Chapter #28: Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt – Big Picture Themes 1.

The Progressives grew out of the Populist (or People’s) Part and sought to correct in!ustices. ". Progressives and #muc$ra$er% writers attac$ed cit corruption& corporate greed& poor living and wor$ing conditions& alcohol& and women’s right to vote. 'ach of these ills saw laws and(or )mendments passed to attempt to better the condition. *. Tedd Roosevelt made a name for himself as a #trust+buster%. That is& he bro$e up a few high+profile companies that he said were monopolies (or trusts). Busting trusts and thus creating competition was to benefit the average person. ,. -e also obtained huge tracts of land& usuall out .est& for par$s and conservation. /. Roosevelt pic$ed Taft to follow him& but Taft began to stra from Roosevelt’s wa s and the two split. Chapter# 28: 0dentifications 1acob Riis Early 1900's muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How he !ther Hal" #ives"$ exposed the poor conditions o" the poor tenements in %&' and Hell's (itchen 0da Tarbell ")uckraker" who wrote in the ma*a+ine )c'lure's ,19-1.. /s a youn*er woman0 in 19010 ar2ell made her reputation 2y pu2lishin* the history o" the Standard !il 'ompany0 the ")other o" rusts." Robert 2. 3a4ollete *overnor o" 3isconsin$ "4i*htin* 5o2"$ most militant o" the pro*ressive 6epu2lican leaders$ wrestled control "rom railroad and lum2er industries$ re*ulated pu2lic utilities$ elected 1901 5harles 'vans -ughes re"ormist 6epu2lican *overnor o" %ew &ork$ he had earlier *ained national "ame as an investi*ator o" malpractices 2y *as and insurance companies and 2y the coal trust 6pton 7inclair upped the interest in sa"er canned "ood products 2y writin* the sensational novel he 7un*le ,1908.$ intended to "ocus on the pli*ht o" the workers0 2ut readers were more concerned with "ood sanitation$ caused 6oosevelt to appoint a special investi*atin* commission and then to pass the )eat 9nspection /ct

0nitiative "avored direct primary elections and voters 2ein* a2le to directly propose le*islation themselves0 so as to 2ypass power:hun*ry party 2osses Referendum pro*ressive device that would place laws on the 2allot "or "inal approval 2y the people0 especially laws that had 2een railroaded throu*h a compliant le*islature 2y "ree:spendin* a*ents o" the 2i* 2usiness Recall the pro*ressive device o" ena2lin* voters to remove "aithless elected o""icials0 particularly those who had 2een 2ri2ed 2y 2osses or lo22yists 2uc$ra$ers reporters who wrote to expose some evil0 mudslin*ers0 dirt:di**ers$ #incoln Ste""ens0 9da ar2ell0 etc. 'l$ins )ct ;assed in 190<$ aimed primarily at the re2ate evil$ heavy "ines could now 2e imposed 2oth on the railroads that *ave re2ates and on the shippers that accepted them -epburn )ct ;assed in 1908$ "ree passes ,showed 2ri2ery. were restricted$ expanded the 9nterstate 'ommerce 'ommission and its reach was extended to include express companies0 sleepin*:car companies0 and pipelines$ 'ommission a2le to nulli"y existin* rates and stipulate maximum rates 8orthern 7ecurities 5ase 190-$ 6oosevelt attacked the %orthern Securities 'ompany0 a railroad holdin* company or*ani+ed 2y "inancial titan 7. ;. )or*an and empire 2uilder 7ames 7. Hill ,they had sou*ht to achieve a virtual monopoly o" the railroads in the %orthwest.$ 'ourt held up 6oosevelt's antitrust suit and ordered the company to 2e dissolved$ the decision =olted 3all Street and an*ered 2i* 2usiness 2ut *reatly enhanced 6oosevelt's reputation as a trust smasher 2eat 0nspection )ct 1908$ passed 2y 6oosevelt as a response to Sinclair's 2ook he 7un*le$ decreed that the preparation o" meat shipped over state lines would 2e su2=ect to "ederal inspection "rom corral to can Pure 4ood and 9rug )ct 1908$ companion to the )eat 9nspection /ct$ desi*ned to prevent the adulteration and misla2elin* o" "oods and pharmaceuticals

8ewlands )ct 190-$ 3ashin*ton was authori+ed to collect money "rom the sale o" pu2lic lands in the sun:2aked western states and then use these "unds "or the development o" irri*ation pro=ects$ settlers repaid the cost o" reclamation "orm their now:productive soil0 and the money was put into a revolvin* "und to "inance more such enterprises$ lead to widespread dam construction 9ollar diplomac 4orei*n ;olicy idea 2y a"t to make countries dependant on the U.S. 2y heavily investin* in their economies Pa ne+)ldrich )ct Si*ned 2y a"t in )arch o" 1909 in contrast to campai*n promises. 3as supposed to lower tari"" rates 2ut Senator %elson %. /ldrich o" 6hode 9sland put revisions that raised tari""s. his split the 6epu2lican party into pro*ressives ,lower tari"". and conservatives ,hi*h tari"".. Ballinger+Pinchot )ffair /""air in which 5allin*er0 who was the Secretary o" 9nterior0 opened pu2lic lands in 3yomin*0 )ontana0 and /laska a*ainst 6oosevelt's conservation policies. ;inchot0 who was the 'hie" o" 4orestry0 supported "ormer ;resident 6oosevelt and demanded that a"t dismiss 5allin*er. a"t0 who supported 5allin*er0 dismissed ;inchot on the 2asis o" insu2ordination. his divided the 6epu2lican ;arty. Chapter #28: Guided Reading Questions Progressive Roots :now; Progressives& 3aisse<+faire& -enr 9emarest 3lo d& 1acob Riis& Theodore 9reiser& 1ane )ddams& 3illian .eld 1. .hat were the goals of the Progressives= Before the first decade of the ">th centur & the 6.7. would be influenced b a ?Progressive movement@ that fought against monopolies& corruption& inefficienc & and social in!ustice. The purpose of the Progressives was to use the government as an agenc of human welfare. Ra$ing 2uc$ with the 2uc$ra$ers :now; )c'lure's& 3incoln 7teffens& 0da 2. Tarbell& Thomas .. 3awson& 9avid A. Phillips& Ra 7tannard Ba$er& 1ohn 7pargo ". .hat issues were addressed b the ma!or muc$ra$ers= 3incoln 7teffens unmas$ed the corrupt alliance between big business and the government. 0da 2. Tarbell published an eBpose of the 7tandard Cil 5ompan . Thomas .. 3awson eBposed the corrupt amassing of )merican fortunes. 9avid A. Phillips charged that D/ of the E> 6.7. 7enators did not represent the people& but actuall the railroads and trusts.

Political Progressivism :now; 9irect Primar 'lections& 0nitiative& Referendum& Recall& )ustralian Ballot& 2illionaires@ 5lub& 7eventeenth )mendment& 7uffragists *. 9efine each of the ma!or political reforms that progressives desired. The Progressives favored the ?initiative? so that voters could directl propose legislation& the ?referendum? so that the people could vote on laws that affected them& and the ?recall? to remove bad officials from office. The also wanted to root out graft& using a secret )ustralian ballot to counteract boss rule& and have direct election of 6.7. senators to stop corruption. Progressivism in the 5ities and 7tates :now; Robert 2. 3a 4ollette& The .isconsin 0dea& -iram .. 1ohnson& 5harles 'vans -ughes ,. .hat changes did progressives ma$e at the cit and state level= Progressives in Aalveston& TF either used& for the first time& eBpert+staffed commissions to manage urban affairs or the cit +manager s stem& which was designed to ta$e politics out of municipal administration. 6rban reformers attac$ed ?slumlords&? !uvenile delinGuenc & and wide+open prostitution. 0n .isconsin& Aovernor Robert 2. 3a 4ollette wrestled control from the croo$ed corporations and returned power to the people. 6nder the leadership of Aovernor -iram .. 1ohnson& other states also too$ to regulate railroads and trusts& such as Cregon and 5alifornia. 5harles 'vans -ughes& governor of 8ew Hor$& gained fame b investigating the malpractices of gas and insurance companies. Progressive .omen :now; Triangle 7hirtwaist 5ompan & )uller v. !re*on0 #ochner v. %ew &ork& .oman@s 5hristian Temperance 6nion& 4rances '. .illard& ?.et? and ?9r ? /. -ow successful were Progressives in combating social ills= The were successful. Progressives made ma!or improvements in the fight against child labor. The landmar$ case of 2uller vs. Cregon found attorne 3ouis 9. Brandeis persuading the 7upreme 5ourt to accept the constitutionalit of laws that protected women wor$ers. )nti+liGuor organi<ations li$e the .oman@s 5hristian Temperance 6nion& founded b 4rances '. .illard& and the )nti+7aloon 3eague were formed. 4inall & in 1E1E& the 1Ith )mendment prohibited the sale and drin$ing of alcohol. TR@s 7Guare 9eal for 3abor :now; 7Guare 9eal& 9epartment of 5ommerce and 3abor J. .hat were the three 5@s of the 7Guare 9eal= The were get control of the corporations& consumer protection& and the conservation of the 6nited 7tates@ natural resources.

TR 5orrals the 5orporations :now; 'l$ins )ct& -epburn )ct& Trustbusting& 8orthern 7ecurities 5ompan D. )ssess the following statement& ?Tedd Roosevelt@s reputation as a trustbuster is undeserved.? -e understood the political popularit of monopol +smashing& but he did not consider it a sound economic polic . -e did not want to punish the trusts for their economic success& so he made his purpose s mbolic. -e wanted to prove that the government& not private business& ruled the countr . -e did not come down on trusts as hard as he could have. 5aring for the 5onsumer :now; he 7un*le& 2eat 0nspection )ct I. .hat was the effect of 6pton 7inclair@s boo$& he 7un*le= 0t enlightened the )merican public to the disgustingl unsanitar food products in the big canning factories. 'arth 5ontrol :now; 4orest Reserve )ct& Aifford Pinchot& 8ewlands )ct& 5onservation& 5all of the .ild& Bo 7couts& 7ierra 5lub E. .hat factors led )mericans to ta$e an active interest in conservation= Roosevelt& convinced b the actions other conservationists li$e Aifford Pinchot& head of the federal 9ivision of 4orestr & convinced 5ongress to pass the 8ewlands )ct. -e pined to preserve the nation@s shrin$ing forests b setting aside 1"/ million acres in federal reserves& earmar$ing millions of acres of coal deposits& and he earmar$ed water resources for irrigation and power. The ?Roosevelt Panic? of 1E>D 1>. .hat were the results of the Roosevelt Panic of 1E>D= The panic paved the wa for long+overdue fiscal reforms& and 5ongress& in 1E>I& passed the )ldrich+Kreeland )ct in response to the hard+pressed ban$s being unable to increase the volume of mone in circulation. The Rough Rider Thunders Cut :now; .illiam -oward Taft& 'ugene K. 9ebs 11. .hat was the legac of Tedd Roosevelt@s presidenc = -e was to be $nown as the president to tame capitalism giving it a long adult life& with enthusiasm and perpetual outhfulness that strenuousl sought the middle road between unbridled individualism and paternalistic collectivism& and& most of all& the president that started a conservation crusade.

Taft; ) Round Peg in a 7Guare -ole 1". ?.illiam -oward Taft was less suited for the presidenc than he appeared to be.? 'Bplain -e was fat& !ovial& graduated second in his class at Hale& had an enviable reputation as a !udge and a law er& and was a trusted administrator of Roosevelt@s& but he had none of the arts of a dashing political leader& was passive to 5ongress& did not ta$e criticism well& and he was more wedded to status Guo than to change. The 9ollar Aoes )broad as a 9iplomat :now; 9ollar 9iplomac 1*. .hat was dollar diplomac and how was it practiced= ) polic which called for .all 7treet ban$ers to sluice their surplus dollars into foreign areas of strategic concern to the 6.7.& especiall in the 4ar 'ast and in the regions critical to the securit of the Panama 5anal. Taft& seeing a possible strangulation of 5hinese economic interests& had 7ecretar of 7tate Philander 5. :noB propose that a group of )merican and foreign ban$ers bu the railroads and turn them over to 5hina. Taft also pumped 6.7. dollars into -onduras and -aiti& while in 5uba& -onduras& and the 9ominican Republic& )merican forces were brought in to restore order and protect )merican investment. Taft the Trustbuster :now; Rule of Reason 1,. .ho deserves the nic$name ?Trustbuster&? Roosevelt or Taft= Taft& most li$el due to the fact that in his four ears of office& Taft brought E> suits against trusts. 0n his seven and a half ears in office& Roosevelt brought ,, suits against trusts. Taft 7plits the Republican Part :now; Pa ne+)ldrich Tariff& Richard Ballinger& Aifford Pinchot& 1oe 5annon 1/. .h did the Progressive wing of the Republican Part turn against Taft= Taft signed the Pa ne+)ldrich Bill& thus betra ing his campaign promises and outraging the progressive wing of his part . Taft rubbed salt in the wound b proclaiming it ?the best bill that the Republican part ever passed.? The Taft+Roosevelt Rupture 1J. -ow did the Republican Part split at the part @s 1E1" convention= 0n 1E11& the 8ational Progressive Republican 3eague was formed& with 3a4ollette as its leader& but in 4ebruar 1E1"& Roosevelt began writing to state governors that he was willing to accept the Republic nomination. Roosevelt forthwith sei<ed the Progressive banner pushing 3a4ollette aside.

Chapter #29: .ilsonian Progressivism )broad – Big Picture Themes 1. .ilson won the presidenc mainl because Tedd Roosevelt ran as a third+part candidate and split the Republican vote with Taft. ". .ilson was an idealist and progressive who sought to clean up problems. -e attac$ed the tariff as too high& ban$s as corrupt b the rich& and trusts as mil$ing the people. *. .ilson hated war and wanted )merican foreign polic to be fair and !ust to all. 5onditions in 3atin )merica& however& forced this peaceful president to ta$e militar action. 8otabl & he ordered the 67 )rm to chase Pancho Killa in 2eBico. ,. 0n 'urope& war had begun. 0n the )tlantic ocean& Aerman subs began to sin$ sin$s carr ing )mericans& notabl the 3usitania. .ilson tried to $eep )merica out of the war& and did& for the time being. Chapter #29: 0dentifications Eugene Debs Head o" the /merican 6ailway Union and director o" the ;ullman strike$ he was imprisoned alon* with his associates "or i*norin* a "ederal court in=unction to stop strikin*. 3hile in prison0 he read Socialist literature and emer*ed as a Socialist leader in /merica. Pancho Killa )exican revolutionary who killed many /mericans in )exico. he United States sent 7ohn 7 ;ershin* to capture him 2ut never did. 1ohn 1. Pershing 3ilson ordered him and an expeditionary "orce o" a2out 1>0000 soldiers into )exico to capture 4rancisco ";ancho" ?illa dead or alive 5entral Powers 3orld 3ar 9 alliance 2etween @ermany0 /ustria:Hun*ary and the !ttoman Empire )llies 3orld 3ar 9 alliance that included 5ritain0 4rance0 6ussia0 and later the United States and 9taly. hey opposed the 'entral ;owers. 3usitania his 5ritish liner was sunk in 191>0 2y @erman U:5oats0 causin* 3ilson to issue a stern warnin* to the @ermans0 tellin* them not to attack unarmed vessels "without warnin*".

7usseB Pledge / torpedo "rom a @erman su2marine hit a "rench passen*er liner0 called the Sussex in march 1918. 3ilson demanded the @ermans re"rain "rom attackin* passen*er ships. 9n this statement0 @ermany said they would temporarily stop these attacks 2ut mi*ht have to resume in the "uture i" the 5ritish continued to 2lockade @erman ports. 4ederal Reserve )ct 191<$ his act created a central 2ankin* system0 consistin* o" twelve re*ional 2anks *overned 2y the 4ederal 6eserve 5oard. 9t was an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet "lexi2le currency. he 5oard it created still plays a vital role in the /merican economy today. 8ew 8ationalism 6oosevelt's pro*ressive political policy that "avored heavy *overnment intervention in order to assure social =ustice 8ew 4reedom 3oodrow 3ilson's domestic policy that promoted antitrust modi"ication0 tari"" revision0 and re"orm in 2ankin* and currency matters. 6nderwood Tariff ;ushed throu*h 'on*ress 2y 3oodrow 3ilson0 this 191< tari"" reduced avera*e tari"" duties 2y almost 1>A and esta2lished a *raduated income tax 4ederal Trade 5ommission Esta2lished to preserve competition 2y preventin* un"air 2usiness practices and investi*ate complaints a*ainst companies. 5la ton )ntitrust )ct #en*thened Sherman /nti: rust /ct's list o" practices. Exempted la2or unions "rom 2ein* called trusts0 le*ali+ed strikes and peace"ul picketin* 2y la2or union mem2ers. Chapter #29 0dentifications The ?Bull 2oose? 5ampaign of 1E1" :now; Bull 2oose& 8ew 8ationalism& 8ew 4reedom 1. 'Bplain the difference between Roosevelt@s form of progressivism and .ilson@s. Roosevelt campaigned for female suffrage and a broad program of social welfare& such as minimum+wage laws and ?socialistic? social insurance. .ilson@s 8ew 4reedom favored small enterprise& desired to brea$ up all trusts.

.oodrow .ilson; ) 2inorit President ". ?The L1E1"M election results are fascinating.? 'Bplain. .ith the Republicans split& .oodrow .ilson easil won with ,*/ 'lectoral votes& while Roosevelt had II and Taft onl had I& but the 9emocrats did not receive the ma!orit of the popular vote. 7ocialist 'ugene K. 9ebs rac$ed up over E>>&>>> popular votes& while the combined popular totals of Roosevelt and Taft eBceeded .ilson. .ilson; The 0dealist in Politics *. -ow did .ilson@s personalit and past affect the wa he conducted himself as president= .oodrow .ilson was a s mpathi<er with the 7outh& a fine orator& a sincere and morall appealing politician& a ver intelligent man& cold personalit +wise& austere& intolerant of stupidit & and ver idealistic. .hen convinced he was right& .ilson would brea$ before he would bend& unli$e Roosevelt. .ilson Tac$les the Tariff :now; 6nderwood Tariff ,. .hat were the three parts of the ?triple wall of privilege=? The three parts were the tariff& the ban$s& and the trusts. .ilson Battles the Ban$ers :now; The 4ederal Reserve )ct /. -ow was the 4ederal Reserve 7 stem different than the ban$ing s stem that eBisted in the 6.7. in 1E1*= 0t had a nationwide s stem of twelve regional reserve districts& each with its own central ban$& and had the power to issue paper mone . The President Tames the Trusts :now; 4ederal Trade 5ommission )ct& 5la ton )nti+Trust )ct J. -ow did .ilson curb the trusts= 0n 1E1,& 5ongress passed the 4ederal Trade 5ommission )ct& which empowered a president+appointed position to investigate the activities of trusts and stop unfair trade practices such as unlawful competition& false advertising& mislabeling& adulteration& N briber . The 1E1, 5la ton )nti+Trust )ct lengthened the 7herman )nti+Trust )ct@s list of practices that were ob!ectionable& eBempted labor unions from being called trusts& and legali<ed stri$es and peaceful pic$eting b labor union members.

.ilsonian Progressivism at -igh Tide :now; The 4ederal 4arm 3oan )ct& .arehouse )ct& 3a 4ollette 7eamen@s )ct& .or$ingmen@s 5ompensation )ct& )damson )ct& 3ouis 9. Brandeis D. 9escribe some of the positive and negative outcomes of .ilson’s progressive legislation and actions. .ilson proceeded with further reforms& such as the 4ederal 4arm 3oan )ct of 1E1J& which made credit available to farmers at low rates of interest& and the .arehouse )ct of 1E1J& which permitted loans on the securit of staple crops. The 3a 4ollette 7eamen@s )ct of 1E1/ reGuired good treatment of )merica@s sailors& but it sent merchant freight rates soaring as a result of the cost to maintain sailor health. The .or$ingmen@s 5ompensation )ct of 1E1J granted assistance of federal civil+service emplo ees during periods of instabilit but was invalidated b the 7upreme 5ourt. The 1E1J )damson )ct established an eight+hour wor$da with overtime pa . 8ew 9irections in 4oreign Polic :now; -aiti I. 5ontrast .ilson@s ideas of foreign polic with those of Roosevelt and Taft. .ilson& unli$e his two previous predecessors& didn@t pursue an aggressive foreign polic & as he stopped ?dollar diplomac &? persuaded 5ongress to repeal the Panama 5anal Tolls )ct of 1E1"& and even led to )merican ban$ers@ pulling out of a siB+nation& Taft+engineered loan to 5hina. 2oralistic 9iplomac in 2eBico :now; Kictoriano -uerta& Kenustiano 5arran<a& 4rancisco (?Pancho?) Killa& )B5 Powers& 1ohn 1. (?Blac$ 1ac$?) Pershing E. .h did 2eBico give such trouble to the .ilson administration= 2eBico had been eBploited for decades b 6.7. investors in oil& railroads& and mines& but the 2eBican people were tremendousl poor& and in 1E1*& the revolted& and installed full+blooded 0ndian Aeneral Kictoriano -uerta to the presidenc . The rebels were ver violent and threatened )mericans living in 2eBico& but .oodrow .ilson would not intervene to protect )merican lives. )fter a small part of )merican sailors were arrested in Tampico& 2eBico& in 1E1,& .ilson threatened to use force& and even ordered the nav to ta$e over Kera 5ru<& drawing protest from -uerta and 5arran<a. Thunder )cross the 7ea :now; 5entral Powers& )llied Powers 1>. .hat caused 'urope to plunge into ..0 in 1E1,= 0n 1E1,& a 7erbian nationalist $illed )rchdu$e 4ran< 4erdinand. The domino+effect began where )ustria declared war on 7erbia& which was supported b Russia& who declared war on )ustria+-ungar and Aerman & which declared war on Russia and 4rance& then invaded neutral Belgium& and pulled Britain into the war and igniting .orld .ar 0.

) Precarious 8eutralit :now; :aiser .ilhelm 00 11. .hat caused an officiall neutral )merica to turn against the 5entral Powers= Aerman and )ustro+-ungarian agents in )merica tarnished the 5entral Powers@ image when the resorted to violence in )merican factories and ports& and when one such agent left his briefcase in a 8ew Hor$ elevator& the contents of which were found to contain plans for sabotage. )merica 'arns Blood 2one :now; 7ubmarine& 3usitania& )rabic& 7usseB 1". -ow did Aerman @s use of submarines lead to tense relations with the 6.7.= Aerman announced its use of submarine warfare around the British 0sles& warning the 6.7. that it would tr not to attac$ neutral ships& but that mista$es would probabl occur. Aerman subs& or 6+boats& san$ man ships& including the 3usitania& a British passenger liner that was carr ing arms and munitions as well. The attac$ $illed 1&1EI lives& including 1"I )mericans. .ilson .ins Reelection in 1E1J :now; 5harles 'vans -ughes& ?-e :ept 6s Cut of .ar? 1*. .hat were the $e s to .ilson@s electoral victor in 1E1J= The 9emocratic tic$et& with .ilson at its head again& went under the slogan ?-e $ept us out of war&? and warned that electing -ughes would be leading )merica into .orld .ar 0. 'ven though .ilson didn@t specificall promise to $eep )merica out of war& enough people felt that he did to vote for him. Kar ing Kiewpoints; .ho .ere the Progressives= :now; Richard -ofstadter& 8ew 3eft -istorians 1,. .hich answer to the Guestion above seems correct to ou= .h = 0 thin$ the ?8ew 3eft? historians are right. The Progressives wanted reform. The would not fight for reform if the corruption did not directl affect them in an wa . The Progressives were the people who were affected b the corruption of trusts and wanted to do something about it.