Jun Park Period 1

APUSH Chapter 35 Study Guide
A. Philip Randolph He was the black leader of The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. He demanded equal opportunities in war jobs and armed forces during WWII. George S. Patton Patton, known as "Blood 'n' Guts," commanded lunges across France by an American armored tank division. He was most famous for holding off the Germans at the Battle of the Bulge. Albert Einstein Einstein was a German-born scientist who encouraged Roosevelt and America to build the first atomic bomb and thus start the Manhattan Project. Office of Price Administration FDR created this in order to prevent inflation in the economy during WWII. Fair Employment Practice Commission Roosevelt established this initially to give fair employment to blacks. Eventually, and to this day, its purpose is to ensure equality for all races, sexes, ages, and ethnicities involving employment. D-Day D-Day was the first day of the Normandy landing which started the invasion of western Europe and liberated France from the Germans. V-E Day Victory in Europe Day. The German government surrendered unconditionally during WWII on May 7, 1945 Manhattan Project research and development project that produced the first atomic bombs during World War II. It was led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada. Braceros was a series of laws and diplomatic agreements, initiated by an August 1942 exchange of diplomatic notes between the United States and Mexico, for the importation of temporary contract laborers from Mexico to the United States. Guided Reading Questions 1. "America's task was far more complex and back-breaking [in World War II] than in World War I." Explain. It was more complex because Americans had the hardship of preparing for war, since it had been in isolation for the preceding decades. They would be tested on whether they could mobilize quickly enough to stop Germany and make the world safe for democracy again. 2. How did the war affect liberal ideals and goals at home? National unity was strong as steel, and the few Hitler supporters in America faded away. Most of America’s ethnic groups assimilated even faster due to WWII, since in the decades

before the war, few immigrants had been allowed into America. 110,000 Japanese Americans were put into internment camps where there properties and freedoms were taken away. In Korematsu vs. US, it affirmed the constitutionality of these camps. It took more than 40 years before the US admitted fault and gave reparations to camp survivors. 3. What effects did the war have on manufacturing, agriculture and labor? Massive military orders ended the Great Depression by creating jobs and production. The War Production Board halted manufacture of nonessential items such as passenger cars, and when the Japanese seized vital rubber supplies in British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies, the US imposed a national speed limit and gasoline rationing to save tires. 4. In what way can it be said that the reason's for Japanese immigrants' success also caused them trouble? Because there were many Japanese who lived in America to follow their dreams, it also caused them trouble when their hometown country had bombed Pearl Harbor. It made them look like attackers and caused them a lot of trouble because of their ethnicity. 5. What opportunities were opened to women as a result of the war? Some women participated in the army in groups such as WAACS (army), the WAVES (navy) and SPARS (coast guard). In Rosie the Riveter, women were symbolized and many did not return to their homes as in WWI. At the end of the war, 2/3 of women did return home and the servicemen that came home to them helped produce a baby boom that is still being felt today. 6. What effect did the war have on the nation's minorities? 1.6 million blacks left the South for better places, and explosive tensions developed over black housing, employment, and segregation facilities. Philip Randolph led the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and threatened a Negro March to Washington to get better rights and treatment. The Fair Employment Practices Commission discouraged racism and oppression in the workplace, and while Blacks in the army still suffered degrading discrimination, they still used the war as a rallying cry against dictators abroad and racism at home- overall gaining power and strength. 7. What economic effects resulted from American participation in the war? The gross national product more than doubled, as did corporate profits. Also, when the war ended and price controls were lifted, inflation shot up. Despite all of the New Deal programs, it was the plethora of spending during WWII that lifted America from its Great Depression. 8. Describe Japanese victories in the Pacific in the months following Pearl Harbor. The Japanese overran the lands that they descended upon, winning more land with fewer losses than ever before and conquering Guam, Wake, Philippines, etc. When the Japanese took over the Philippines, Douglas MacArthur had to sneak out of the place, but he vowed to return to liberate the islands. After the Philippine fighters surrendered, they were forced into the Bataan death march.

9.

Why was Midway an important battle? When the Japanese tried to seize Midway Island, they were forced back by Chester Nimitz during fierce fighting from June 3-6 1942. It was the turning point that stopped Japanese expansion. The Japanese would no longer take any more islands, as the US began island hopping, where the Allies would bypass heavily fortified islands, take over neighboring islands and starving them. 10. What strategy did the United States use to defeat the Japanese? The Japanese would no longer take any more islands, as the US began island hopping, where the Allies would bypass heavily fortified islands, take over neighboring islands and starving them. Americans also won at Guadalcanal and got New Guinea. 11. "The war against Hitler looked much better at the end of 1942 than it had in the beginning." Explain. The US first had trouble against Germany because their U-boats were extremely effective, but the breaking of the Germans’ enigma code helped pinpoint those subs better. It wasn’t until war’s end that the true threat of the German submarines was known, as it was discovered that Hitler had been about to unleash a new U-boat that could remained underwater indefinitely and cruise at 17 knots underwater. 12. Describe the purpose and outcome of the Invasion of North Africa.

Instead of a frontal European assault, the British devised an invasion through North Africa, so that the Allies could cut Hitler’s forces through the “soft underbelly” of the Mediterranean Sea. A secret attack was done by Dwight Eisenhower as they defeated the French. 13. Why could June 6, 1944 be considered THE turning point of the war?

At the Tehran Conference, the Big Three met and agreed that the Soviets and Allies would launch simultaneous attack. The point of attack was French Normady and D-day began where Allied troops, some led by George Patton, finally clawed their way onto land, across the landscape, and deeper into France. 14. Why was the choice of a vice-presidential candidate important and difficult for the democrats in 1944? FDR was a democratic lock, but because of his age, the VP candidate was carefully chosen to be Harry Truman, who won out over Henry A Wallace, an ill balanced and unpredictable liberal. 15. What factors led to Roosevelt's victory over Dewey?

Dewey went on rampaging campaign offensive while FDR could not go out much. The New Political Action Committee of the CIO contributed a lot of money. In the end, Roosevelt stomped Dewey and the fourth term issue wasn’t even that big of a deal, since it was broken 3 years ago. 16. Describe the last six months of war in Europe.

In the Battle of the Bulge, Hitler concentrated his forces and threw them in the Ardennes forest. He almost succeeded but he eventually was stopped by McAuliffe. Americans also reached Rhine River and pushed toward the Elbe River and there marched toward Berlin. The Allies were horrified to find the concentration camps of Jews and other undesirables. Also, Hitler committed suicide because he suspecting he was going to lose. The final Germany surrender was known was V-E day. 17. Explain the meaning of the title of this section.

83,000 died from a firebomb raid by the US. Iwo Jima was also captured in a 25 day assault that left 4,000 Americans dead. Okinawa was also won but with the cost of 50,000 American lives. Japanese kamikazes suicide pilots also unleashed their full terror as a last resort. 18. What was the military impact of the atomic bomb?

At the Potsdam Conference, the Allies sent out a message: surrender or die. The Americans dropped two atomic bombs, one on Hiroshima, killing 180,000 and 80,000 on Nagasaki. Finally, Japan surrendered after the Russians declared war. The formal end came on the USS Missouri where Hirohito surrendered to Mac Arthur. 19. "This complex conflict was the best fought war in America's history." Explain

America’s success was thanks to the excellent US generals and admirals, and the leaders. Industry was also rising and putting out a phenomenal amount of goods, proving wrong Hermann Goering, a Nazi leader who had scorned America’s lack of manufacturing skills. 20. What questions concerning WWII have historians attempted to answer?

Historians were trying to answer how the United States would be like after the war. They were concerned that if the United States were a world of promise, they could also be a world of dangers. In addition, many historians were uncertain if the use of the atomic bomb was necessary to win the war. It resulted in thousands of deaths that were seemingly unnecessary.