Capability Maturity Model Integration

Submitted To Dr. Rameez Khalid

Submitted By Aisha Siddiqua M. Saad Iqbal Syed Afaq Ufaq Abdul Samad


It has been used extensively for avionics software and government projects. It describes the maturity of the company based upon the project the company is dealing with and the clients. The result was the Capability Maturity Model. Maturity Le vels Process Area 1 Process Area 2 Process Area n Specific Goals Generic Goals Common Features Commitment to Perform Specific Practices Ability to Perform Directing Implementation Implementation Verifying Implementation Generic Practices . and Africa. published as Managing the Software Process in 1989. Australia.[1] Maturity Model The Capability Maturity Model (CMMI) is a way to develop and refine an organization's processes. in North America. A maturity model provides:      a place to start the benefit of a community’s prior experiences a common language and a shared vision a framework for prioritizing actions a way to define what improvement means for your organization It can be used as a benchmark for assessing different organizations for equivalent comparison.PART I: BACKGROUND History CMM was developed by the SEI at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh. South America. Currently. Asia. The CMM is no longer supported by the SEI and has been superseded by the more comprehensive Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). A maturity model is a structured collection of elements that describe characteristics of effective processes. The Capability Maturity Model was initially funded by military research. The first CMMI was for the purpose of developing and refining software development processes. Europe. some government departments require software development contract organization to achieve and operate at a level 3 standards. The United States Air Force funded a study at the Carnegie-Mellon Software Engineering Institute to create a model (abstract) for the military to use as an objective evaluation of software subcontractors.

released. 4. In the staged representation. Current State of CMMI: Although these models have proved useful to many organizations. 1997 SW-CMM revisions halted in support for CMMI. released. and improvement activities. released. 1993 SW-CMM v1. V1. The CMM Integration project was formed to sort out the problem of using multiple CMMs. one for Services. Further.0 draft C The Systems Engineering Capability Model (SECM) The Integrated Product Development Capability Maturity Model (IPD-CMM) v0. The SEI has released a policy to sunset the Software CMM and previous versions of the CMMI. maturity levels provide a recommended order for approaching process improvement in stages.02. The same can be said for the SECM and the IPD-CMM. applying multiple models that are not integrated within and across an organization is costly in terms of training. 2002 CMMI v1. This mapping enables you to control process improvement in your organization by helping you track your organization’s level of conformance to the CMMI model you are using. published. [6] Development Roadmap of CMMI:         1987 SEI-87-TR-24 (SW-CMM questionnaire). these models were superseded by CMMI. As illustrated in Figure 1.[2] Future Direction: With the release of the CMMI Version 1.2. . The Capability Maturity Model for Software (SW-CMM) v2. and the other for Acquisitions. Two other versions are being developed. maturity levels organize the process areas.CMMI models are designed to describe discrete levels of process improvement. 2. It is not intended that every CMMI process area maps one to one with your organization’s processes.1. the use of multiple models has been problematic. Common features organize generic practices. 1989 Managing the Software Process.0.98 Supplier sourcing CMMI is the designated successor of the three source models. This representation focuses on best practices your organization can use to improve processes in the process areas that are within the maturity level it chooses to achieve. 2000 CMMI v1. The CMMI Product Team's mission was to combine three source models: 1.2 Product Suite. released. 3.2. the existing CMMI has been renamed the CMMI for Development (CMMI-DEV). released. you must map your processes to CMMI process areas.1. Within the process areas are generic and specific goals as well as generic and specific practices. Before you begin using a CMMI model for improving processes. 2006 CMMI v1. appraisals. released. 1991 SW-CMM v1.

CMM can be combined with other methodologies. and Six Sigma. It is commonly used in conjunction with the ISO 9001 standard. as well as with the computer programming methodologies of Extreme Programming (XP).[7] .In some cases.

Each maturity level stabilizes an important part of the organization’s processes.[4] In CMMI models with a staged representation. 3. measured. The process discipline reflected by maturity level 2 helps to ensure that existing practices are retained during times of stress. The following sections describe the characteristics of each maturity level in detail. performed. maturity level 1 organizations often produce products and services that work. each a layer in the foundation for ongoing process improvement. chaotic environment. The maturity levels are measured by the achievement of the specific and generic goals that apply to each predefined set of process areas. work products. abandon processes in the time of crisis. A maturity level is a defined evolutionary plateau of process improvement. and controlled. there are five maturity levels. [5] . 2. and objectives. they frequently exceed the budget and schedule of their projects. the projects of the organization have ensured that requirements are managed and that processes are planned. Maturity level 1 organizations are characterized by a tendency to over commit. In other words. processes. [5] Maturity Level 2: Managed At maturity level 2. and services are managed. processes are usually ad hoc and chaotic. standards. Commitments are established among relevant stakeholders and are revised as needed. The organization usually does not provide a stable environment. 4. Work products are reviewed with stakeholders and are controlled. and not be able to repeat their past successes. 5. At maturity level 2. Experience has shown that organizations do their best when they focus their process-improvement efforts on a manageable number of process areas that require increasingly sophisticated effort as the organization improves. designated by the numbers 1 through 5: 1. The work products and services satisfy their specified requirements. an organization has achieved all the specific and generic goals of the maturity level 2 process areas. Success in these organizations depends on the competence and heroics of the people in the organization and not on the use of proven processes.PART II: GENRAL WORKING OF THE CMMI FRAMEWORK Maturity Levels Of CMMI: The maturity level of an organization provides a way to predict the future performance of an organization within a given discipline or set of disciplines. however.[5] Maturity Level 1: Initial At maturity level 1. In spite of this ad hoc. requirements. projects are performed and managed according to their documented plans. When these practices are in place. at major milestones and at the completion of major tasks). Initial Managed Defined Quantitatively Managed Optimizing Maturity Level Details Maturity levels consist of a predefined set of process areas. The status of the work products and the delivery of services are visible to management at defined points (for example.

and is quantitatively predictable. At maturity level 4. 3. and process implementers. Quality and process performance are understood in statistical terms and are managed throughout the life of the processes. These standard processes are used to establish consistency across the organization. detailed measures of process performance are collected and statistically analyzed. and procedures for a project are tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes to suit a particular project or organizational unit. the sources of special causes are corrected to prevent future occurrences.Maturity Level 3: Defined At maturity level 3. processes are well characterized and understood. The organization’s management establishes process objectives based on the organization’s set of standard processes and ensures that these objectives are appropriately addressed. its work products. and are described in standards. Quantitative objectives are based on the needs of the customer. and its services. For these processes. processes are typically described in more detail and more rigorously than at maturity level 2. the standards. and procedures may be quite different in each specific instance of the process (for example. At maturity level 3. A critical distinction between maturity level 3 and maturity level 4 is the predictability of process performance. an organization has achieved all the specific and generic goals of the process areas assigned to maturity levels 2 and 3. At maturity level 2. and methods. At maturity level 3. Special causes of process variation1 are identified and. on a particular project). end users. process descriptions. tools. At maturity level 3. and procedures. is established and improved over time. [5] Maturity Level 4: Quantitatively Managed At maturity level 4. the processes that are performed across the organization are consistent except for the differences allowed by the tailoring guidelines. Sub-processes are selected that significantly contribute to overall process performance. processes are only qualitatively predictable. the performance of processes is controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques. As a result. Another critical distinction is that at maturity level 3. These selected sub-processes are controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques. At maturity level 3. Quantitative objectives for quality and process performance are established and used as criteria in managing processes. which is the basis for maturity level 3. [5] Maturity Level 5: Optimizing . the standards. and 4 and the generic goals assigned to maturity levels 2 and 3. organization. procedures. The organization’s set of standard processes includes the processes addressed at maturity level 2 and maturity level 3. process descriptions. A critical distinction between maturity level 2 and maturity level 3 is the scope of standards. where appropriate. process descriptions. Projects establish their defined processes by tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes according to tailoring guidelines. processes are managed more proactively using an understanding of the interrelationships of the process activities and detailed measures of the process. an organization has achieved all the specific goals of the process areas assigned to maturity levels 2. The organization’s set of standard processes. Quality and process performance measures are incorporated into th e organization’s measurement repository to support fact-based decision making in the future.

the organization has been elevated from ad hoc to discipline by establishing sound project management. As your organization achieves the generic and specific goals for the set of process areas in a maturity level. at maturity level 2. Optimizing processes that are agile and innovative depends on the participation of an empowered workforce aligned with the business values and objectives of the organization. The organization’s ability to rapidly respond to changes and opportunities is enhanced by finding ways to accelerate and share learning. processes are concerned with addressing common causes of process variation and changing the process (that is. Improvements are selected based on a quantitative understanding of their expected contribution to achieving the organization’s process improvement objectives versus the cost and impact to the organization. For instance. Maturity level 5 focuses on continually improving process performance through both incremental and innovative technological improvements. Quantitative process-improvement objectives for the organization are established. Processes are continually improved based on a quantitative understanding of the common causes of variation 2 inherent in processes. using both quantitative and qualitative data to make decisions.At maturity level 5. it is one means of predicting the most likely outcomes from the next project the organization undertakes. At maturity level 4. Since organizational maturity describes the range of expected results that can be achieved by an organization. Process improvements to address common causes of process variation and measurably improve the organization’s processes are identified. Both the defined processes and the organization’s set of standard processes are targets of measurable improvement activities. 4. you are increasing your organizational maturity and reaping the benefits of process improvement. the results may be insufficient to achieve the established objectives. organization-wide continuous process improvement. The effects of deployed process improvements are measured and evaluated against the quantitative process-improvement objectives. continually revised to reflect changing business objectives. [5] Advancing Through Maturity Levels Organizations can achieve progressive improvements in their organizational maturity by first achieving stability at the project level and continuing to the most advanced-level. 3. Improvement of the processes is inherently part of everybody’s role. and deployed. The performance of the organization’s processes is continually improved. At maturity level 5. A critical distinction between maturity level 4 and maturity level 5 is the type of process variation addressed. an organization has achieved all the specific goals of the process areas assigned to maturity levels 2. processes are concerned with addressing special causes of process variation and providing statistical predictability of the results. . and 5 and the generic goals assigned to maturity levels 2 and 3. shifting the mean of the process performance) to improve process performance (while maintaining statistical predictability) to achieve the established quantitative process-improvement objectives. Though processes may produce predictable results. CMMI Appraisals are used to assess compliance and gauge the success of Specific Practices (SPs) of Process Areas (PAs) as indicated in CMMI Process Model Framework. evaluated.[7] CMMI Appraisal: In order to estimate the CMMI maturity level of the organization or to gauge an organizations compliance with CMMI defined practices CMMI Assessment (also known as CMMI Appraisals) are conducted. and used as criteria in managing process improvement. resulting in a cycle of continual improvement.

SCAMPI A 2. Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) Method Definition Document: SCAMPI MDD Document provides information on the CMMI Appraisal Methodology. Low Maturity (2 and 3) or High Maturity (i. who is also recognized as Lead Appraiser or High Maturity Lead Appraiser subject to the maturity level of the organization to be assessed i. SCAMPI C appraisals are often performed for reasons such as:    a quick gap analysis of an organization’s process relative to the CMMI the adequacy of a new process before it is implemented the implementation of a process . Following guidelines have been standardized by the SEI for conducting appraisals: 1. 2. It is conducted to gain the following:     Detailed findings that describe the strengths and weaknesses of your organization’s p rocess relative to the CMMI. less rigorous method than SCAMPI A and does not result in a Maturity Level Rating for the Appraisal. SCAMPI C SCAMPI A Appraisal is the most formal and rigorous and results in a Maturity Level Rating for the Appraisal conducted for an organization. SCAMPI B 3.e. Practice characterizations indicating the likelihood that the examined practices would satisfy the goals and meet the intent of the CMMI. Appraisal Requirements for CMMI (ARC) Document: ARC document provide information on the Appraisal Requirements. Consensus regarding the organization’s key process issues A FIDO Database that the organization can continue to use to monitor process improvement progress and to support future appraisals.e. It can provide the following results:     A maturity level rating or Capability Level ratings Findings that describe the strengths and weaknesses of your organiz ation’s process relative to the CMMI Consensus regarding the organization’s key process issues An appraisal database that the organization can continue to use to monitor process improvement progress and to support future appraisals. These classes are: 1. [8] SCAMPI Appraisals Classes SEI has developed the three classes for Appraisal based on the formalism required in the Appraisal and the objective of the sponsor for the appraisal. SCAMPI C Appraisal is the least formal method compared to SCAMPI A and B Appraisals and also does not provide a Maturity Level Rating for Appraisal. SCAMPI B Appraisal is the less formal.The Appraisals are conducted under the supervision of an SEI Certified Assessor. 4 and 5).

when an organization has a low maturity process or is introducing a process improvement program — a Baseline Assessment is often the most economical and efficient approach.[9] As the appraisal class moves. the scope of process becomes more focused and in depth.  an organization’s readiness for a SCAMPI A the selection of a supplier[8] Baseline Assessment In cases where there is a requirement to create an primary process baseline — usually. Baseline Assessments measures the processes of an organization relative to the CMMI and provide a comprehensive groundwork for process improvement planning. [8] Some major characteristics of the appraisal classes are given below: [9] Characteristic Amount of objective evidence Ratings generated Resource needs Team size Class A High Yes High Large Class B Medium No Medium Medium Class C Low No Low Small . from Baseline Assessment to SACMPI C and finally to Scampi A.



we are limiting our scope to a single department of the organization.PART IV: APPLICATION OF CMMI ON AKUH For the purpose of the assignment we have taken Agha Khan University and Hospital (AKUH). as our subject organization. Monitor commitments against those identified in work plan  The ETA’s (expected time of arrival) committed by Purchase department are kept track of. law and order situation. Organogram: FACILTIES MANAGEMENT DIVISION CAPITAL PROJECTS MAINTAIN ENCE PROJECT MANAGER CONSTRUCTION MANAGER MECHANICAL &PLUMBING MANAGER ELECTRICAL MANAGER PLANNING ENGINEER SITE ARCHITECT SITE ENGINEERS QUANTITY SURVEYOR Process Areas 1. Monitor actual values of planning parameters against the work plan  Project’s Actual Progress is monitored against base plan.3.  The activities are updated in the schedule against base line. 1. namely Facilities Management Division. Based on the information available and due to restriction on access to documents. WORK MONITORING & CONTROL 1. we for this assignment are basing our assessment on limited amount of information available to us. Monitor management of data against work plan .2. etc) are given dueweight. and it requires in objective evidence. Monitor risks against those identified in work plan  The challenges and risks (stoppages due to noise. 1. Though only SCAMPI A results in generation of rating of level of maturity.1.4. 1.

5. Supplier Agreement Management 3.  Long term value agreements for standardized items like tiles. 3. EPA certification etc. will be satisfied  Transition plans. 2. 2. 1-2 months project commission phase. Determine the type of acquisition for each product or product component to be acquired  Quotation is reviewed by site engineer as well as by maintenance engineer 3. Review accomplishments and results at selected milestones  Monthly progress bulletin with S-curve are issued.1.  It also defines ways to inform the end users who may be affected by reported incident. Ensure that the supplier agreement is satisfied before accepting the acquired product. 3.  Internal evaluation is sent to supplier. Agreements with suppliers are satisfied by both the work group and the supplier. contractor’s performance bond. 3. INCIDENT RESOLUTION & MANAGEMENT: 2.2. 2.4.2. Contract NTPS.3.6. door hardware 3.6. 1. Establish an approach to incident resolution & prevention:  The criteria of incident determine the level of urgency to resolve.  Confirm that the nontechnical commitments associated with the acquired products are satisfied like lab tests. training reports. The Individual incidents are identified.4. support and maintenance reports are acquired. equipment O&M manuals are maintained.  Descriptions of how ongoing support obligations. 1.5.  Any due diligence which prevented incident from happening is brought to attention and sets best practices. Monitor stakeholder involvement against the plan  End User approval on design. Establish and maintain formal agreements with the supplier.  Document causes of incidents and causal analysis activities 2. such as warranties and licenses.  Supplier’s facilities visits  Supplier past performance evaluation 3.5. controlled and addressed  Actions which are needed to address the incident and prevent it from happening in future are listed. 2. Ensure the transition of acquired products from the supplier.  Incidents are managed till closure. . and post-occupancy survey are built into schedule.3. Causes and impacts of selected incidents are analyzed and addressed.1. Establish an incident management system for tracking incident information:  An incident reporting form has to be filled in which all obvious causes are identified. Select suppliers based on an evaluation of their ability to meet the specified requirements and established criteria. Incident preventions efforts are brought to lime light.

which supports the roles in the organization. 4.1. 4. Establish and maintain records of the organizational training.2.4. 4. Establish and maintain an organizational training tactical plan.5. is established and maintained. MATURITY LEVEL OF FACILTIES MANAGEMENT DIVISION AT AKUH: From our analysis of core processes. Establish and maintain the strategic training needs of the organization.6. . 4. Determine which training needs are the responsibilities of the organization and which are left to the individual work group or support group.7. Organizational Training 4. we put AKUH’s Facilities Management Division at maturity level 2. Training for individuals to perform their roles effectively is provided. 4. 4.3.4. Assess the effectiveness of the organization's training program. A training capability.

edu/cmmi/ 8. 5.broadswordsolutions.scribd. 3. 7.wikipedia. http://www. http://www.References:    . http://www. http://en. 9.cmu.scribd. http://plays-in-business.selectbs.