Shivaraj Kumar. J M.


INTRODUCTION TO TRAVEL SERVICES A travel agency is a private retailer or public service that provides tourism related services to the public on behalf of suppliers such as airlines, car rentals, cruise lines, hotels, railways, and package tours. In addition to dealing with ordinary tourists most travel agencies have a separate department devoted to making travel arrangements for business travellers and some travel agencies specialize in commercial and business travel. Different agencies co-ordinated by a Travel Agent

!nctions of Travel Agency The functions of Travel Agency depend upon the scope of activities it is invalid in and also size and the location. Some of the major functions of a large travel agency may be classifies as follows "# $rovision of Travel Infor%ation& ! This is one of the primary functions of a retail travel agent. A good travel agent is something of personal counsellor who knows all the details the travellers and also the needs and interest of the intending travel. "ommunication plays a key role in providing any kind of information. The person behind the counter should be able to communicate with the customer in his#her language. '# $re(aration of Itineraries& ! A tourist journey is characterized by an itinerary using various means of transportation to link one destination with another. $reparation of different types of itinerary is another important function of travel agencies. A travel agent gives advice to intending traveller on the various types of program which they may choose for their business or holiday travel. The study and realisation itineraries call for a perfect organization as also knowledge of the desire of the client. )# Liaison *it+ (rovider of services& ! %efore any form of facilities is offer to the client by a travel agent contract have to be made with the providers of various services. These include transport companies, hotels properties, and the providers of surface transportation like car rental, coaches, and local transport for sightseeing and also for general services re&uirements. The work carried out under these heading is mostly done by the owners or the senior employees of agencies concerned. ,# $lanning and Costing To!rs& ! This job is very interesting and at the same time very challenging. The job cost for a great deal of incentive and advance knowledge. -# Tic.eting& ! Selling tickets to clients using different modes of transportation like air, rail and sea is another function of travel agency. It re&uires though knowledge of schedule, fare of various modes of transportation. /# $rovision of oreign C!rrency& ! To intending travellers is another specialized activity of travel agents. The knowledge of converting for currencies is an essential re&uirement for the staffing dealing with such responsibilities. 0# Ins!rance& ! %oth for personal and belonging is yet another important activity of travel agencies.
M S Ramaiah College Of Arts, Science & Commerce

J M. transport. Co%%ission fro% A!4iliary& The travel agency also earns au'iliary services provided as depends as insurance. services provided or by coordinating the customers and principals. sea or land. e'ecution of the journey and presentation of accounts. OR1ANI5IN1 TRAVEL& There are various steps involved from the time of traveller visits a travel agent to buy a ticket until he returns back home after visiting a place of his choice. 7ake arrangements for passports and visas for foreign travel. Co%%ission on Sale As a commission agent collects commission by sailing the principal9s services such as hotel. and make arrangement to travel by air. $lan itineraries for potential tourists and tour operators in their region. . airlines. *2. e'cursions.. "o!ordinate with various tourists centers for sightseeing tours. and make profits. **. 2. SOURCE O INCO3E OR TRAVEL A1ENC2& To facilities the tour of travel is the objective a travel agency. hike. *5. $rovide information on national and international tours. /. hotels# resorts.. estimate of e' ROLE O TRAVEL A1ENC2 Travel Agency is a commercial enterprise where traveller can secure information and e'pertise. including arranging hotel accommodation. Inco%e Earned fro% S+ort! term Investment ! Travel agents may invest money received from his customers as deposits and earn profit. etc. sightseeing tours and inter!city travel. -. . Arrange surface transportation including limousines and coaches. They develop the concept of pleasure of tour. namely the transportation companies. 3evelop comprehensive local packages for tour operators and individual travelers.egotiate with hotels for favorable room rates and meal prices. It acts as an agent of the different suppliers in the tourism industry (also known as travel components). . that is. etc. +. *+. *-. railway. Arrange city and inter!city tours. They want to reward for the pleasure they provide. $rovide necessary travel information to the general public. surface transportation. maintain constant contact with providers of service. tour operators and sightseeing companies. */. The role of travel agencies can be listed as *. transfers.egotiate with art centers for cultural entertainment. 7ake arrangement for provision of foreign currencies on behalf of intending travelers. Acting as a liaison with serving providers. 4. 8or the purpose. Arrange insurance cover for personal accident risks and risk for loss of baggages. Co%%ission on Services (rovided& the travel agents collect commission from the customers on the facilities. get impartial counselling. the following main elements need to be considered study of the journey. $rofit from the sale of his 6wn Tours ! 7any travel agencies operate their own tours such as sightseeing tour. Arrange international and domestic airline. car rental companies. 6rganizing local sightseeing tours. *. . 1. *1.. +. Arrange hotel accommodation. ocean liner tickets to their clients. river boat. A travel agent9s sources of income are as follows *. M S Ramaiah College Of Arts. to any point in the world. they co!ordinate the travel related enterprises and customers. *0. and sightseeing tours and also general servicing re&uirements. car rentals etc. 6rganized travel by a travel agency can be two types (i) single client (ii) group client. -. Arrange travel guides.Shivaraj Kumar. In order to affect the journey. bus. 0. Science & Commerce . travelers: che&ue.egotiate favorable rates with surface transporters to provide coaches for airport. .

Tours can be *. from a legal perspective.. add a mark ! up that represents the tour operator : s profit margin. tour operators.ospitality managers will generally encounter both travel agents and tour operators in their normal course of work. >'tended or day tours and /. J M. Science & Commerce . 8ully or partially escorted . In many cases. and while they often work closely with travel agencies. Sometimes travel agencies serve a dual role and also function as tour operators. admission fees.Shivaraj Kumar. These are Mass Market operators. =roup or individual tours -. *. Specialist Operators. Relations+i( bet*een travel o(erators and travel agents& PRINCIPALS Airlines Surface Transporters Hotels TOUR OPERATORS Travel A ent Travel A ent Travel A ent CUSTOMERS Ty(es of to!r o(erators& ?ithin the Travel and Tourism industry there are . As a result. These type of tour operators are alot more flexi le for the customer. because they purchase travel services in bulk. This is ecause these tour operators are a le to cater and specialise to !hat M S Ramaiah College Of Arts. To!r o(erator and travel agent A tour operator is not an agent. unless they knew or should have known at the time of the booking that services could not be delivered as promised. while agents are generally not held responsible. are able to buy them at a significant discount. A Mass Market tour operator are companies such as Thomas "ook and Thomson who deal with any type of holiday and they are able to put together packages that suit the customers. transfers. but rather is the principal in the provision of travel services. distinctly different. A Specialist operator is companies such as Cox and Kings. transport. meals. A mass market tour operator also supplies their customers with accommodation. Tour operator is the broad term used to identify those varied companies that purchase travel services in large &uantity and then market those same services to individual travellers.main types of tour operators. they are. +. Domestic Operators and Incoming Tour operators. transport and e'tra services. and still offer travellers lower prices for these travel services than the individual traveller could negotiate on his or her TOUR O$ERATIONS To!r o(erator& Tour operators are an important part of the travel industry. etc < +. the tour operator is directly responsible for the delivery of the travel services they have marketed and sold. a guide. %ased on the chartering of transport. $ackage tours that may include accommodation. .

cooperation or alignment with other players while simultaneously raising the bar for operational performance and profitability. $ackaged tours typically include  All transfers between airports#harbours#stations and hotels  Twin share tourist and first!class accommodation with private facilities. Travel the tourists interest are for example. They may be a one!day or overnight package. or they could be a period of a month or more. A Domestic tour operator is companies such as "a#en "olidays that are holiday destinations !ithin your o!n country. "ommonly they combine such things as transport. most companies struggle to carve out the right segment in order to be successful.eting of (ac. as specified  "ruises  Bental cars  >ntrance fees to attractions  Insurance  Tickets for entry to events or attractions  Insurance TRAVEL AND TRANS$ORT Travel and tourism industry is undergoing continuous transformation< players are still enjoying many degrees of strategic freedom and inherent growth rates. someone !ants to go on a cycling holiday.age to!r& $ackage tours are e'cursions or holidays which @packageA a variety of services together to make a single @combinedA trip. To!ris% and Airline Trans(ort M S Ramaiah College Of Arts. such as airlines. consolidation. 3ar.. J M. -. and ferries. a very large and growing market. Science & Commerce . accommodation and meals. Tours can be long or short in duration and distance. they can tell the operator !hat they !ant in their holiday and the operators can do there est to get it for their customers. Company$s like these supply holidays and different products for tram for an o#erseas #isitor to %ritain. face a separation of business models in which the key success factors are often conflicting. The transportation (or logistics) sector. %ecause nobody can be number one in the total logistics business. To achieve greater competitive advantage in this environment. railways.Shivaraj Kumar. They may also include the provision of a tour guide and#or leader. includes these pure modal transportation. and special networks. . and privatization are opening new opportunities for growth. 3eregulation. An Incoming tour operator are companies such as >van >vans Tours. intermodal connections. these companies must overcome many challenges to transform themselves and survive.

There are three entities in the whole transaction process.ational and International +. These key players are labelled on the verte' of the triangle shown below. J M. the Air transport sector has contributed a large amount to the economy. They include the following *. "67$A..C Internal marketing @>nabling promisesA >'ternal marketing @making promisesA $B6DI3>BS I. Science & Commerce . $assenger services! . T+e Services 3ar. the civil aviation market in India is e'pected to reach a "A=B (compound annual growth rate) of more than *0 percent.= @Feeping $romisesA "EST67>BS Services marketing can be e'plained with the help of the Service Industry Triangle. 7ail services -. promote and deliver services. Airlines industry is a segment of travel industry that deals with air transportation from one destination to another destination. rail. accidents and other natural calamities.. water and also by air. agricultural products. Air India Internationals and other private operators (ii) Infrastructural! covered by . M S Ramaiah College Of Introd!ction& Transport is a part of service and hospitality of a nation. movement of people become aggressive and faster from the nearest place to the longest distance destination. this facility is very important for the movement of people to go somewhere.ational Airport Authority (. the movement of people must be in various mode of transportation and the most suitable and relevant transport is air transportation. . And between +5*5 and +5*. due to which new airports are being built all over the world. =oods carrying services . /. the airliner capacity has grown significantly.T>BA"TID> 7ABF>TI. earth&uakes. There are several mode of transportation such as road. India is ranked as the 4 th largest aviation market in the world. Air transport also plays a major role in shipping of high value goods that need to come to market &uickly for e'ample. %ecause of geographical shape of this wonderful world. All that kind of transportation is interplay each other to support the service and hospitality provided for tourist in that nation.Shivaraj Kumar. Air transport industry is considered as a huge international industry mainly because of the demand for air transport of both passengers and goods.eting Triangle The services marketing triangle shows the three interlinked groups that work together to develop.ow. Social services!floods. as per the research report given by B. 6ver the last *5 years."6S. Service %i4 of Airlines Airlines provide different types of services. the world is become more borderless. =lobally.AA) and International Airport Authority of India. 3efense air services All these operations are assisted by two entities established to cover two major functions (i) 6perational! covered by =overnment of India (=6I) owned services!Indian Airlines.

The airline product is &uite a comple' one since it comprises of a service of incorporating the temporary user of airline seat and certain tangible products such as free flight bags or a free bottle of duty free spirit to encourage booking. warm and courteous service. The demand level of air traffic +. -# Lo*-cost $ricing& M S Ramaiah College Of Arts. CA: actors to be consider fi4ing (rices& *. The airline product includes of two types of services *. etc. Some acceptable percent of contingency e'penses 2. Air India and Indian Airlines have slashed their prices to meet the competition of private airlines so that they can consolidate their position in the market. Strategies of competitors in price fi'ing model. duty free9 shopping &uick and efficient checking of baggage. efficient service at reservation counter. If the product isn9t what the market wants. Seasonal fluctuation of air traffic 0. e'penses on core and peripheral operations /. on the ground services. This enables the airline to achieve good levels of profit on the basis of established reputation. The concept of 9fair price9 is paramount. The on!the!ground services include a convenient airport with car parking facilities. The airhostesses are trained to provide polite. 4. '# Val!e for 3oney $ricing& The intention here is to charge the average price for the product and emphasize that it represents e'cellent value for money at this price. The supply of aircrafts and their using time in a day . The >'ecutive or %usiness "lass and The >conomy "lass. "apital repayment in the long run.Shivaraj Kumar. no amount of price adjustment or brilliant promotion will encourage consumers to buy it. crew e'penses. Infrastructural facilities available for safety operations -. but overall profits are achieved. The service provided inside is intangible and is highly variable. The courteous service that the representatives at the baggage counter. The product features are not shared by its competitors or the company itself may enjoy a strong reputation that the 9brand image9 alone is sufficient to merit a premium price. 8ares for each class are different since the facilities provided and the comfort and lu'ury level is different in each class. %uyers judge whether a product is fairly priced by seeing whether it represents value for money. There are three classes The 8irst "lass. reservation counter provide goes a long way in developing customer loyalty. The travel agents of the airlines also need to be efficient and polite. +. J M. )# C+ea( Val!e $ricing& The objective here is to undercut the competition and price is used to trigger the purchase immediately. -. 3epreciation on aircrafts 1. $ricing Strategies& "# $re%i!% $ricing& The airlines may set prices above the market price either to reflect the image of &uality or the uni&ue status of the T6E 0 $7S O 3AR8ETIN1 3I9 $rod!ct 3i4 =etting the product right is the single most important activity of marketing. Seasonal fares are also fi'ed. $rice 3i4 $rice plays as much a tool of marketing as promotion plays a critical role in the marketing mi'.. Differential (ricing. Bunning e'penses such as fuel. Enit profits are low. transport to the airport. Science & Commerce SERVI . In!flight services. fares rise during the peak holiday times.

politicians. >. The telecast media and print media are important for promoting the air business. In the Indian perspective.  The second G increasingly popular method of reservation is the online booking method. airlines gets affiliated with companies who carry all its trips with a same airline who in turn gives special discounts or offers in return. a price!band kind of pricing has to be designed. the airlines provide very low prices for the flight tickets. fa'. In low!pricing strategies. There are two principal methods of booking seats on an airline. people are given very cheap rates only if tickets are booked at least before the specified time period. Travel Agent& "ustomers approach travel agents or tour operators who book the tickets from the airline and take commission. Strengthening the $B activities is essential to promote airlines business. fa'.Shivaraj Kumar.  $!blicity& $ublicity is an important component of promotion mi'. public relations officers provide their help. Also. 6n the ground there are many ticket counters with computerized +-!hour reservation systems. actors. +) To!r O(erator. The 8our methods of distribution are as following *) Consolidation& The direct sale of tickets from airport to the passenger on the airline desk. $ro%otion 3i4 The formulation of an ideal promotion mi' is essential to inform sense and persuade the users. The airline industry has adopted different distribution channels for marketing their services to their target audience. email and also online e!booking. they prices are made cheaper by booking the tickets long before the flight date. phone. and email. The users appears to be more ?ith the advent of the low!cost airlines in the Indian aviation industry. %ut the draw!back here is that if the booking is cancelled.g. we need more creative efforts because the potential users in a majority of the cases don:t prefer to use air services. when.g. where. -) Direct t+ro!g+ +o%e leased syste%< e.  Sales (ro%otion& M S Ramaiah College Of Arts. Since these low!cost airlines are trying to woo the customers by providing air travel in e'ceptionally low prices. Science & Commerce . advertisements should be budget optimistic vis!H!vis optimal. Beceptionist. S6T" . 7any airlines are facing financial crunch. e'ecutives. The business magnets. It is a process of persuasive communication. The $B6. It is very instrumental in sensitizing the persuasion process provided the media people.  Advertising& Airlines need creative advertisements to promote their business. and how the target market buy. In the view of rising cost of inputs and the increasing impact of worldwide economic depression on the airlines. why. Travel agents. aware of their rights and in a majority of the cases are found to be sophisticated and therefore the promotional efforts have to be creative. J M. it is pertinent that they make optimum use of different components of promotions. The marketer must understand the service output levels desired by the target market and types and levels of services that the people want and e'pect when they purchase the service. $lace 3i4 Enderstanding what. 7edia people are very important people in publicizing the business. is the first step in designing the marketing channel. a different low!cost flying concept has come up.) Affiliated *it+ co%(anies& As the name defines. high spending tourists etc are some of the users of the air services.  The first is the group of traditional method such as the phone. /# A$E9 ares& In this scheme. a substantial amount of money is not returned. They have many specially designed check!in counters for club and premiere passengers. The place mi' of airlines consists of mainly the distribution channels.

caring attitude. $assengers are re&uested to indicate their reference at the time of reservation itself. The user also deserves incentives. Trains are perceived to be the safe and ine'pensive. To!ris% and rail trans(ort The railways may be considered as the most powerful means for mass travel. The in!flight food is another. In addition the tour operators. $+ysical Evidence $hysical >vidence refers to the environment in which the service is delivered and where the service industry and customer interact. $rocess 3i4 The process of airline service lays emphasis on the involvement of channels. Science & Commerce . 8or e. The sales promotion measures are meant for both the related sources channelising and using the business.. a wide selection of meals is offered to the passengers. problem solving ability. training. The incentives may be in the form of concessional services. The aircraft must have elegant interiors and must be incorporated with all basic facilities. The major issues of railways are developments are *. tour operators and all of them who process the services and the passengers and business houses who use the services. sightseeing. In India. a small gift etc. and the in!flight food provide physical evidence to the airline service. such as the travel agents. The aircraft by itself.  =ord of %o!t+ >C!sto%er Loyalty Ladder7 This happens to be an important constituent of the promotion mi' in which the promoters act as a hidden sales force. environment. travel agency offices. Indian railways commenced their operation in April *2/. front line staff. $eo(le 3i4 In the service industry. Ideally. 3uring the plan period (upto *5 th 8ive Cear $lan) Indian railways have grown substantially. initiative. the frontline staff also must be given priority. opinion leaders narrate outstanding merits or salient features of services used by them. pilgrimage and education. "omputer reservation system of Indian Airlines enables any reservation re&uest from anywhere in the world to be auctioned in minutes. %ooking offices. Technology up gradation M S Ramaiah College Of Arts. The reservation facility is accessible through all!major computerized reservation system of the world. employees should e'hibit competence. responsiveness. 8urther the air crafts must be given good e'teriors and must be maintained wel*. the seating configuration meant to be comfortable and spacious. The increase in rail transport output has been caused by more intensive utilisation of the available assets. . the role and significance of railway transport in the country economy in particular Indian economy is e'ceeding important on many considerations! historical. etc. the selection. service personnel come in direct contact with their customers in the course of production and consumption of the services. offices of the tour operators or so form where the services flow G reach to the ultimate users. railway provides the principle mode of transportation for freight and passengers< it brings together people from the farthest corners of the country and makes possible the conduct of business. %ecause people provide most services. must be spacious and well designed with good looks. J M. The satisfied groups of users. and goodwill. important aspect. The travel agents contribute a lot to the promotion of airlines business.g.Shivaraj Kumar. 7any service organizations trust their people enough to empower their front!line personnel to resolve customer problems. technological up gradation and improvement in productivity. 8urther. The aircrafts must have well designed seats with more leg room especially in the business class. and motivation of employees can make a huge difference in attaining customer satisfaction. The process begins at the time of reservation goes on to the confirmation of seats. ticket counters. social and political.ence they should be offer some incentives this will motivate them to promote the product.

TOURIS3 AND ROAD TRANS$ORT M S Ramaiah College Of Arts. -. =ujarat and Assam services Advertising Selling different sensitive points consultancy $ricing t+e services In every production activity pricing is a sensitive aspect. it will not face competition from any other railways. $ro%otion 3i4 Indian railways being a public monopoly institution. provide strong base for developing an effective information system regarding railway services. 8reight traffic Bevenue earning %ulk carrier service Bailway 7ail "ommunication carrier throughout the nation. %ut it is facing stiff competition from roadways. 6ther channels such as personal selling. . 8or this the have adopted print. Ender special category chartered trains are run for special purpose travel. network marketing etc. product is mainly the types of services they render to the public. /. There are number of pricing methods like cost plus. numbers of subservices are provided. one prices policy. skimming the cream and penetrating price policy etc. The following table depicts the product mi' of railways. 0. certain following aspects are to be consider while fi'ing the price for its services  8are and freight structure  Subsidised prices  The average receipt for passenger km and average receipt per tonne km.. As per passengers 8irst "lass. broadcast and telecast media etc. J M. Service 3i4 7ajor services are! (i) $assenger Traffic (ii) 8reight carrying In passengers: +. A"#I "lass and II "lass Sleeper coaches. Although railways being public monopoly organisation.. 7ain services are providing passenger service and freight carrying. 7BT concessional and free service for Traffic certain class. passenger classification and special services. Begarding advertising. it faces competition from road transport corporations and inter road transport agencies. railways develop good relation with the prospects as well as regular commuters. 7ail#>'press. 6n time basis (i) Super fast e'press (ii) fast e'press (iii) fast passenger trains and (iv) Shuttle trains are in operations. $assenger $assenger train.  Enproductive administrative e'penses are to be optimised. %y adopting publicity mode. A#" coaches and II class coaches. >'pansion of network 8inancial arrangement "apital restructuring Tariff policy $assenger services and freight movements.  Enremunerative lines are re&uired to be regulated.Shivaraj Kumar. Sale promotion mode also facilitates the users to understand the type of facilities and services e'tended by railways. railways have to look for persuasive communication. These sub!services are based on time. Science & Commerce . Services $ipe IJine In parts of E$. $rod!ct 3i4 In railways.

type of delivery systems.eting 3i4 7arketing mi' of transport organisations consists of product offered. milk or fruits to reach market places well in time.  It is more fle'ible in operation compared to other modes of transport.  This mode of transport is more important in defence services of the country. $ro%otion $olicy M S Ramaiah College Of Arts. petroleum products and other industrial raw materials and finished goods. 7ail services. people analyses and process. travelling in various parts of India is very easy. Apart from the public transport corporations. %ulk carrying of special items. promotional measures adopted to reach the target customers. affordable and on!time service to the Boad transport system is the most popular medium of transport in India. basic and common policy adapted is the @cost K margin. which is a regular and routine feature in cargo carrying. In cargo traffic i. The city bus services provide comfortable.  Boad transport is complementary to railways by providing feeder service. damage or loss are less in road transport. ii. Service 3i4 Service mi' of road transport contains the following< i. "arrying goods to destinations by trucks of different size and capacity.A "ost includes. Special services 3ar. price of each product. road service charges payable to concerned authorities. milk. Special package tours conducted by both public and private sector operators for the purposes of (i)$iligrimage (ii) sight seeing holiday tours and (iii) other special purpose tours. Some of the state transport corporations offer city bus services and also to some of the adjoining areas of the city. special services offered for travel and miscellaneous overheads. $rod!ct 3i4 In product mi' of passenger traffic i. ii. I%(ortance  They can easily connect any part of the country. fuel charges. crew e'penses. 7ail services iv. unlike railways. =oods carrying services iii. special price policy will be adopted for specific services. Science & Commerce . like gas. the vehicle cost less depreciation. %esides this.  This is a better means of transport to carry perishable articles like vegetables. J M. All the government authorised transport organisations have their own operational style and they try their best to provide hassle free services to public. $ricing (olicy In pricing these services. private operators also play a major role in fulfilling the needs of the public. Almost all the Indian states have their own state road transport corporation. $roviding passenger services ii.Shivaraj Kumar. rest room e'penses. iii.  Boad transport can provide door to door service.  The chances of delay. Begular passengers commuting to short and long distances. if you are aware about the transportation facilities offered by state road transport corporations including undertakings or institutions authorised by the 7inistry of transportation government of India or by the state government authorities. providing transport facility within the state and the neighbouring states. In fact.

return services. This refers to the proper location of service delivery points and people involved in delivering the road transport services. network marketing are other mode through which promotion of road transport services can be made. such as in $enang. efficient delivery systems are to be developed. where the voyage itself and the ship9s amenities are considered an essential part of the e'perience. It is called intermodalis. through canals or along rivers. 8erries are also used to transport freight and even railroad cars.  Shipping may be for commerce. *.com There are different promotional channels. is sometimes called a waterbus or water ta'i. telemarketing. It is also highlights that delivery process should be user!friendly. Science & Commerce . sales promotion. 6ut of these.  Sea transport has been the largest carrier of freight  Ship transport can be over any distance by boat. "ruise Ship a. "ruising has become a major part of the tourism industry. "ruise ships are passenger ships used for pleasure voyages. ship. recreation or the military. b. M S Ramaiah College Of Arts. over oceans and lakes. d. erries are a form of transport. publicity. To!ris% and sea trans(ort  Ship transport is watercraft carrying people or goods.  "ontainerization revolutionized ship transport in the *405s. ?hen a cargo is carried in more than one mode. +. short films for tourism promotion are the different modes adapted in advertising mode. 7ost ferries operate on regular. with millions of passengers each year as of +550. usually a boat or ship carrying passengers and sometimes their vehicles. television. $ersonal selling. sailboat or barge. 8erries a. b. Ot+er 3i4es ?$lace< $eo(le and $rocess@ Begarding other sub!mi'es of marketing mi' or road transport services. $rint media. A foot!passenger ferry with many stops. fre&uent. The sea transportation can be divided into the following two categories.Shivaraj Kumar. J M. c. advertising is the effective tool in promoting transport services.