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A REPORT ON JOB ANALYSIS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PANTALOONS AND MCDONALDS

SUBMITTED TO: BY: DR. SWATI AGRAWAL SUBMITTED GEETA ISHAAN HEMANGI

Executive Summary
One of the main purposes of conducting job analysis is to prepare job descriptions and job specifications which in turn help hire the right quality of workforce into an organization. The general purpose of job analysis is to document the requirements of a job and the work performed. Job and task analysis is performed as a basis for later improvements, including: definition of a job domain; description of a job; development of performance appraisals, personnel selection, selection systems, promotion criteria, training needs assessment, legal defense of selection processes, and compensation plans. The human performance improvement industry uses job analysis to make sure training and development activities are focused and effective. In the fields of human resources (HR) and industrial psychology, job analysis is often used to gather information for use in personnel selection, training, classification, and/or compensation. Industrial Psychologists use job analysis to determine the physical requirements of a job to determine whether an individual who has suffered some diminished capacity is capable of performing the job with, or without, some accommodation. Edwin Flieshman, Ph.D. is credited with determining the underlying factors of human physical fitness. Professionals developing certification exams use job analysis (often called something slightly different, such as "task analysis" or "work analysis") to determine the elements of the domain which must be sampled in order to create a content valid exam. When a job analysis is conducted for the purpose of valuing the job (i.e., determining the appropriate compensation for incumbents) this is called "job evaluation." The entire report talks about job analysis carried in the companies are carried differently by integrating it with organisational culture. The report talks about method of job analysis carried out in Pantaloons and Mcdonals. It includes various parameters of job analysis.

Literature Review
Job analysis as a management technique was developed around 1900. It became one of the tools by which managers understood and directed organizations. Frederick W. Taylor, through his interest in improving the efficiency of work, made studying the job one of his principles of scientific management. From his ideas emerged time and motion study of jobs. Early organization theorists were interested in how jobs fit into organizations; they focused on the purpose of the job. But this early interest in job analysis disappeared as the human relations movement focused on other issues. It was not until the 1960s that psychologists and other behavioral scientists rediscovered jobs as a focus of study in organizations. The organization with the greatest long-term interest in job analysis has been the United States Department of Labor (DOL). The United States Employment Service (USES) of the DOL's Training and Employment Administration has developed job analysis procedures and instruments over many years. These procedures probably represent the strongest single influence on job analysis practice in the United States. The DOL's Guide for Analyzing Jobs and Handbook for Analyzing Jobs show the development of job analysis procedures over almost 50 years. They developed and published The Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) , and they have a policy of helping private employers install job analysis programs. The DOL has led in the development of what is often called the conventional approach to job analysis. The U.S. Department of Labor last fully updated its Dictionary of Occupational Titles in 1977, with 12,741 positions described (a minor update was released in 1991). No further government releases are planned as O*NET and its SOC codes have replaced the "DOT" in its entirety. ERI has updated the abandoned U.S. DOT. New job descriptions have evolved from ERI's analysis of thousands of salary surveys. Job analysiswork fields, skills, MSPMS, and workerspecific occupational characteristics, including new stress measures, are added, updated, and/or enhanced for 14,000 position descriptions and 95,000 occupation titles. Up to this point, job analysis had focused on the work being done. This changed in the 1970s as psychologists became interested in job analysis. Their contribution was in three areas. The first was in quantifying job analysis. They began to develop questionnaires to collect data on jobs. Second, they contributed to the trend toward a worker orientation to job analysis. Third, they focused in some cases on units smaller than the job, the task, or elements within jobs.

CONCEPT
A study of a specific job, or of all jobs, in an enterprise with respect to operations involved, working conditions, and qualifications required, etc. Organizations exist to accomplish some goal or objective. They are collectivities rather than individuals because achieving the goals requires the efforts (work) of a number of people (workers). The point at which the work and the worker come together is called a job it is the role played by the worker. We need to know a lot of information about these roles/jobs, including:

What does or should the person do? What knowledge, skill, and abilities does it take to perform this job? What is the result of the person performing the job? How does this job fit in with other jobs in the organization? What is the job's contribution toward the organization's goals?

Information about jobs is obtained through a process called job analysis. The goal of this process is to secure all necessary job data. Job evaluation represents the major use of job analysis. It is also our focus in this article. Because the job information needed for various uses may differ, some organizations make a specialized study for each specific use. . There is a plethora of job analysis methods, and it would be fruitless to try and discuss all of them. In this section we will review some of the more popular approaches to job analysis, as well as those that represent a particular approach. It will be seen that these job analysis methods differ in descriptors, levels of analysis, and methods of collecting, analyzing, and presenting data. We will evaluate these approaches in terms of purpose, descriptor applicability, cost, reliability, and validity.

COMPANY PROFILE
Pantaloons is India's fastest growing premium lifestyle apparel company. With innovative designs, concepts and products, the company brings the latest trends in fashion and clothing styles to the apparel market. The company offers an incredible and complete one-stop shopping experience to its buyers through its vast collection of more than 100 prestigious brands for the discerning fashionista. The 79 aesthetically designed stores spread across the country display a range of classy and trendy merchandise that truly lives up to Pantaloons maxim of fresh fashion. A typical Pantaloons store is spread across a sprawling retail space of about 28,000 sq. ft., comprising a brand portfolio that runs across a wide gamut of styles that spell class. The collection includes ready-to-wear western and ethnic apparel for men, women and kids, complemented by an exhaustive range of accessories. The womens section houses the private labels Bare Denim, Bare Leisure, Rig, Annabelle, Honey, and Ajile in western wear, as well as the choicest ethnic wear from RangManch, Trishaa and Akkriti. Popular brands like Lee Cooper, Biba and W are also available. The private labels for men in western wear include Lombard, Rig, Bare Denim, Bare Leisure and JM Sport apart from trendy brands like Urbana, Scullers, John Miller, and Indigo Nation. Akkriti provides a wide selection of ethnic wear. Kids can choose from private labels like Bare Denim, Bare Leisure, Rig, or indulge in exclusive brands like Lee Cooper Juniors, Chalk, Pink & Blue, and Sach in addition to international brands like Barbie and Disney. For the ethnic look, they can opt for traditional wear from Akkriti. Pantaloons offers much more than just apparel. Customers can shop from an assortment of watches from renowned international brands like Tommy Hilfiger, Esprit, Kenneth Cole, Citizen, Timex, and Titan, among other brands. Trendy sunglasses from Polaroid, Guess, Police, Scott, I Dee and Allen Solly are also available. The accessories and beauty segments display an attractive collection of ladys handbags from Lavie, Caprese, Fiorelli and Fastrack. Also available are products from colour cosmetic brands such as Bourjois, Chambor, Deborah, Faces, Revlon, Maybelline, and Lakm, as well as a wide collection of exotic fragrances. With its overwhelming repertoire of lifestyle apparel brands, Pantaloons is focused on growth while continuing to create fresh fashion. Pantaloons is recognised by its warm personalised service that completes the core proposition of this trendy chain.

COMPANY PROFILE
The McDonald's Corporation is the world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants, serving around 68 million customers daily in 119 countries. Headquartered in the United States, the company began in 1940 as a barbecue restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald; in 1948 they reorganized their business as a hamburger stand using production line principles. Businessman Ray Kroc joined the company as a franchise agent in 1955. He subsequently purchased the chain from the McDonald brothers and oversaw its worldwide growth. A McDonald's restaurant is operated by either franchisee, an affiliate, or the corporation itself. McDonald's Corporation revenues come from the rent, royalties, and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. In 2012, McDonald's Corporation had annual revenues of $27.5 billion, and profits of $5.5 billion. McDonald's primarily sells hamburgers, cheeseburgers, chicken, french fries, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes, and desserts. In response to changing consumer tastes, the company has expanded its menu to include salads, fish, wraps, smoothies, and fruit.

At McDonald's, we strive to be more than just a restaurant - we're a first job for many, a community partner, a model for other restaurants around the world, and a company seeking new ways to fulfill our brand promise of Quality, Service, Cleanliness, and Value.

Quest- Is Getting the Right People means job analysis ? The HR Toolkit offers information and tools to help organizations revise existing job descriptions or develop new ones. These tools include a job description template, job profiles of some common staff positions in nonprofit organizations along with sample job descriptions from nonprofit organizations. The job profiles available in the HR Toolkit provide a broad overview of the typical types of duties and responsibilities performed by staff in a position and the qualifications that are most common for that position. Quest-Why are job descriptions important? A job description is a basic HR management tool that can help to increase individual and organizational effectiveness. The HR Council has developed job profiles for key positions in small organizations that are available for you to use and adapt for your own use. For each employee, a good job description helps the incumbent to understand:

Their duties and responsibilities The relative importance of their duties How their position contributes to the mission, goals and objectives of the organization For the organization, good job descriptions contribute to organizational effectiveness by:

Ensuring that the work carried out by staff is aligned with the organization's mission Helping management clearly identify the most appropriate employee for new duties and realigning work loads Job descriptions are also the foundation for most HR management activities:

Recruitment Job descriptions are used to develop a recruitment campaign that clearly articulates the duties to be performed and qualifications required by the organization for the position Selection Interview questions, hiring criteria and the screening process are based on the duties and qualification outlined in the job description Orientation The job description helps the employee see how their position relates to other positions in the organization Training The job description can be used to identify areas where the employee does not adequately meet the qualifications of the position and therefore needs training Supervision The job description can be used by the employee and the supervisor to help establish a work plan Compensation Job descriptions can be used to develop a consistent salary structure, which is based on relative level of duties, responsibility and qualifications of each position in the organization Performance Management The job description and the work plan are used to monitor performance Legal Defense

Quest- How can we perform a thorough job analysis ? If your organization does not have job descriptions or if your job descriptions are out of date, the first task is to conduct a job analysis. Job analysis is a process for systematically collecting information to help you fully understand and describe the duties and responsibilities of a position as well as the knowledge, skills and abilities required to do the job. The aim is to have a complete picture of the position - what is actually done and how. The purpose of job analysis is to provide the information necessary for writing job descriptions. Job descriptions are used as the basis of most other HR management practices from selection to training to performance management. Job analysis information can also be used in the job evaluation process, which is the process for assigning value to a job for the purpose of setting compensation. The types of information collected during job analysis will be specific to each organization. However, typical kinds of information that are gathered are:

Summary of duties Details of most common duties Supervisory responsibilities Educational requirements Special qualification Experience Equipment/tools used Frequency of supervision Others the incumbent must be in contact with Authority for decision making Responsibility for records/reports/files Working conditions Physical demand of the job Mental demands of the job Information about jobs can be gathered using qualitative or narrative techniques such as interviews, questionnaires, observations and activity logs.

Interviews The employee and/or manager are asked a series of questions about the job, the essential tasks of the job, and the abilities required to perform it well Questionnaires Ask the employee to fill out a standard questionnaire about the essential tasks of the job (see the HR Toolkit's Sample Job Analysis Questionnaire) Observation The person collecting the data observes the activities of the employee and records these on a standardized form Direct observation of the employee at work is a useful technique if the activities are easily observable Activity Logs The employee is asked to keep a log of every activity and the time spent on it for a set period of time

Job analysis can also be done using a combination of the above techniques. For example: staff may be asked to complete a Job Analysis Questionnaire and then it could be discussed during an informal interview to clarify information and to provide the supervisor's observations on the work done. Quest- How Designing satisfying and motivating jobs? Job design is the process of combining responsibilities and duties into jobs that enhance organizational effectiveness and employee satisfaction. When designing jobs some of the issues to consider are:

How will the job contribute to the goals of the organization? Do the duties that are grouped together require a similar or complimentary skill set? Will grouping certain tasks together be efficient? Do the tasks that are grouped together make sense for workflow at the individual and organizational level? Are there ergonomic factors that should be taken into account when grouping tasks? One of the well-known theories on job design looks at jobs from the employee's perspective. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham link employee motivation and job satisfaction to the following characteristics of a job:

Skill Variety The degree to which the job involves different tasks and uses different skills Task Identity The degree to which the job requires the completion of a whole/complete piece of work doing the task from beginning to end Task Significance The degree to which the job has importance to the organization and/or others Autonomy The amount of independence and discretion the employee has in completing her/his work Feedback The degree to which the employee is given direct information about the effectiveness of his/her performance Keep these five characteristics in mind when designing jobs for your organization. Jobs that are interesting, motivating and satisfying usually lead to enhanced retention.

Quest-How is a job description developed? The jobs appropriate for an organization come directly from the organization's mission and structure. Based on an analysis of the organization's mission, goals and programs or activities:

Identify the values that should be reflected by all staff Establish the tasks or functions that need to be done Group the tasks into meaningful and challenging jobs Determine the experience, knowledge, skills and other characteristics that are required Consider any special working conditions or physical requirements Consider the internal equity and external recognition implications of job titles

Who approves a job description? The board or a sub-committee of the board approves the job description for an executive director. In small organizations, the executive director approves all staff job descriptions. As organizations grow the approval of job description may be delegated by the executive director to the appropriate manager. How can the sample job profiles be used? Good HR management includes written job descriptions for all staff. The job profiles available in the HR Toolkit can be used to develop and/or revise job descriptions for your organization. Whether you are developing new job descriptions or revising existing ones, you should carefully assess and adapt the information in the profile to ensure that it meets the needs of your organization. Consider the following:

Does the profile accurately capture the responsibilities and duties as they are practiced in your organization - what should be kept? what should be left out? Does the language used in the profile suit your organization? What order should duties and responsibilities be listed in to reflect their importance for your organization? Are the qualifications appropriate for your organization? All the information in the Job Profiles should be assessed to see how applicable they are to your organization and then adapted to fit your situation.

What information is included in the job profiles in the HR Toolkit?

Job title The title of the position and some alternative titles for the same position (some organizations will have another title for the same set of duties) Job purpose A brief overview of why the job exists Primary duties and responsibilities Examples of the common duties performed by individuals in the position The duties listed cover most of the tasks that would be performed by an individual in the position (the list of duties is not exhaustive - some of the duties may not be appropriate for every organization, additional duties may be required by an organization) Qualifications The minimum qualifications necessary to successfully perform the job Minimum qualifications are used to ensure that qualifications are not inflated and therefore potentially discriminatory and to ensure that capable individuals are not screened out during the recruitment process The qualifications described are: education, professional designation, knowledge, skills and abilities plus personal characteristics

Experience The number of years of experience to be successful in the position Working conditions Common working conditions Benchmark Each position is linked to the appropriate occupational description in the (Canadian) National Occupational Classification as a comparison The National Occupational Classification provides a standardized framework for describing occupations and can be used to make a link to labour market information Sample job descriptions At the end of each profile there are samples of job descriptions from voluntary and nonprofit organizations

CONCLUSION
1. Recruitment and Selection: Job analysis provides information about what the job entails and what human characteristics are required in order to perform these activities. This information, in the form of job descriptions and specifications, helps management officials decide what sort of people they need to recruit and hire and select. 2. Compensation: Job analysis information is crucial for estimating the value of each job and its appropriate compensation. Compensation (salary and bonus) usually depends on the job's required skill and education level, safety hazards, degree of responsibility, etc. -- all factors which can be accessed through job analysis. Also, many employers group jobs into classes. Job analysis provides the information to determine the relative worth of each job and its appropriate class. 3. Performance Appraisal: A performance appraisal compares each employee's actual performance with his or her performance standards. Managers use job analysis to determine the job's specific activities and performance standards. 4. Training: Job description should show the activities and skills, and therefore training, that the job requires 5. Discovering Unassigned Duties: Job Analysis can also help reveal unassigned duties. For example, a company's production manager says an employee is responsible for ten duties, such as production scheduling and raw material purchasing. Missing, however, is any reference to managing raw material inventories. On further study, it is revealed that none of the other manufacturing employees are responsible for inventory management, either. From review of other jobs like these, it is clear that someone should be managing raw material inventories. Therefore, an essential unassigned duty has been revealed. 6. EEO Compliance: Job analysis plays a large role in EEO compliance. United States Federal Agencies' Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection stipulate that job analysis is a necessary step in validating all major personnel activities. For example, employers must be able to show that their selection criteria and job performance are actually related. Doing this requires knowing what the job entails, which in turn requires job analysis.