari and Tan Kok Siang TABLE 1 Age.5 14.06 + 7.0 33. Pertanika J.51 years.8 14.27) at the 0.03 seconds. and a new ANOVA summary table was developed to test the trials for randomness again. F = 0.0 13. trials causing significant effect were deleted.51 15. Highest Lowest P P L P L L P P P P P L L P P P P P L P P P P L L 13.96 7.4 14. Soc.5 151. Name Sex Age Height (cm) 150. This procedure was advocated by Nelson and Johnson (1986).0 49. 90 This improvement in performance was significant (dfl5.83 seconds.3 150. Sci. 1 1995 .8 13.0 45.84 seconds.6 14.61 + 1. In Trial 2 it improved to 469.62 + 65.97) at the 0. For Trial 2 it was 11. In Table 1 it can be seen that the mean age of the subjects was 14.18 + 0.9 seconds.0 154.06 7. In the agility run (Table 4).0 63. In the flexed-arm hang (Table 5). If the trials lacked independence.1 15.0 42.3 + 13.5 48.9 14. For Trial 2 it was 8. In the 1500 metre run (Table 2).4 160. Vol.0 164.D.14.9 + 16.3 13.0 50.30) at the 0.7 14. F= 1.05 level. 3 No.2 153.0 143.6 155.4 14.8 13. F = 0. T here was no significant difference (df24.97) at the 0.53 + 1.0 42.0 45.5 48. & Hum.15 -I. There was no significant difference (df24.1 13. For Trial 2 it was 11.7 143.3 168.96 + 7.5 144.

and 0.78 Name Name Adeline Alison Aloysius Siran Annie Chua Collin Tang Devrin Jack Eii Meng Yin Florence Freda Warn Irene Tulsa Jacey Jeerey Awang Kelvin Lahat Wan Marina Tan Nellie Philomena Polly Raymond Ruth Salvia Simbah Susan Terrance Ting Chek Chang Mean s. For Trial 2 it was 26.88) at the 0. For Trial 2 it was 42.05 level between the two trials. 8c Hum.41 7.51 times.10 7.91 (agility run.61 1. 0.06 + 8.69 10.19 7.96 8.d max.64 8.0 355.76 7. Sci.d max.76 (sit-up).0 478 418 528 355 406 491 507 490 489 562 431 468 509 511 548 427 500 433 528 420 369 469.71 + 7.06 8.53 + 9.05 level.20 10. score min. it im proved to 57. F = 0.05 level between the two trials.91 7.08 8. score min. Hence.82 7.90 55.57) at the 0.84 7.00 8.84 562. the mean score for Trial 1 was 55. This improvem ent in perform ance was significant (df21.43 7.04 + 8.17 9.95 (agility run).82 8.70 cm.12 8.96 8.04) at the 0.92 (1500 metre run and 50 metre run). Soc.) 7.0 TABLE 3 50 metre run rest results 50m run Trial 1 Trial 2 (sec. 1 1995 . 3 No.69 7. For Trial 2. This paper discusses the estimation of reliability within a norm-referenced framework with the underlying rationale of detecting individual differences. Table 9 gives a summary of the analysis of variance for reliability estimate. In the sit and reach (Table 7).60 7.65 6.53 1.10 8.0 362. There was no significant difference (df23.62 7.29 9.27 cm.98 7.71 9.43 10.03 10.62 65. Interclass R is 0. score In the sargent jum p (Table 6).47 8.97 (1500 metre run).92 8. F = 0.96 (sit and reach.94 (flexed-arm hang.94 7. and sargent jum p).60 6. 0. a better definition would then be: 91 Pertanika J.83 9.15 7. 0. In the sit-up (Table 8).53 8. There was no significant difference (df24. whereby an individual’s score should not differ markedly on repeated administrations of the same test. the mean score for Trial 1 was 42.03 10.59. the mean score for Trial 1 was 27. and 50 metre run). Intraclass R is 0.78 7.72 8. Vol. F = 3. 0.65 8.04 8.32 + 7.20 10. flexedarm hang.58 9. It is usually thought of as ‘repeatability of the test’.Physical Fitness Test Battery for Malaysian Schoolchildren TABLE 2 1500 metre run test results 1500m run Trial 1 Trial 2 (sec. and 0.21 580.57 cm.16 9. DISCUSSION The reliability of a test refers to the dependability of scores and their relative freedom from error.) 474 437 553 362 395 538 505 473 562 580 440 463 534 562 549 492 522 470 578 408 385 489.48 10.98 9.87 6.16 + 8.86 (sit-up).50 7. score Adeline Alison Aloysius Siran Annie Chua Collin Tang Devrin Jack Eii Meng Yin Florence Freda Warn Irene Tulsa Jacey Jeerey Awang Kelvin Lahat Wan Marina Tan Nellie Philomena Polly Raymond Ruth Salvia Simbah Susan Terrance Ting Chek Chang Mean s. 0.08 times. and sargent jump).28 8.34 8.99 (sit and reach).87 10.28 8.97 8.67 7.40 9.

) 4.23 11.. The obtained values of R by testers and testees.0 2. ’ th ro u g h o u t.2 0.51 10. Scorers/testers were retained for obtained in this study were high.0 4.5 4. 3 No.1 32.5 0.57 11.72 11. Systematic variation. using interclass (Pearson Product-M oment) and Testees were untrained and the rest period of Intraclass (ANOVA procedures).1 5.59 9.1 46. an d was c a lib ra te d in u n its (Safrit 1981).97 11.3 0.9 16.2 1.87 12.9 11.4 0. appropriate to the scale being measured.62 11.1 0.1 1.3 18. dem ands of the tests were low.50 12.38 11. then can probably be attributed to the following a high coefficient would not necessarily be reasons: obtained.32 10.20 11.02 11.0 0. & Hum...3 0.0 32. that is variation in The reliability in this study was estimated behaviour of a biological nature.62 9..83 12.0 42.85 13.17 9.40 11.0 36.4 0.66 10.70 10.06 11.6 2.93 12.6 0. score min. is reduced.0 2.20 10.7 10.15 0. E quipm ent rem ained the same the attribute being measured by the test . Soc.55 11.58 11.6 0.1 0.7 0. Test protocol was easily understood reported values. the skill compare favourably with the reported values.2 12. Error variance. score b. a..52 12.08 10.0 13.79 12. Vol.28 11.26 10. that is variability due to * . 1 1995 .0 2.66 10.96 12.05 13.21 10..53 10.) 10.65 10.1 24.0 21.67 11.14 10. Table 11 the same test during the retest. The reliability of a test refers to the measurement error.6 9.29 11.40 11. Even though thrqe days between the test and retest was the values obtained from both m ethods did not adequate for them to recover.9 16. compares the obtained values with those of some iii.13 11.5 46.2 53.4 0.30 10.0 0.23 11.. They were differ greatly.30 12.56 9.22 0.29 11.1 0.2 14.0 9.d max.6 38.3 0. score min.d max.38 10.40 9.51 Name Adeline Alison Aloysius Siran Annie Chua Collin Tang Devrin Jack Eii Meng Yin Florence Freda Warn Irene Tulsa Jacey Jeerey Awang Kelvin Lahat Wan Marina Tan Nellie Philomena Polly Raymond Ruth Salvia Simbah Susan Terrance Ting Chek Chang Mean s. If skill or The high values of the reliability coefficient accuracy com ponent of the tests was high.3 36. The values of the reliability coefficient ii.2 1.07 11.89 12.0 8. Furtherm ore.59 11. it was found that the results of probably equally motivated on both occasions..0 40.3 13.4 53.9 28. Sci.0 5.0 2.65 9.74 11. is greatly reduced because: proportion of variance in test scores due to true differences within a population of individuals on i.37 11.59 10.0 Name Agility Run Trial 1 Trial 2 (sec.Jabar Haji Johari and Tan Kok Siang TABLE 4 Agility run test results TABLE 5 Flex arm hang test results Flexed-arm Hang Trial 1 Trial 2 (sec.6 1.9 19. score Adeline Alison Aloysius Siran Annie Chua Collin Tang Devrin Jack Eii Meng Yin Florence Freda Warn Irene Tulsa Jacey Jeerey 4 wang Kelvin Lahat Wan Marina Tan Nellie Philomena Polly Raymond Ruth Salvia Simbah Susan Terrance Ting Chek Chang Mean s. the Pearson Product-M oment m ethod were not 92 PertanikaJ.2 9.

6 57.0 38.7 49.0 43.04 8. the correlation coefficient merely reflects the relative position of paired scores in each of two Z-score distribution.7 35.2 35. & Hum. the trial v aria b ility sh o u ld be rem o v ed a n d n o t considered as a m easurem ent error.3 49.9 58. If there were no differences.0 31.0 27.5 67.8 56.0 41. 3 No.6 58.4 62.0 28.) 63.0 56.) 43. Sci. Soc.8 51.6 46.4 48. Hence.0 51. M athem atically.4 50.70 76.7 61.0 36.5 57.4 62.8 61.0 38.3 76.7 62.2 66.9 41.0 45.2 61.0 47.0 34. score min.9 33.59 58.0 50.0 35.Physical Fitness Test Battery for Malaysian Schoolchildren TABLE 6 Sargent ju m p test results TABLE 7 Sit and reach test results Sit and Reach Trial 1 Trial 2 (sec.0 60.9 60.0 54.0 39.0 38.5 55.5 52.0 42.8 54.0 31.5 43.0 48.71 7. score conclusive. Such conversion of raw scores to Z scores would mark any systematic increases or decreases from trial to trial (Safrit 1981). where significant differences were only detected between Trial 1 and Trial 2 by using ANOVA p ro c e d u re s.1 64.0 38.57 64.0 58. This was because.53 9. There was no necessity for a trend analysis because our p rim a ry in te re s t lay only in d e te c tin g dep en d en cy am ong trials and identifying 93 PertanikaJ.6 45. 1 1995 .8 Name Sargent Jump Trial 1 Trial 2 (sec.d max.0 49.0 31.0 42.3 55. If there were differences.5 26.5 32.0 48. significant difference was found between Trial 1 and Trial 2 in the 1500 m etre run and the sit and reach test.4 42.0 39.5 35.7 59.7 48.0 45.0 43.5 56. Vol.0 37. the variance for the trials was simply included as part of the m easurem ent error in the calculation of R.0 41. score min.0 33.9 68.5 26. Further examination of the scores showed an improvement in Trial 2 and that the differences do not appear to be random.3 55.5 55.0 52.1 51.9 71.0 53.0 42.d max. In the analysis of variance for intraclass correlation.2 57. the F test for trials was com puted to determ ine w hether there were significant differences between the trials.0 55.0 40.7 56.1 33. score Adeline Alison Aloysius Siran Annie Chua Collin Tang Devrin Jack Eii Meng Yin Florence Freda Warn Irene Tulsa Jacey Jeerey Awang Kelvin Lahat Wan Marina Tan Nellie ' Philomena Polly Raymond Ruth Salvia Simbah Susan Terrance Ting Chek Chang Mean s. the Pearson Product-M oment is a bivariate statistic whereas reliability estimates are univariate. The researcher discarded any dissimilar scores and then perform ed a new analysis using the same procedures with the rem aining scores until no significant trial difference was found.8 56.8 62.2 63.27 71.2 44.6 Name Adeline Alison Aloysius Siran Annie Chua Collin Tang Devrin Jack Eii Meng Yin Florence Freda Warn Irene Tulsa Jacey Jeerey Awang Kelvin Lahat Wan Marina Tan Nellie Philomena Polly Raymond Ruth Salvia Simbah Susan Terrance Ting Chek Chang Mean s. the procedures advoceehed by Safrit 1981 were used.0 41. In this pilot study.0 36.5 58.0 50.5 58.0 38. This was best dem onstrated in the case of the 1500 m etre run and the sit and reach test.06 8.1 58.0 51.3 53.0 64. in com putation where correlation between two trials of the same test for the same individual was employed.6 48.0 40.7 57.

equipm ent and testing time differ gready throughout the country. the higher the reliability. The values were 0.97 (1500 m run).86 (sit-ups).95 (agility run). increased familiarity with the equipment in the sit and reach test. comprehensive research be carried out using the NSC physical fitness test battery.16 8. facilities. This study detected an im provem ent in perform ance during Trial 2 for the 1500 m etre ru n and the sit and reach test. Soc.) Adeline Alison Aloysius Siran Annie Chua Collin Tang Devrin Jack Eii Meng Yin Florence Freda Warn Irene Tulsa Jacey Jeerey Awang Kelvin Lahat Wan Marina Tan Nellie Philomena Polly Raymond Ruth Salvia Simbah Susan Terrance Ting Chek Chang Mean s. a wide range of ability due to significant age differences is greatly reduced.96 (sit and reach. 0.0 12. From this pilot study it is suggested that: a. b. There is a need to even re-examine the test and testing protocol for sources of error because this im provement m ight be absent in larger samples. (1990).15 37. a reliability study be carried out on the physical fitness test advocated by the Ministry of Education. d. The possible sources of systematic variability detected in this study could be: a. 0. Consequently. score min. increased motivation in perform ing the tests. Thus it is essential that the reliability tests and the scores o b tain ed are closely monitored.08 41. A factor that influences the reliability of a test is the range of ability within the group taking the test.94 (sargent jum p) and 0. The exact classification o f the tre n d was no t im portant in this case.Jabar Haji Johari and Tan Kok Siang TABLE 8 Sit-Up test results Sit-Up Name Trial 1 (sec. Malaysia. be undertaken. 0. Malaysia.d max. Vol. The greater the range. This is to ensure the reliability of the scores obtained by those undergoing this test. an estimate of the reliability of a ‘whole battery of tests’. Subjects tried their best to outdo each other and better their scores obtained during Trial 1.32 7. 1 1995 . score 28 18 33 18 32 23 16 17 22 33 30 37 35 24 32 41 22 34 26 9 33 30 20 36 39 27. 3 No.0 34 19 36 19 31 32 21 25 15 31 34 37 35 24 17 27 17 33 23 12 33 27 18 36 33 26. F u rth e r investigations n eed to be u n d e rta k e n to determ ine the causal relationship for the increase. Sci. This was quite apparent in the 1500 m run where the mean of Trial 2 was 20 seconds faster than that of Trial 1. the National Sports Council physical fitness test battery is a valid and reliable PertanikaJ. c.0 9. instead of the ‘reliability of each test’ as is done in this study.0 Trial 2 whether trial fluctuations were random. b. A suggested model would be the canonical correlation model as proposed by Wood and Safrit (1984). Hence. This test is compulsory for Malaysian secondary schoolchildren ranging from pre-pubertal to post-pubertal. and 50 m run). 0. This test used equipment which subjects had never seen before. This effect was minimized 94 because the test reliability reported in this pilot study was based on a particular age group (see Table 1).94 (flexed-arm hang). research be undertaken to estimate the reliability of the health-related physical fitness test known as the UiyK (ujian kecergasan jasm ani kebangsaan) currently in use by the Ministry of Youth and Sports. Data from this research can be used to further enhance the reliability of the test battery. CONCLUSION The pilot study in d icated high values of intraclass reliability coefficient. and further tested out by Dinucci et al. The tests are carried out by both trained and untrained testers or teachers. & Hum. Furtherm ore.

76 Interclass R (using ANOVA procedures) 0.S.58 3582. TABLE 10 Interclass and intraclass correlation coefficient Interclass R (PearsonProduct) 0. TEST 1500 m Run Sit and Reach 50 m Run Agility Run Flexed-arm Hang Sargent Jump Sit Up et a l 1990.88 50m 2.87 589. Vol. B.08 0.1 830. There was a significant difference between the two trials at a level o f significance o f 0.40 211. 1977.93 0.39 10488.A. 1968.94 4.56 31.70 2980. Reliability of the AAHPER youth fitness test items and relative efficiency 95 PertanikaJ. Research Quarterly 41: 10-14.75 16.94 91.97 Agility Run 1. 8c Hum.E.94 0. Soc.3 2914. 1970.37 3.42 8.68 3051. Measurement for schedules for tests of motor performance.99 0.09 33. J .2 134111.40 0. Further examination yielded an improvement in performance. 3 No.95 0.20 1.01 62. T. S. 1 1995 .07 0.9 830. Portland: Brown and Littleman.97 * 0.3 F Test 1500m 4. REFERENCES B a u m g a r t n e r .82 15.94 0. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 61: 20-21.91 0. Sci.96 0. J o h n so n .69 0.12 0.Physical Fitness Test Battery for Malaysian Schoolchildren TABLE 9 Summary o f analysis o f variance for Reliability Estimate Soure o f Variation Subject Trials Interaction Total Subjects Trials Interaction Total Subject Trials Interaction Total Subject Trials Interaction Total Subject Trials Interaction Total Subject Trials Interaction Total Subject Trials Interaction Total Sum o f Squares 130366. K l e siu s .57 1.07 0.00 31 24. D in ucci .96 * 0.07 1.27 Sit and Reach 136.08 0.86 instrum ent to test and collect data in Malaysia.05 for both the 1500 m run and the Sit and Reach test.30 Sargent Jump 146.3 194.08 2.66 11109.91 0.82 368.91 0.92 0.91 2674.39 60.97 Flexed-arm Hang 437.36 0. J a c k s o n .30 Sit Up 111.17 8.75 16. Practical Flexibility Measurement with the Flexo-measure.00 31.00 0.577 The significance level for the F test is 0. and A.4 2871. provided that the testing procedures and protocol are adhered to fully.05 * Trials causing significant effect were deleted.L.92 0.53 3370.63 35. Reliability of a modification of the health-related physical fitness test for use with physical education majors.87 9.67 Degrees o f Freedom *5 1 15 31 *21 1 21 43 24 1 24 49 24 1 24 49 24 1 24 49 23 1 23 47 24 1 24 Mean Square 8691.

M.K . Sci. S a fr it . 1984. (1990) 0.94 Nelson and Johnson. MJ. A m o d e l fo r M. R. 3 No.97 R . (Received 2 6 July 1993) Pertanika J. 4th edn. and W ood. (1986) 0.(obtained) 0. and B.E. Introduction to Statistics. S a fr it .. Dinucci.J. 1 1995 . & Hum. aal. N elso n .68 Klesius (1986) Nelson and Johnson (1986) Dinucci. (1986) 50-yd run.94 0. Vol. (1970) Sit and Reach 0. Soc.98 0. (1986) Nelson and Johnson.(reported) 0. Quarterly 39: 801-811.95 0. (1990) Sargent Jump 0. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sports 55: 53-63. al.. 1982.91 of the perform ance measures.L.86 0.90 Nelson and Johnson.98 1 Mile Run.95 Agility Run Flexed-arm Hang 0. Reliability Theory.96 0. e s tim a tin g th e re lia b ility o f p s y c h o m o t o r te s t b a tte r ie s . Practical M easurements fo r E valu ation in Physical Education . New York: Macmillan.J. 1986. Research S a frit . Baumgaartner and Jackson. et. T. Minnesota: Burgess. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. et. W alpo le.M.94 not reported 0. J o h n so n . Washington DC: AAHPER. Evaluation in Physical Education. J . 1981.Jabar Haji Johari and Tan Kok Siang TABLE 11 Comparison o f reliability coefficient Test 1500 m Run R .93 Sit Up 0.96 50 m Run 0. 1976.