Erasmus University Rotterdam Erasmus School of Economics

Master Thesis Marketing

Pleasure & Duty: are there differences to store choice criteria between hedonic and functional stores?

Jessica Malmberg 278 7!

"dvisor# $arlos %ourenco &ate# '2 (

ABSTRACT The )resent research investigates differences of store choice criteria bet*een hedonic and functional stores+ a distinction that has been sho*n to be im)ortant in consumer behavior, -nvestigating differences in store choice criteria bet*een these t*o ty)es of stores is relevant for managers of both ty)es of stores, .y kno*ing *hich criteria are more im)ortant for the store+ managers can focus on the most relevant ones to manage stores in a more effective *ay+ *hile saving valuable resources not s)ent in less im)ortant criteria, /n to) of )ointing out im)ortant differences of store choice criteria bet*een hedonic and functional stores+ in this thesis *e e0)lore individual level differences that may moderate those differences, " 1uantitative research is conducted among consumers through digital 1uestionnaires in order to investigate the im)ortance of the store choice criteria bet*een hedonic stores 2clothing and $&3&4&5 and functional stores 2su)ermarket and electronics5, The findings sho* that there are differences on the im)ortance of store choice criteria bet*een hedonic and functional stores, The most im)ortant criteria for functional stores are 6)roduct 1uality7 and 6)rice78 *hile for hedonic stores 6friendliness of sales)eo)le7+ 6store atmos)here7+ 6sho))ing *ith others7 and 6meet other )eo)le7 sho* u) as the most im)ortant ones, The results also sho* that consumer characteristics moderate the effect of hedonic and functional stores on the im)ortance of store choice criteria, 9urther+ lines for future research+ managerial im)lications and limitations are discussed,

TABLE OF CONTENTS
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1. Introduction,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found 2. Literature,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found 2,( :edonic and functional consum)tion,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found 2,2 Store choice criteria,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found 3. Conceptual frame or! " #$pot%e&e&,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found ;,( Store choice criteria < hy)otheses,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found '. (et%od,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found =,( &ata collection,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found =,2 Res)ondents,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found =,; >uestionnaire design,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found ). Re&ult&,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found !,( -m)ortance of the store choice criteria,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found !,2 Moderation effects of consumer characteristics and )ersonal sho))ing value ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found *. Conclu&ion&,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found ?,( $onclusions < &iscussion,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found ?,2 Research 1uestions,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found ?,; Managerial -m)lications,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found ?,= %imitations < future research,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found RE9ERE@$ES,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found "AAE@&-B -# >UEST-/@@"-RE,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found "AAE@&-B --# SASS /UTAUT,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Error# Reference source not found

1. Introduction

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-n the conte0t of stores+ functional stores serve habitual needs or functions+ such as su)ermarkets+ *hereas hedonic stores offer a more e0)eriential or hedonic ability to consumers+ such as art stores. . Stores can be hedonic or functional.ut *hy is this distinction im)ortantC -t has been sho*n that this distinction matters for individual )roducts.ut these store choice criteria may not be the same for all stores+ because stores are different.5 Ehat are the main determinants for functional storesC 2=5 -s the effect of hedonic and functional stores on the im)ortance of store choice criteria moderated by consumer characteristics or )erceived value of sho))ingC -t is im)ortant for managers of both ty)es of stores to kno* *hich criteria are more im)ortant for their store so they can focus more on those criteria and less on those less im)ortant. . The contribution of this thesis is to )oint out im)ortant differences of store choice criteria bet*een hedonic and functional stores and on to) of that e0)lore individual level differences that may moderate.g. :edonic )roducts )rovide )leasure+ fantasy+ feelings and fun to the consumer 2e. 2. Rele+ant literature = . )erfume5 and functional )roducts serve a functional need 2e. The )roblem statement of this thesis is ‘’are there differences in store choice criteria between hedonic and functional stores?’’. To ans*er this 1uestion the follo*ing research 1uestions are e0amined+ 2(5 *hat are the main determinants of store choiceC 225 Ehat are the main determinants for hedonic storesC 2.Arevious findings on store choice criteria have sho*n that store choice criteria are im)ortant for store )atronage decisions.g. laundry detergent5 2:olbrook < :irschman+ (D825. :edonic stores also have another ambience and a more )leasant atmos)here com)ared to functional stores.

/ne is called the traditional information )rocessing vie* 2functional consum)tion5+ *hich regards the consumer as a logical thinker *ho solves )roblems and makes a )urchase decision to fulfill a s)ecific need 2:olbrook and :irschman+ (D825. The forfeiture decision *as a choice bet*een the same t*o items but in this case they )ossessed both and have to choose *hich of the t*o goods to give u). The consum)tion of these )roduct classes could therefore not be e0)lained by the traditional information )rocessing vie* of consum)tion. -n both ! 8 . /ne good had a more hedonic dimension 2a nice vie* from the a)artment5 and the other a more functional dimension 2a shorter commute to *ork5. The second ty)e of consum)tion research in consumer behavior is the e0)eriential vie* of consum)tion+ *hich involves fantasies+ feelings+ fun and enFoyment.1 Hedonic and functional consumption There are t*o ty)es of consum)tion research in consumer behavior. -n the ac1uisition decision consumers had to choose *hich good to ac1uire bet*een t*o goods that they did not have before. Aroducts may have both hedonic and functional as)ects+ but it is believed that consumers characteriGe )roducts as either )rimarily hedonic and or )rimarily functional 2&har < Eertenbroch+ 2 functional alternatives. 2. This *as illustrated in the study by &har < Eertenbroch 22 5 *here they e0amined consumersH choice bet*een hedonic and functional goods in ac1uisition and forfeiture decisions. Research demonstrated that consumers make trade'offs bet*een hedonic and functional considerations de)ending on the nature of the decision task or conte0t. The consumer is seen as an e0)eriential being *ho consumes for enFoyment.atra < "thola+ (DD 5. The hedonic vie* of consum)tion has become very hel)ful in understanding consumer behavior.-n this section a general revie* of the literature concerning the consum)tion of hedonic and functional alternatives *ill be addressed. 9or instance+ )roduct classes such as novels+ movies+ concerts and )lays are emotionally involving )roducts 2:olbrook+ (D8 5 and are consumed to fulfill the need for emotional arousal. Maslo* 2(D?85 suggested that *hen choosing bet*een )roducts+ emotional desires may often dominate functional motives. This distinction makes it )ossible for researchers to e0amine consumer choice bet*een hedonic and . :irschman and :olbrook 2(D825 *ere the first to give notion to the e0)eriential vie* of consum)tion+ also called hedonic consumption.

-n )articular+ *hen consumers make clothing )urchases they do not take much consideration in the )ossibility of combining these tri)s *ith visits to stores for more fre1uent )urchases+ like grocery or drugstore )urchases. " reason for the latter is that consumers felt guilty if they chose for the hedonic )roduct+ because Fustification for it *as difficult com)aring to the functional one. "ccording to the reasoning made before+ clothing stores are considered more ? . They also observed that from a )urely travel cost minimiGation )ers)ective consumers combined fe*er )urchases than could be e0)ected. -n other *ords+ they value choices for clothing )urchase o))ortunities more than a combination of these )urchases *ith more fre1uent )urchase o))ortunities. &ellaert et al.al 2(DD85 investigated in their study the tendency of consumers to combine their )urchases of different categories to visits to multi)le stores. The authors found that consumers )refer to combine multi)le )urchases in their tri)s and also found that *hen consumers make drugstore )urchases they )ay more attention on reducing travel costs by combining their )urchases than *hen making clothing )urchases. 2(DD85 found that consumers care less about travel costs 2distance5 *hen going to a clothing store than *hen going to a grocery'+ or drugstore. 2.decision tasks the good *ith the more hedonic dimension *as chosen to kee)+ but the )references *ere stronger in the forfeiture decision. " )ossible e0)lanation for this might be that because clothing is bought less fre1uently and in a certain sense is an im)ortant )urchase 2long term decision5+ consumers )lace more value to this sho))ing e0)erience and do not let this be influenced by more fre1uent )urchases. The findings of the study are relevant to this current research because of the follo*ing. This is consistent *ith Maslo*Hs 2(D?85 suggestion that consumer )refer the alternative that satisfies their emotional desires. /kada 22 !5 demonstrated that in an immediate decision'making environment the choice for a hedonic )roduct is higher *hen it is not com)ared *ith other )roduct alternatives but *hen a decision has to be made bet*een a hedonic and functional )roduct )resented together+ the functional )roduct *as )referred. :o*ever+ studies sho*ed that the more hedonic alternative is not al*ays chosen.2 tore choice criteria &ellaert et.

-n the )resent study is investigated *hether the distinction bet*een hedonic and functional is relevant in the care of other often studied store choice criteria. Conceptual frame or! " #$pot%e&e& 7 . Therefore it can be said that in the conte0t of the current research+ distance )lays a less im)ortant role for hedonic stores than for functional stores. 3. The frame*ork and hy)otheses are discussed ne0t.hedonic and drugstores are considered more functional in nature.

-n this section the im)ortance of each criterion on store choice and additionally on hedonic or functional stores *ill be discussed *hich leads to the formulated hy)otheses. /r consumers may be more im)ulsive and )erha)s have the tendency to )atroniGe more hedonic stores. -t may also be that consumers derive different values of their sho))ing e0)erience *hich may have an effect on ho* im)ortant they rate the store choice criteria.The conce)tual model is based on a study by Aan and Iinkhan 22 ?5+ *here the authors analyGed the most re)orted determinants of store choice from )revious em)irical studies 29igure (5. The main effect found in their study *as that a large )roduct assortment+ service and )roduct 1uality+ *ere the most im)ortant criteria for e0)laining store choice. 9urthermore+ the results *ill be analyGed to see if there are any moderating effects of consumer characteristics on the im)ortance of the store choice criteria. 9or e0am)le+ some consumers may be more goal' + or task'oriented and have the tendency to )erha)s )atroniGe more functional stores. 3. Fi.ure 1 Conceptual model C%oice criteria 8 . -t is )ro)osed that each store choice criteria used here may be of more im)ortance for one of the stores de)ending on the nature of the store ' hedonic or functional' or may be e1ually im)ortant for both.1 Store c%oice criteria " %$pot%e&e& The main )ur)ose of this research is to sho* *hich store choice criteria influences consumersH choice of stores de)ending on the hedonic and functional nature of stores. This )resent study investigates the im)ortance of store choice criteria for hedonic and functional stores.

1 Price Arice is an im)ortant as)ect *hen choosing stores. 2(DD85+ a consumer *ill visit the store that minimiGes the variable costs *hich de)ends on the consumersH sho))ing list.ell et al. -t is D . &odds et al.ell and :o 22 (5 )ro)osed a )erceived sho))ing utility frame*ork to e0)lain consumersH store choice.Arice Aroduct 1uality Aroduct assortment Store atmos)here Service 1uality $onvenient %ocation $onvenient Aarking facilities $onvenient /)ening hours 9ast checkout 9riendliness of sales)eo)le See others sho))ing Sho))ing *ith others Meet other )eo)le -nfo on ne* )roducts3)rices $onsumer characteristics :edonic vs. Most consumers are more likely to go to the store that offers a lo*er )rice for its )roducts. This )erceived utility also consists of variable com)onents. "ccording to . Similarly+ Tang+ .1. 9unctional stores 3. 2(DD(5 found that )rice has a negative influence on *illingness to buy+ *hich leads to a negative influence on store )atronage. Jagliano and :athcote 2(DD=5 also found that )rice is an im)ortant criterion for store )atronage. "ccording to the authors+ consumers choose stores based on the )erceived utility from that store *hich is the benefits minus costs.

-n this study the focus *ill be on 6)erceived 1uality7. -t is e0)ected that )rice is more im)ortant for functional stores than for hedonic stores. These findings sho* the influence of )rice on store choice. $onsumers usually visit functional stores to )urchase )roducts that fulfill a s)ecific and necessary functional )ur)ose. Ehen a))lying this to the conte0t of stores and remarking that hedonic stores )rimarily sell hedonic )roducts+ it is e0)ected that consumers sho))ing at hedonic stores are less )rice sensitive than consumers sho))ing at a functional store. -n other *ords+ it means the actual technical su)eriority or e0cellence of a )roduct 2Ieithaml+ (D885. "s mentioned before+ hedonic stores have a )leasant environment and )rovide enFoyment+ fantasies+ feelings and fun+ *hereas functional stores have a more task' related environment 2%ee < :yman+ 2 85 and serve for functional )ur)oses or necessities.2 Product quality Arior research on )roduct 1uality has sho*n that )roduct 1uality is im)ortant for consumers *hen choosing stores 2Jacoby and MaGursky+ (D8!8 /lshavsky+ (D8!8 &arden < Sch*inghammer+ (D8!5. "ccording to studies about consum)tion of hedonic and functional )roducts+ Eakefield and -nman 22 . -n the literature a distinction is made bet*een t*o ty)es of 1uality# obFective 1uality and subFective 1uality.assumed that consumers are less likely to )atroniGe a store *ith a )erceived high )rice level. SubFective 1uality or )erceived 1uality is “the consumer s !ud"ment about the superiority or e#cellence of a product”. " reason for this is that at functional stores usually consumers make a )urchase to fulfill a functional )ur)ose and not so much because they *ould enFoy making the )urchase.1.5 suggest that *hen consumers are buying hedonic )roducts they are in general less )rice sensitive than *hen buying functional )roducts. More is not e0)ected of the )roduct and thus the obFective 1uality is im)ortant. Therefore the follo*ing hy)othesis is )ro)osed# H1: Price is more important when the store is functional rather than hedonic 3. 9or e0am)le if consumers need a vacuum cleaner+ they usually ( . /bFective 1uality refers to the 6 measurable and verifiable superiority on some predetermined ideal standard or standards”. -f the )roduct fulfills that )ur)ose the consumer is satisfied.

Stores offering a great variety of )roducts are thought to be )leasant for variety seeking consumers. H2: Product quality is more important when the store is hedonic rather than functional 3. Several studies have sho*n that assortment is an im)ortant criterion in store choice 2"rnold+ /um and Tigert+ (D8. %arger assortments may increase the )robability to meet the needs of consumers. Therefore the follo*ing hy)othesis is formulated# H3: Product assortment is more important when the store is hedonic rather than functional (( . This leads to the conclusion that )roduct 1uality is more im)ortant for hedonic stores. Researchers suggested that one of the reasons *hy consumers seek variety may be to satisfy a need for stimulation 2Mc"llister < Aessemier+ (D825. "t hedonic stores consumers mostly base their )urchase decision on more intangible features of )roducts *hich may determine the 1uality for consumers. They can look for other available alternatives and have the )ossibility of making a )urchase in the same store instead of going to another store. -f these )roduct )references are available+ consumers *ould not evaluate other alternatives 29ishbein < "FGen+ (D725.8 Stassen et al. The actual 1uality of the )roduct is not *hat consumers might consider 1uality at a hedonic store. Stores having large assortments therefore hel) consumers satisfy those needs. Aroducts *ith )erceived su)erior 1uality usually bring more Foy to the consumer.3 Perceived product assortment -f a retailer has a large )roduct assortment it may attract more consumers to the store and make it more convenient for them to make their )urchases of different )roducts in that store.+ (DDD8 Aan and Iinkhan+ 2 ?5.1. 4ariety seeking is associated *ith the hedonic )ers)ective of consum)tion 2:olbrook < :irschman+ (D825. -n addition+ retailers *ith large assortments may create o)tions for consumers *hen the )roduct they desire is not available.look at its actual 1uality 2ho* it )erforms5 on *hich their )urchase decision is mostly based. Ehen sho))ing at hedonic stores consumers are )robably seeking more variety than at functional stores. Ehen visiting functional stores consumers usually are task' oriented and most of the time they already have )roduct )references.

9ast checkouts *ould therefore be im)ortant for many consumers and may be relevant *hen deciding to )atroniGe a store. Therefore time saving services such as fast checkouts are considered an im)ortant store choice criterion. Therefore they value retailers *ho give im)ortance to s)eed and ease of sho))ing *hich may influence their )atronage intentions of stores 2Seiders+ . Retailers have recogniGed that time saving is im)ortant for consumers and assigned more resources to fast checkouts 2%ambert+ (D7D5. Stores that are close to home or close to *ork might be )referred by consumers because of the )erceived travel cost and time s)ent.* +ast chec)out "ccording to Aan < Iinkhan 22 ?5 many )eo)le )erceive their time available as insufficient to do all the things they *ant and need to do. " convenient location seems to )lay a significant role in determining store choice 2.$ %onvenient &ocation' (penin" hours and Par)in" facilities $onvenience is becoming more im)ortant no*adays for consumers because of the high value given to time and effort. H$: %onvenient location' openin" hours and par)in" facilities are more important when the store is functional rather than hedonic 3. 2(DD85+ )eo)le care less about distance to clothing stores than to drugstores. "s has been sho*n earlier from research by &ellaert et al.3. (2 . $onsumers have to continually choose among several activities and try to do it as efficiently as )ossible. -t is believed that if stores are easily accessible and offer a great variety of )roduct categories consumers are more likely to )atroniGe those stores because distance )lays a role *hen deciding *here to sho).1.1. -n the conte0t of hedonic and functional stores this means that+ as clothing stores may be considered more hedonic and drugstores more functional as e0)lained earlier+ it is e0)ected that location is less im)ortant for a hedonic store than for a functional store. These features of a store+ location+ o)ening hours and )arking facilities+ relate to functional as)ects of )urchase+ and therefore can be e0)ected to influence more consumer choices in the care of functional stores than hedonic stores.ellenger+ Robertson+ Jreenberg+ (D775.erry and Jresham+ 2 5. Studies also suggested that convenient o)ening hours and convenient )arking facilities may also be im)ortant for consumerHs store choices 2:ansen < &eutscher+ (D775.

Therefore the follo*ing hy)othesis is formulated H*: +ast chec)out is more important when the store is functional rather than hedonic 3. The im)ortance of the store atmos)here may be different *hen the store is hedonic or functional. . $onsumers might get their first im)ression of a store from these cues that can be seen or heard *ithout entering the store. Moreover+ as consumers visit functional stores *hich are more task'related+ it is usually kno*n *hat is needed+ and once it is found they head to the register and *ait in line to )ay. $onse1uently they may use this information to make inferences about the store *hich in turn may determine their store )atronage behavior 2Schlosser+ (DD85.urns (D775.1. "lthough it is an undesirable activity it is necessary. . The atmos)here is less noticed.. -tore atmosphere Store atmos)here is created by cues such as music+ a))ealing colors+ lighting+ store design+ and so forth. -n that mind state a )erson )robably cares less about music )laying or a))ealing colors. The long *ait for taking the ride is an acce)table inconvenience. 2(DD=5 found that in )leasant environments+ arousal and )leasure induced from the store environment increases the time and money consumers s)end in the store and encourages them to visit more often. " =! minute *ait is considered *orth for a . This Kacce)table inconvenienceH can be better understood *ith the e0am)le of theme )arks. Standing in line is more likely considered K*orth itH because of the re*ard of fun or Foy.Eith the notion that hedonic stores )rovide e0)eriential enFoyment and fun it is e0)ected that *hen visiting a hedonic store consumers do not mind so much to *ait in long lines before the register. Ehen going to a functional store it is usually because consumers need something s)ecific. minute ride by many )eo)le. Theme )arks+ *hich are considered as hedonic+ often have very long lines.ut *hen (. 9urthermore+ )rior research revealed that many consumers have a tendency of making a decision about at *hich mall to sho) on the basis of their attitude to*ards the sho))ing center environment 29inn and %ouviere (DD + (DD?8 Jentry and . &onovan et al. There is less interest in taking time to look around and e0)lore the environment. $onsiderably less )eo)le *ould acce)t standing in line for =! minutes in a functional store 2for instance a su)ermarket5. This inconvenience is more acce)ted at hedonic stores+ in )art because of the enFoyment associated *ith the sho))ing e0)erience.

aker et al.consumers sho) for the fun of sho))ing at a hedonic store+ like a bouti1ue or Fe*elry store+ it is usually attractive to be in a )leasant environment *here the sho))ing can be more enFoyed. The service 1uality of a store is evaluated from for instance the interaction *ith )ersonnel+ *hether consumers find the )roducts they *ant and the returning )rocess of )roducts 2&abholkar+ Thor)e and RentG+ (DD?5. This might be because they had e0)ectations of the service that have not been met. "t hedonic stores the consumer is usually in a more )leasurable mind state and all the e0tras such as music and a very nice looking store add to the allure and Foy the consumer is seeking.: -tore atmosphere is more important when the store is hedonic rather than functional 3. Ehen going to a su)ermarket for e0am)le+ *hich is functional+ the consumer usually does not e0)ect hel) from )ersonnel. The consumer is )robably there out of necessity and most likely takes *hat is needed and leaves. Ehen the service is )oor+ for e0am)le in a electronics store *hen consumers do not get the right information or sufficient information about a )roduct+ or it takes too long before they find )ersonnel to hel) them+ consumers may be disa))ointed *ith the storeHs service. -f the consumer does not e0)ect any more service than that+ service 1uality *ill )robably not be a very im)ortant store choice criterion. There is an element of (= .. The consumer already kno*s *hat is needed and selecting the )roducts to buy usually re1uires no hel). -ervice quality Service of a store is im)ortant *hen deciding *here to sho). :edonic stores usually have an enFoyable atmos)here and are usually considered more )leasant than functional stores 2&onovan+ Rossiter+ Marcoolyn < @esdale+ (DD=5. 2 28 Jagliano and :athcote+ (DD=5.1. Stores *ith good service are more likely to be considered by consumers *hen choosing at *hich stores to sho). "nother reason *hy consumers may not e0)ect much service *hen going to a su)ermarket+ is because consumers do not need much hel) *hile getting their groceries. The follo*ing hy)othesis is formulated# H. The only service )rovided by )ersonnel is *hen checking out. Arevious studies found that a storeHs service 1uality may be im)ortant *hen choosing stores 2. Ehen visiting a hedonic store+ consumers usually e0)ect more service than *hen visiting a functional store.

"nother ty)ically hedonic element *hich su))orts the hy)othesis is the emotional factor *hen visiting a hedonic store. Jood service adds to this enFoyment+ and because enFoyment is considered more im)ortant at hedonic stores+ and based on the arguments given+ the hy)othesis formulated is H. "t the Fe*elry store more effort is set into selecting )roducts+ o)inions are often shared by )ersonnel and more information is given about )roducts. Usually it is im)ortant for consumers that these sales)ersons are kind and friendly+ so they could have the )leasant time they are looking for in the store.1./ +riendliness of salespeople -t is believed that friendliness of sales)eo)le may have some influence on store choice because some consumers may seek social contact during a sho))ing visit and+ therefore *ould like to interact *ith sales)eo)le.: -ervice quality is more important when the store is hedonic rather than functional 3. E0tensive service is sim)ly not necessary. Ehile at the high fashion clothing store+ the consumer may be measured+ advice is given about siGes and matching+ different items are being tried on before selecting the right )roduct and clothes are folded back by )ersonnel.self'service+ *hich the customer most likely )refers for this ty)e of Ksho))ingH. The time and care being taken for selecting )roducts at a hedonic store offers the store more o))ortunities to )rovide service. 9or e0am)le+ consumers like talking to others during a visit at a store and are seeking social e0)eriences outside their home such as+ seeking ne* ac1uaintances or meeting those of the o))osite se0 2Tauber+ (D725. -n the Fe*elry store consumers can only touch or sometimes look at the Fe*elry until )ersonnel attends them. This service is e0)ected and if consumers receive less service it *ill cause disa))ointment. "s stated earlier+ customers tend to enFoy sho))ing at hedonic stores more than sho))ing at functional stores. There are other consumers *ho *ould like the o)inion of a sales)erson+ or *ould like them to hel) find *hat they are looking for. -f consumers *ant a nice time out (! . The enFoyment is often )art of the reason for the tri) to the hedonic store. -n contrast+ if more service is received consumers *ill be )leasantly sur)rised and enFoy the e0)erience even more. Ehen this same consumer visits a Fe*elry store or a high fashion clothing store+ the e0)ectations of the service 1uality differ from the visit to the su)ermarket.

Jiven that )leasure and having a nice time out sho))ing for the sake of sho))ing are hedonic characteristics it is e0)ected that Kfriendliness of sales)eo)leH *ould be more valued at hedonic stores than at functional stores. Social as)ects of sho))ing refer to sho))ing *ith friends or family+ seeing other )eo)le sho))ing and even meeting ne* )eo)le.0 1nterpersonal items: -hoppin" with others' -ee others shoppin" 2 3eet other people Arior research has focused on social as)ects of sho))ing 2"rnolds and Reynolds+ 2 . Sho))ing tri)s may also result in directly meeting *ith friends or having indirect social contact in the form of seeing others sho). "ccording to Tauber 2(D725 sho))ing can )rovide the o))ortunity to meet other )eo)le. Many men stay informed about the latest technologies and devices. $om)anies even utiliGe this information as a marketing (? .5. There are many *ebsites+ magaGines and television )rograms devoted to fulfilling this need.1. $ar'magaGines 2$arros5+ )rograms 2To) Jear5 and *ebsites are being vie*ed on a regular basis.1. This relates back to the more task'oriented character of sho))ing at functional stores and doing it out of necessity+ in contrast to the enFoyment sho))ers seek *hile sho))ing at a hedonic store.14 1nformation on new products and6or prices Many )eo)le like staying informed about the latest )roducts and their )rices 2Tauber+ (D725. Ehile out for a fun time of sho))ing doing it *ith others can add to the enFoyment+ it becomes a social activity.sho))ing for the sake of sho))ing and not for the need to accom)lish a task+ it *ould be im)ortant to have friendly sales)eo)le around instead of rude or inattentive sales)eo)le. H14: 5-hoppin" with others ' 5see others shoppin" and 5meet other people are more important when the store is hedonic rather than functional 3. H/: +riendliness of salespeople is more important when the store is hedonic rather than functional 3. These inter)ersonal items are )robably more )resent *hen sho))ing at a clothing store or looking for a good movie as o))osed to grocery sho))ing or visiting an electronics store. This leads to the hy)othesis that these inter)ersonal items are more im)ortant *hen the nature of the store is hedonic rather than functional.

The female consumer often kee)s u) *ith the latest fashion and therefore kno*s *hen a fashion brandHs ne* collection is available. These last years+ skin care brandHs focus on the male consumers has increased.tool.illboards also fre1uently feature these )roducts. "s for beauty )roducts+ many *omen like kno*ing about a ne* skin )roduct and *hat makes it good and different. Theater and &4&3. Staying u) to date *ith the latest movie releases can also be considered a common )ractice. Ehile *atching T4 consumers *ill often notice commercials featuring ne* food and beauty )roducts. Similar to the car magaGines+ *ebsites and )rograms+ fashion is e0tensively covered by the media. . MoGilla took it a ste) further releasing an online video of their conce)t Smart)hone *hich *ill not be released for 1uite some time. The follo*ing hy)othesis is# H14: 7here is no difference in importance of information on new products and6or prices between hedonic and functional stores (7 . "s e0)lained above getting information on ne* )roducts and3 or )rices can be a relevant criterion for electronics stores and su)ermarkets as *ell as for clothing stores+ cosmetics stores and $&3&4& stores. Eebsites such as movies. Eomen also )artici)ate in getting information on ne* )roducts and )rices.erry5 releases their ne* tablet 2their Kans*erH to the "))leHs iAad5+ images and s)ecifications are leaked to various *ebsites.com and imdb. "rticles featuring information on skin care )roducts for men can easily be found in magaGines and on the internet. Some consumers *ill look for*ard to tasting a ne*ly flavored sou)+ cookie+ chi)s or easy to )re)are meal.com are heavily trafficked and feature release dates as *ell as revie*s and )lot information.lack. The same can be said concerning music. -t seems difficult to argue that there is a difference in im)ortance for this criterion bet*een functional and hedonic stores. 9or instance+ before R-M 2.lu'Ray releases are kno*n months in advance. Radio stations and magaGines also revie* many movies.

=L *ere female+ . "n email *as sent to consumers in *hich they *ere asked to )artici)ate in this research.. Thus the maFority of res)ondents *ere female. (et%od '.=. '.7L5 and only one res)ondent has a lo*er education. + *hich is . These 1uestionnaires *ere linked together in order to randomly assign res)ondents to a 1uestionnaire containing one of the four stores *hen clicking on the 1uestionnaire link. functional stores. . The age varied bet*een 2 years and ?. Some 1uestions in the 1uestionnaires *ere not ans*ered+ maybe because the res)ondent may have overlooked it or did not understand it. Most of the res)ondents have a graduate degree 2! .ue&tionnaire de&i. 9our stores *ere chosen+ clothing and &4&3$& stores for hedonic stores and su)ermarket and electronic stores for functional stores.3 .. "n em)irical research *as )erformed using digital 1uestionnaires.L5 have an income bet*een M(! and M.DL *ere male and ((. Most res)ondents 2. /nly one )erson has an income above M? '.DL. There *ere four se)arate 1uestionnaires *hich *ere the same for the four stores. years *ith a mean of .2.'. This choice *as based on studies of hedonic and functional dimensions in *hich it is suggested that hedonic considerations relate to fun+ )leasure and e0)eriential consum)tion+ and functional considerations are )rimarily for serving a s)ecific )ur)ose and relate to needs and )roblem solving. The total number of res)ondents for functional stores *as ?7 and for hedonic stores 7D.?.2 Re&pondent& /ne hundred forty si0 res)ondents )artici)ated in this research. These missing ans*ers have been identified as missing data.n (8 .1 -ata collection The goal of this research is to sho* *hether there are any differences in the im)ortance of store choice criteria for hedonic vs.7L of the res)ondents did not fill in their gender. /f the (=? res)ondents+ !. + follo*ed by res)ondents earning less than M(! .

inter)ersonal items 2sho))ing *ith others8 see others sho))ing8 meet other )eo)le5 and ( informational item 2information on ne* )roducts and3or )rices5 *as then sho*n in *hich res)ondents had to ans*er on a five')oint %ikert Scale ranging from K@ot at all im)ortant 2(5H to K4ery im)ortant 2!5H. Res)ondents *ere asked to recall their last visit to the store referred to in the 1uestionnaire and *ere asked to rate to *hat e0tent they agreed or disagreed *ith the fifteen statements+ *hich are the items of the )ersonal sho))ing value scale. " scale *as develo)ed by . Hedonic vs. %onsumer characteristics $onsumer characteristics *ere measured by using the @eed for $ognition scale by $acio))o+ Aetty and Nao 2(D8=5 and the $onsumer -m)ulsiveness Scale by Auri (D . This *as measured using a five')oint %ikert scale ranging from KStrongly disagree 2(5H to KStrongly agree 2!5H. functional stores on the im)ortance of the store choice criteria. 1mportance of store choice criteria The im)ortance of the store choice criteria for each store *as measured by the item# 6How important are the followin" store choice criteria for you when choosin" 8store9:” The store de)ends on *hich store the res)ondent got in the 1uestionnaire. The 1uestionnaires contained 1uestions about the im)ortance of the store choice criteria for the )articular store+ and some 1uestions about consumer characteristics and demogra)hics+ such as age+ gender+ income and education. functional stores it is interesting to kno* ho* consumers evaluate their sho))ing e0)erience along the dimensions of hedonic value and functional value and if the )erceived sho))ing value moderates the effect of hedonic vs. " list of ten store choice criteria from )rior research 2)rice+ )roduct 1uality+ assortment+ convenient location+ convenient o)ening hours+ convenient )arking facilities+ service 1uality+ store atmos)here+ friendliness of sales)eo)le and fast checkout5+ . functional shoppin" value "s the im)ortance of store choice criteria is measured for hedonic vs."s mentioned in the conce)tual frame*ork+ the store choice criteria used here are based on the study of Aan and Iinkhan 22 ?5 and other relevant criteria *ere also added to the list.abin+ &ardin and Jriffin 2(DD=5 to measure this so called Aersonal Sho))ing 4alue+ *hich *ill be used to see if there is any moderation.

This leads to believe that this ty)e of consumer *ould rate store choice criteria that are more relevant for hedonic stores higher for both hedonic and functional stores than store choice criteria that are more relevant for functional stores. This leads to believe that this ty)e of consumer *ould rate store choice criteria that are more relevant for functional stores higher for both hedonic and functional stores than store choice criteria that are more relevant for hedonic stores. The reason for using these scales *ill be e0)lained as follo*s. This could have an effect on the results of the im)ortance of the store choice criteria for hedonic vs. The $onsumer -m)ulsiveness Scale 2$-S5 2Auri+ (DD?5 is used to measure the tendency of consumers to behave im)ulsively. "s can be seen from these studies there is su))ort for the e0istence of a link bet*een consumersH im)ulsiveness and being a hedonic )erson. Research on need for cognition suggests that this characteristic is )redictive of the manner in *hich )eo)le deal *ith tasks and social information 2$acio))o <Aetty+ (D828 $ohen+ (D!75. 2(D8=5+ “need for co"nition refers to an individual s tendency to en"a"e in and en!oy effortful co"nitive endeavors”. -t seems that this characteristic of need for cognition is relevant to the information )rocessing vie* of consum)tion+ in *hich the consumer sees sho))ing as a task+ is rational and a thinker 2:irschman < :olbrook+ (D825. Auri 2(DD?5 referred to consumers *ith high im)ulsiveness scores as hedonics and consumers *ith lo* im)ulsiveness scores as )rudent. Therefore it can be said that consumers high in need for cognition are more utilitarian3functional oriented in the sense that they have a tendency to )atroniGe more functional stores. These consumer characteristics may cause an effect on the im)ortance of the store choice criteria bet*een hedonic and functional stores. Auri found that hedonic consumers *ere more likely to behave im)ulsively than )rudent consumers. Therefore in this research+ consumers *ho are considered highly im)ulsive are hedonic oriented in the sense that they have a tendency to )atroniGe more hedonic stores8 they seek fun+ )leasure and enFoyment. "ccording to $acio))o et al. 9or e0am)le+ consumers say that buying im)ulsively )uts them in a good mood and that they feel their need for fun is being fulfilled 2$hilders and Aeck+ 2 .2(DD?5. functional stores. Research sho*s that individuals *ho have a tendency to behave im)ulsively are driven by hedonic gratification 2$hilders and Aeck+ 2 2 ?5. ?5.

%ontrol question " 1uestion is incor)orated in the 1uestionnaire that serves as a control 1uestion. -n contrast+ . L considered the hedonic stores also to be hedonic com)ared to =.L *ho thought the stores *ere functional and 27L *ere neutral. :aving said this+ it seems that although some did consider the stores functional instead of hedonic and some *ere neutral+ the overall o)inions are still divided *hich gives reason to believe that the chosen hedonic stores may lean more onto the hedonic consideration.emo"raphics &emogra)hics such as age+ gender+ education and income are useful to give a descri)tion of the )ersons *ho )artici)ated in this research.. 2( . " )ossible reason that only . " great maFority 27!L5 considered the stores )icked as functional also to be functional. This 1uestion is as follo*s# KH7o what e#tent do you consider 8stores9 hedonic or functional: . This 1uestion *as measured on a five')oint scale going from hedonic to functional and *as used to have an idea on ho* res)ondents classify the stores+ )rimarily chosen as hedonic and functional+ and to see *hether res)ondents agree *ith the )ro)osed classification of clothing and $&3&4& stores as hedonic+ and su)ermarket and electronic stores as functional. L of the res)ondents have considered clothing and $&3&4& stores as hedonic might be that the meaning of the *ord K functional is better and easier understood than the meaning of the *ord Khedonic *hich *ould lead res)ondents to choose for functional or neutral. "gain+ the store bet*een brackets de)ends on *hich of the four stores the res)ondent got in the 1uestionnaire.

The main results *ill be addressed in the follo*ing section. functional stores as *as hy)othesiGed before+ a t'test *as )erformed. in *hich store each criterion is more im)ortant5. The analysis yielded ! factors from the (8 items of the @eed for $ognition Scale *ith eigenvalues greater than (. The analysis of the Aersonal Sho))ing 4alue obtained four factors *ith eigenvalues greater than one+ but it *as decided to e0tract only t*o factors. The significance level has been set at !L+ one'tailed+ given that not only are the hy)otheses set in terms of differences+ but they also )oint to a s)ecific direction 2i. 22 . The e0)lained variance by these t*o e0tracted factors *as still high *ith !.). " )rinci)al com)onent analysis *as )erformed on the consumer characteristic scales and the Aersonal sho))ing value scale to reduce the number of items 2See "))endi0 --5. The factors *ere described as prudent' hedonics' easily tempted and control.=L. 9urthermore+ a regression analysis *as )erformed to analyGe if the consumer characteristics had any moderating effect on the results of the store choice criteria.e. 9or the $onsumer -m)ulsiveness characteristic+ four factors *ere identified *ith eigenvalues greater than one. To analyGe the im)ortance of the store choice criteria for hedonic vs. The e0ce)tion is the last hy)othesis. 9or this test+ the hedonic stores *ere codified as and the functional stores as (+ and the store choice criteria *ere the de)endent variables. Re&ult& The store choice criteria that sho*ed to be more im)ortant *ere 6)roduct 1uality7+ 6)rice7+ 6friendliness of sales)eo)le7+ 6store atmos)here7+ 6sho))ing *ith others7 and 6meet other )eo)le7. The items that loaded on the same factor *ere characteriGed as high and lo* need for cognition. "lthough five factors *ere e0tracted+ the items loaded on three of the obtained factors *ere clearly high need for cognition items and the other t*o *ere lo* need for cognition items 2See "))endi0 --5. Therefore interactions *ere )erformed bet*een the ty)e of store and the consumer characteristics. The reason is that each item of the scale loaded on only one of the t*o factors re)resenting a hedonic or functional sho))ing value and thus no item *as left out+ *hich means that not 2much5 information *as lost..

=D P MhedonicO=. 7D. The mean differences for these t*o 2. 8 2one'tailed5. So even though there is a significant difference+ #2 is not su))orted because the )rediction *as in the o))osite direction.1 Price The results sho* that the im)ortance of KPriceH is higher for functional stores than for hedonic stores 2MfunctionalO =.3 Product assortment KProduct assortment is found to be more im)ortant for hedonic stores than for functional stores 2Mhedonic O =. -t *as e0)ected that this *ould be the o))osite. . t*o'tailed )'value 2)O. These findings su))ort #1 *hich )redicted that 5Price is more im)ortant *hen the store is functional rather than hedonic.1. The means are for functional stores Mfunctional O.8=5 but the mean differences are marginally significant *ith )O .ecause the hy)othesis is directional the (?5 is divided by t*o to get the one'tailed )'value.?85.1 Importance of t%e &tore c%oice criteria *.72 vs.(!!5.1. .D for hedonic stores.ecause there is a significant difference+ the null hy)othesis that assumes that there is no significant difference bet*een the means of hedonic and functional stores on the im)ortance of 5Price is reFected.1. 285.2=8 )O . D P Mfunctional O. *. "lso for the im)ortance of 5convenient openin" hours and 5convenient par)in" facilities ' no significant results *ere found. *. .2 Product quality 5Product quality is found to be significantly more im)ortant for functional stores than for hedonic stores 2MfunctionalO =..$ %onvenient location' openin" hours and par)in" facilities 9or the im)ortance of 5convenient location there *as no significant difference bet*een the means of hedonic and functional stores 2)O. *. "s can be seen for hedonic stores the im)ortance of 5convenient location is higher com)ared to functional stores....).(2 P MhedonicO. "ccording to these findings #3 is reFected. Mhedonic O . The mean differences sho* a significant result *ith )O. The hy)othesis formulated )redicted that 5Product quality is more im)ortant for %edonic stores than for functional stores.1.

.1. ==5.ased on the results the im)ortance of Kfast chec)out is higher for hedonic stores com)ared to functional stores.D7. *. *.1.=2 for functional stores. :o*ever+ the mean difference indicates a marginally significant result at )O....criteria *ere res)ectively+ MhedonicO=.(? P MfunctionalO 2. P MfunctionalO ..=D for functional stores.. Mfunctional O.* +ast chec)out 9or the im)ortance of K+ast chec)out there *as no significant difference bet*een the means of hedonic and functional stores 2)O. -ervice quality The im)ortance of 5-ervice quality is higher for hedonic stores than for functional stores 2Mhedonic O .D P Mfunctional O..2=?5. The mean differences are M functional O. *. for functional stores and MhedonicO ... "ccording to the significant result 5friendliness of salespeople is more im)ortant for hedonic stores than for functional stores and thus su))orts #0..1. -tore atmosphere The results indicate that 5store atmosphere is more im)ortant for hedonic stores than for functional stores./ +riendliness of salespeople The results for the im)ortance of 5friendliness of salespeople indicate a significant difference bet*een hedonic and functional stores 2)O. . So+ even though the )rediction *as in the o))osite direction #) must be reFected because of the insignificant result. .8 for hedonic stores vs. *. The mean differences are M hedonic O . :ere again the o))osite of the results *as e0)ected.8( for hedonic stores and Mfunctional O .7! for hedonic stores. Remarkably all three criteria rate higher for hedonic stores than for functional stores+ the o))osite of *hat *as e0)ected. Even though the )rediction *as in the o))osite direction+ due to the insignificant results #' must be reFected.?. 2= ... (!5 *as found bet*een the means of hedonic and functional stores+ *hich su))orts #*.87 and MhedonicO. The mean differences are Mhedonic O . " significant difference 2)O.1. 7D but still #/ is reFected.?=5 as *as e0)ected.

1.2 (oderation effect& of con&umer c%aracteri&tic& and &%oppin. The mean differences sho* a significant result *ith )O. a significant result. *.2(8 )O. +alue -n this subsection the results of the analysis on the consumer characteristics 2need for cognition and consumer im)ulsiveness5 and consumer sho))ing value *ill be sho*n to see *hether there *ere any moderating effects of the hedonic vs.1. :o*ever+ this difference is insignificant and thus #12 is reFected. ?=.11 3eet other people Ehen the store is hedonic+ Kmeetin" other peopleH is more im)ortant than *hen the store is functional 2Mhedonic O 2.(. ).1. To conclude+ #1 is )artly su))orted for Kshoppin" with others and 5meet other people .??5. *. functional stores on the im)ortance of the store choice criteria. ( P Mfunctional O(.. :o*ever+ the mean differences are found marginally significant at )O. (5.0 -hoppin" with others K-hoppin" with others is found to be more im)ortant for hedonic stores than for functional stores 2Mhedonic O 2. *. The mean differences sho* 2! .14 -ee others shoppin" 5-ee others shoppin" is also found to be more im)ortant for hedonic stores than for functional stores 2Mhedonic O 2. -t is im)ortant to remark that here only the results of the moderation effects and the main effects of the consumer characteristics and consumer sho))ing value *ill be )ointed out as the results of the main effects of the store choice criteria have already been dis)layed above.(! P Mfunctional O.12 1nformation on new products and6or prices Ehen the store is hedonic consumers a))eared to )lace more im)ortance on 5information on new products and6or prices than *hen the nature of the store is functional 2Mhedonic O ..Importance of interper&onal item& for &tore c%oice *. 85. =. P MfunctionalO (.?7 P MfunctionalO 2.1.7!5.

(=5. These findings together *ith those found earlier+ sho* that the functional nature of the store alone influences the high im)ortance of K price .2.3 Product assortment There *as a direct negative significant effect of the consumer characteristic lo* need for cognition on Kproduct assortment . Arudent consumers can be described as consumers+ *ho control their sho))ing behavior.728 )O . (.2. The Aersonal sho))ing value+ *hether consumers derived a hedonic or functional sho))ing value from the sho))ing e0)erience+ sho*ed no significant moderation either. 2?5. !8 )O .* (penin" hours 2? 25.?78 )O. .1 Price There *ere no main effects or moderation effects of the consumer characteristics on the im)ortance of K)rice . 9urthermore+ a significant moderation effect *as found of the consumer characteristics lo* need for 85. "s the )erce)tion of hedonic sho))ing value increases+ the im)ortance of 5location increases. *.5. functional stores on the im)ortance of 5location 2)O. cognition 2)O .2228 )O .2. The Aersonal Sho))ing value seems to moderate the effect of hedonic vs.$ &ocation " significant )ositive effect *as found for the hedonic sho))ing value factor 2)O.2.. 5. This im)lies that the lo*er the need for cognition of a consumer is+ the lesser the im)ortance of K product quality *ill be.. *. The )rudent factor of the consumer characteristic im)ulsiveness has a negative significant effect on 5product quality 2QO '. *.. The )rudent factor of the consumer characteristic im)ulsiveness has a negative significant effect on 5product assortment 2QO '. (85 on the im)ortance of K product assortment .*. The more )rudent consumers are+ the lo*er the im)ortance of 5product quality is. This im)lies that the lo*er the need for cognition of a consumer is+ the less im)ortant K product assortmentH *ill be 2QO '. *. The consumer characteristic im)ulsiveness has a moderation effect on the im)ortance of 5product quality .2.2 Product quality The only direct effect found *as of the consumer characteristic described as lo* need for cognition that sho*ed a significant negative effect on the im)ortance of the criterion 5product quality 2QO '.

!5. *.2. Moreover+ the higher the )erce)tion of functional sho))ing value+ the higher the im)ortance of KPar)in" facilities ..8 8 )O . The only moderation )resent *as of @eed for $ognition. !5./ -ervice quality The consumer characteristic high need for cognition seems to moderate the effect of hedonic vs.28 8 )O . /ther findings are that the )erce)tion of hedonic sho))ing value )ositively affects the im)ortance of 5service quality . functional stores on the im)ortance of the store choice criteria 5fast chec)out 2)O .D 8 )O. " moderation effect *as found of the )ersonal sho))ing value but not of consumersH im)ulsiveness.0 -tore atmosphere 27 . *.2. The findings did not reveal any moderation effects of the consumer characteristics or )ersonal sho))ing value." significant moderation effect *as found of the need for cognition characteristic on the im)ortance of Kopenin" hours 2)O . The )rudent factor of the consumer characteristic im)ulsiveness has a negative significant effect on 5service quality 2QO '. )ersonal sho))ing value. functional stores on the im)ortance of K service quality 2)O . . The more )rudent consumers are+ the lo*er the im)ortance of 5service quality is. *. 9urther no other main effects or moderation effects *ere found of the characteristic consumer im)ulsiveness or the *... Thus+ the only moderation effects found on the im)ortance of the store choice criteria 5fast chec)out *ere of the need for cognition and the )ersonal sho))ing value. .D5. The higher in need for cognition consumers are the less im)ortant consumers vie* 5par)in" facilities as a store choice criterion.2. +ast chec)out The need for cognition characteristic moderates the effect of hedonic vs. 25. "s for the consumer characteristic im)ulsiveness+ the more )rudent consumers are+ the lo*er the im)ortance of 5fast chec)out is 2Q O '. Par)in" facilities The characteristic high need for cognition has a significant main effect on the im)ortance of Kpar)in" facilities 2Q O '. (85. 2=5.2.

more )rudent consumers are+ the less im)ortant the criterion 5friendliness of salespeople is. 5.The consumer characteristic lo* need for cognition has a )ositive effect on the im)ortance of 5store atmosphere 2Q O . The need for cognition characteristic and consumersH im)ulsiveness moderate the effect of hedonic vs. =5 and a negative significant effect of lo* need for cognition 2Q O '. /ther findings are that need for cognition moderates the effect of hedonic vs.14 +riendliness of salespeople There is a )ositive significant effect of high need for cognition 2Q O . ((5. Moreover+ the im)ortance of 5store atmosphere increases+ as the )erce)tion of hedonic sho))ing value increases. More findings reveal a moderation of the consumer characteristic im)ulsiveness *ith )O .!28 )O .!8 )O . The hedonic factor of consumer im)ulsiveness seems to have a negative main effect on the im)ortance of Kshoppin" with others ..=!28 )O . 9urther there *ere no other significant interaction effects that *ould indicate moderation. The )rudent factor of the consumer characteristic im)ulsiveness has a main negative significant effect on the im)ortance of friendly sales)eo)le 2Q O '. 9urther there *as no significant moderation found of the consumer sho))ing value. functional stores on the im)ortance of 5friendliness of salespeople .88 )O . The more hedonic consumers are+ the less they care about sho))ing *ith others.2.2! 8 )O .. !. =!5 on the im)ortance of 5friendliness of salespeople .11 Interper&onal item& -hoppin" with others " main effect of need for cognition indicated that *hen consumers have high need for cognition the im)ortance of Kshoppin" with others increases 2Q O . 28 . functional stores on the im)ortance of 5store atmosphere ... Thus+ @eed for $ognition and $onsumer -m)ulsiveness have a moderation effect on 5store atmosphere . (=5. The !. 9urthermore as the )erce)tion of hedonic sho))ing value increases+ the im)ortance of 5shoppin" with others increases.2.. *. (. @o effects *ere found of the Aersonal Sho))ing value. There is also a moderation effect of need for cognition 2)O .5 .

2 8 )O . ?5.12 1nformation on new products and6or prices $onsumersH im)ulsiveness moderates the effect of hedonic vs. Moreover+ )ersonal sho))ing value also sho*s a significant moderation effect. "lso )erce)tions of hedonic sho))ing value )ositively affects the im)ortance of 5see others shoppin" . The more easily tem)ted consumers are characteriGed to be+ the less im)ortant it is to meet other )eo)le *hile sho))ing 2Q O '. -t can be said that the more easily tem)ted consumers are+ the less im)ortant it is to see others sho))ing. 3eet other people Main effects of the characteristics lo* need for cognition and easily tem)ted 2$-5 *ere found significant. on ne* )roducts3)rices also increases. 9urther there value+ more im)ortant it is to meet other )eo)le 2Q O .?D8 )O . The lo*er the need for cognition is+ the higher the im)ortance of meeting other )eo)le *hile sho))ing 2Q O ..8 )O . functional stores on the im)ortance of the criteria Kinformation on new products and6or prices 2)O . ((5. 25. functional stores on the im)ortance of 5see others shoppin" .-ee others shoppin" The only significant main effect found is for the consumer characteristic im)ulsiveness+ *hich involves the easily tem)ted factor 2Q O '. Conclu&ion& 2D .2. *. Moreover+ the higher )erce)tions of hedonic sho))ing 5.!(.2?78 )O .. The )ersonal sho))ing value seems to moderate the effect of hedonic vs. *as no significant interaction effects found that *ould indicate moderation. =25. "s )erce)tions of hedonic sho))ing value increases+ the im)ortance of information *.

=2 . -n Table ( belo* can be seen *hich criteria *ere significantly different bet*een hedonic and functional stores. 8 . This research used these store choice criteria to e0amine *hether there is a difference in the im)ortance of each criterion for t*o ty)es of stores+ *hich are hedonic stores and functional stores.nificant " in&i.?8 =.nificant criteria Si. $onsumers usually *hen doing their groceries at a su)ermarket )ay much attention to )rices.. Functional &tore& Means =. Si.nificant Aroduct assortment $onvenient location $onvenient o)ening hours $onvenient )arking facilities Service 1uality 9ast checkout See others sho))ing -nformation on ne* )roducts3)rices Ta3le 13.8( 2.. it% ot%er& (eet ot%er people #edonic &tore& Means .1 Conclu&ion& and -i&cu&&ion Arior research e0amined different store choice criteria on their influence on store )atronage.8 . The choice of su)ermarkets and electronics stores for this research as re)resenting functional stores may have added to the im)ortance of K)riceH for these stores.nificance le+el ) . Ta3le 1a.?? Si. music )layer5+ electronic stores are )robably considered more for serving a functional )ur)ose and . *ash machine5. 8 = "s e0)ected+ K)riceH *as significantly more im)ortant for functional stores than hedonic stores. Si. "lthough electronic stores also sell )roducts *ith a more hedonic character 2e. .2= . . "lso+ at electronic stores the focus may be much on )rices *hen consumers must )urchase a functional )roduct 2e.2( (.=D . (! .(.nificant 4rice 4roduct 5ualit$ Store atmo&p%ere Friendline&& of &ale&people S%oppin..g.*. 28 ..?7 2.nificant mean difference& Store c%oice criteria 4rice 4roduct .ualit$ Store atmo&p%ere Friendline&& of &ale&people S%oppin. == .g..(2 =.=D 2. it% ot%er& (eetin. Moreover+ *hen su)ermarkets have )romotions on )roducts for e0am)le+ consumers are more likely to Fum) to these )romotions in order to save money. ot%er people Not &i.

2=5. Measuring the 1uality of electronics is usually also easy because of the s)ecifications 2*ith absolute numbers+ i. -n addition+ the im)ortance of Kstore atmos)hereH+ Kfriendliness of sales)eo)leH+ Ksho))ing *ith othersH and Kmeeting other )eo)leH *ere as e0)ected significantly more im)ortant for the hedonic stores+ thus su))orting hy)otheses ?+ 8 and )artly D. Even though the result for R)roduct 1ualityR *as not e0)ected 2being more im)ortant at functional stores5+ the result does indicate that the consumersH focus *hen sho))ing at functional stores is on the )rice and the )roduct. $onsumers also e0)ect these )leasurable as)ects from hedonic stores. "s discussed earlier+ the obFective 1uality of )roducts is thought of being more relevant at functional stores than the subFective 1uality.e. The res)ondents of the survey might not have associated 1uality *ith the design of clothing 2clothing stores5 or *ith ho* good or enFoyable a movie is 2$&3&4& stores5.=D P MhedonicO =. " )ossible reason for this is that hedonic stores offer more )leasurable as)ects to the sho))ing e0)erience than strictly buying a )roduct you need. These forms of 1uality are more subFective in nature *hich might differ *ith the consumerRs )erce)tion of *hat is meant by )roduct 1uality. "n interesting finding is that K)roduct 1ualityH *as found to be significantly more im)ortant for the functional stores used in this research 2electronics < su)ermarket5 instead of the hedonic stores used 2clothing < cd3dvd5+ *hich is the o))osite of *hat *as e0)ected 2MfunctionalO =. " )ossible e0)lanation for this result *ould be that consumers *ho )artici)ated in this research inter)reted 1uality as the actual 1uality of the )roduct+ the obFective 1uality+ and not so much the subFective 1uality. These t*o criteria seem to be the basics 2fundamentals5 of sho))ing8 visit the store+ e0amine the )roduct 2)roduct 1uality5 and )urchase the )roduct 2)rice5. 9or electronics stores+ it can be said that most of the time consumers base their 1uality measurements of )roducts on its )erformance. S"T"25.( . -t is also im)ortant to remark that most of the criteria in this research rated higher for hedonic stores than for functional stores.+ 72 r)m+ 8 M. "nother interesting observation is that the only criteria *hich turned out to be significantly more im)ortant for functional stores are )rice and )roduct 1uality.therefore consumers take )rices much into account as they do not *ant to s)end more than necessary on )roducts that are Fust for fulfilling a s)ecific )ur)ose. . a hard disk+ (? J.

*.2 Re&earc% 5ue&tion& . The result sho*ing that )rice is also a more im)ortant criterion *hen sho))ing at functional stores might indicate that consumers are not s)ecifically looking for )roducts *ith a higher level of 1uality at functional stores+ but rather looking for a better )rice'1uality relation."s for )roduct 1uality being more im)ortant *hen sho))ing at functional stores8 analyGing this result in combination *ith the result for )rice criteria )uts it in a different light. functional stores *hen consumers )ossess different characteristics+ or have different value )erce)tions of the sho))ing e0)erience. Taking a look at the results of moderation of the consumer characteristics and the )erce)tion of )ersonal sho))ing value+ it can be said that there *as at least one moderation effect )resent for the store choice criteria+ e0ce)t for R)riceR+ Rconvenient )arking facilitiesR and Rmeet other )eo)leR.2 . The reasons for sho))ing at hedonic stores go beyond )rice and )roduct 1uality and include )leasure and enFoyment+ *hich dra*s focus and im)ortance a*ay from )rice and )roduct 1uality. Thus+ based on the results it seems that differences e0ist in the rating of im)ortance of the store choice criteria for hedonic vs. %ooking at only the )roduct 1uality criteria results indicates that consumers *ant )roducts *ith better 1uality *hen sho))ing at functional stores as o))osed to *hen sho))ing at hedonic stores.

3 (ana. functional stores on most of the store choice criteria. . .  <hat are the main determinants of store choice: The most analyGed determinants of store choice in )rior research have been used for this research.@o* that the results are kno*n it is easy to ans*er the research 1uestions )ro)osed at the beginning of this thesis.  <hat are the main determinants for hedonic stores: "ccording to the results+ the most im)ortant criteria *hen the store is hedonic in nature are# Kstore atmos)hereH and Kfriendliness of sales)eo)leH.  <hat are the main determinants for functional stores: The most im)ortant criteria *hen the store is functional in nature are# K)riceH and K)roduct 1ualityH.  1s the effect of hedonic and functional stores on the importance of store choice criteria moderated by consumer characteristics or by perceived value of shoppin": Ses+ differences e0ist in the rating of im)ortance of the store choice criteria for hedonic vs.erial Implication& . The characteristic need for cognition has moderated the effect of hedonic vs. These are# K)riceH+ K)roduct 1ualityH+ K)roduct assortmentH+ Kconvenient locationH+ Kconvenient o)ening hoursH+ Kconvenient )arking facilitiesH+ Kfast checkoutH+ Kstore atmos)hereH+ Kfriendliness of sales)eo)leH+ and Kservice 1ualityH. The )roblem statement *ill be ans*ered through the research 1uestions as *ell.ecause these criteria are store'based criteria+ other criteria *ere added to the list relevant for store choice such as+ inter)ersonal items# Ksho))ing *ith othersH+ Kmeet other )eo)leH+ and Ksee others sho))ingH along *ith an informational item# Kinformation on ne* )roducts and3or )ricesH. *. functional stores *hen consumers )ossess different characteristics+ or have different value )erce)tions of the sho))ing e0)erience. /ther criteria *ere# Ksho))ing *ith othersH and Kmeet other )eo)leH..

The im)ortance of the store choice criteria according to this research de)ends on the hedonic or functional nature of the store, -t is im)ortant to remark that stores are not e0clusively hedonic or functional+ but ho*ever they may be classified as )rominently hedonic or functional, This research could be useful for retail managers+ because given the nature of their store they could focus more on *hat *ould drive consumers to visit their store, .ased on the results of this research retail managers of for e0am)le a clothing store may try to *ork more on the store environment so it becomes more a))ealing to consumers and also talk to )ersonnel to be hel)ful as needed and al*ays be friendly to the consumer, Retail managers of a $&3&4& store may even make a s)ot in the store *here the latest music cli)s or movie trailers are dis)layed or *here consumers could listen to the tracks of a music $& before buying it, "s for a functional store managers should )ay attention to )rices and )roduct 1uality and try to com)ete *ith other stores more based on these im)ortant criteria, -n sum+ retail managers *ould benefit from dee)er understanding of ho* store choice criteria changes along the hedonic3functional nature of stores, *.' Limitation& and future re&earc% " )ossible limitation to this current research is the amount and ty)e of stores used as hedonic 2clothing stores and $&3&4& stores5 and functional 2su)ermarkets and electronics stores5, .ecause only t*o stores *ere chosen as hedonic and t*o as functional+ it may not be enough to generaliGe the findings of this research for all stores hedonic or functional in nature, Even though the selected stores are re)resentative as hedonic or functional the results are )robably more accurate for these selected stores as o))osed to all hedonic or all functional stores, -t could be that the im)ortance of the store choice criteria differs for other hedonic and functional stores, 9uture research should e0amine the im)ortance of store choice criteria for other hedonic and functional stores to see *hether the findings of this current research could be generaliGed, -t is also im)ortant to mention that the meaning of the *ord K hedonic is )robably more difficult to understand com)ared to the meaning of the *ord 5functionalH, This might be a reason *hy there *as a lo* )ercentage of consumers *ho considered $&3&4& stores to be hedonic stores,

;=

"nother )ossible limitation is that the consumers *ho )artici)ated in the )resent study *ere bet*een 2 and ?! years from *hich the larger grou) *as bet*een the age of 2 and ;!, Most of these consumers are students *hich also could have influenced the results+ because students may )robably give more im)ortance to some )articular criteria than non'students, "lso half of the res)ondents have a graduate degree and the rest varies bet*een lo*er than high school+ com)leted high school and some college education, The education level also may have influenced the results, 9urthermore the number of male and females sho*ed a big difference, 9urther research should focus on using consumer grou)s *ith more even distributed age grou)s+ education levels and gender, "nother )oint for future research *ould be to do an e0)eriment by asking consumers before they enter the store to state *hat criteria they find im)ortant by filling in a short survey, This *ould be more relevant for the s)ecific store at the moment 2hedonic or functional5 and may be more reliable than asking through a survey,

;!

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Nahneman 2(DD(5 %oss aversion in riskless choice# " reference' de)endent model+ 7he Auarterly =ournal of Fconomics' p" 1431G 14..5 Measuring the :edonic and 9unctional &imensions of $onsumer "ttitude+ =ournal of 3ar)etin" >esearch+ = 2.?+ =?T=D.( '.ell+ T. 2(D725. Tversky+ ".M. 2!+ @o.R. S)angenberg+ and .2 .5+ = .StrahilevitG+ M. %oe*enstein 2(DD85. Store choice and sho))ing behavior# :o* )rice format *orks+ %alifornia 3ana"ement >eview8 =. and J.+ &. The Effect of /*nershi) :istory on the 4aluation of /bFects + 7he =ournal of %onsumer >esearch+ 4ol. 27?'28D Tang+ $. Jrohmann 22 .+ 28 )g. !? Tauber+ E.R.S.+ )). and &. .+ E. ". :o 22 (5. 6Ehy do )eo)le sho)C+7 =ournal of 3ar)etin"+ . .1 4oss+ N. .E.

ree or di&a.ree Strongly disagree (. 4lea&e rate to %at e<tent $ou a. . &tatement&7 @either "gree Strongl y agree =( . 9or my master thesis . 4ery im)ortant it% t%e follo in. The 1uestionnaire *ill take about 7 minutes and your ans*ers *ill be strictly anonymous.8ESTIONNAIRE &ear )artici)ant+ . &tore c%oice criteria for $ou CLOT#IN9 &tore&: @ot at all im)ortan t /verall e0)ensiveness Aroduct 1uality Aroduct assortment $onvenient %ocation Service 1uality Store atmos)here $onvenient o)ening hours $onvenient )arking facilities 9riendliness of sales)eo)le 9ast checkout Sho))ing *ith others See others sho))ing Meet other )eo)le To get information on ne* )roducts and3or )rices 2.y filling out this 1uestionnaire you are really hel)ing me out+ .am a Master student at the Erasmus University of Rotterdam.A44EN-I6 I7 .a))reciate itW Thank SouW Jessica Malmberg 1. #o important are t%e follo in. recall $our la&t +i&it to a CLOT#IN9 &tore. This sho))ing tri) is truly a &isagre e %en c%oo&in.am conducting a research about consumersX store choice criteria. For t%i& 5ue&tion.

.couldnHt buy *hat . Ehile sho))ing+ .. $om)ared to other things could have done+ the time s)end sho))ing *as truly Foy !.felt the e0citement of the hunt D.accom)lished Fust *hat *anted to on this sho))ing tri) (. fun= en>o$a3le. To %at e<tent do $ou con&ider CLOT#IN9 &tore& %edonic or functional: #edonic mean&7 3ein.really needed (=. .enFoyed this sho))ing tri) for its o*n sake+ not Fust for the items . .had a good time because *as able to act on the s)ur'of' the'moment 2on im)ulse5 8.enFoyed being immersed in e0citing ne* )roducts ?.felt a sense of adventure ((. . or &er+in. pertainin. Ehile sho))ing+ .had to but because *anted to .may have )urchased 7. a functional purpo&e :edonic Some*h at hedonic @either Some*h at functional 9unction al $lothing stores =2 . &uring this tri) . .*as able to forget my )roblems ( . Ehile sho))ing+ . to plea&ure Functional mean&7 %a+in.had to go to another store2s5 to com)lete my sho))ing 3..found Fust the item2s5 . This sho))ing tri) truly felt like an esca)e =. This sho))ing tri) *as not a very nice time out (2.continued to sho)+ not because . .*as disa))ointed because .Foy 2.*as looking for (!. .

7. . .find satisfaction in deliberating hard and for long hours.*ould rather do something that re1uires little thought than something that is sure to challenge my thinking abilities. 8. The idea of relying on thought to make my *ay to the to) a))eals to me ((. &tatement&. (?.*ould )refer com)le0 to sim)le )roblems.must solve.try to antici)ate and avoid situations *here there is likely chance .'. . 2. . Thinking is not my idea of fun. . The notion of thinking abstractly is a))ealing to me. (.have to. . !.. .like to have the res)onsibility of handling a situation that re1uires a lot of thinking. %earning ne* *ays to think doesnHt e0cite me very much. . 4lea&e indicate t%e e<tent to %ic% $ou a.only think as hard as . .ree Strongly disagree it% eac% of t%e follo in. . .like tasks that re1uire little thought once -Hve learned them. (2. ( .*ould )refer a task that is intellectual+ difficult+ and im)ortant to one that is some*hat im)ortant but does not re1uire much thought. . (!.)refer to think about small+ daily )roFects to long'term ones D. (=. =. ..)refer my life to be filled *ith )uGGles that . .feel relief rather than =. @either "gree Strongl y agree &isagre e (.*ill have to think in de)th about something ?.really enFoy a task that involves coming u) *ith ne* solutions to )roblems.

or$ Aa& pre&ented 3elo B repre&ent& $our %ou&e%oldC& mont%l$D income: o %ess than M(! == . -tHs enough for me that something gets the Fob done8 donHt care ho* or *hy it *orks (8.satisfaction after com)leting a task that re1uired a lot of mental effort (7. ?%ic% cate. t%e 3t%. 't% and )t% 3ullet indicate t%at it ould &ometime& de&cri3e $ou and t%e la&t t o 3ullet& indicate t%at it ould &eldom de&cri3e $ou. usually *ould describe me -m)ulsive $areless Self'controlled E0travagant 9arsighted Res)onsible Restrained Easily tem)ted Rational Methodical EnFoy s)ending " )lanner seldom *ould describe me ).ender: o 9emale o Male /. ad>ecti+e& carefull$ and indicate %o ell t%e$ ould de&cri3e $ou.usually end u) deliberating about issues even *hen they do not affect me )ersonally ). T%e fir&t and &econd 3ullet& indicate t%at t%e ad>ecti+e ould u&uall$ de&cri3e $ou.e: @@@@@@@@@@ *. ?%at i& $our a. ?%at i& $our . . ?%at i& $our %i.%e&t le+el of education: o %o*er than high school o $om)leted high school o Some college education o Jraduate degree o Aostgraduate degree 0. Read eac% of t%e follo in.

4RINCI4AL CO(4ONENTS ANALESIS A4CAB 1. . TM=! T M? A44EN-I6 II7 S4SS O8T48T 1.et*een M=! "bove M? T M.o o o o .et*een M(! .et*een M.1 "##D $%& '%(")*)%" =! .

=? .

=7 .

2 P'+ .P-/ )0#"# '+/# 1. '%" -.#& ).1. P#& %"+/ H%PP)"( 0+/-# =8 .1 P'+ .

=D .

! .

TDTEST on t%e importance of t%e &tore c%oice criteria for %edonic and functional &tore& !( .2.

!2 .

RE9RESSION CONS8(ER C#ARACTERISTICS " 4ERSONAL S#O44IN9 FAL8E ' @eed for $ognition 2@9$5 ' $onsumer -m)ulsiveness 2$-5 NEE. .FOR CO9NITION ANFCB  Price CONS8(ER I(48LSIFENESS ACIB !.3.

4ERSONAL S#O44IN9 FAL8E A4SFB  Product Auality NFC != .

4SF CIS !! .

 @ssortment NFC CIS !? .

4SF  %onvenient &ocation NFC !7 .

CIS 4SF !8 .

 -ervice Auality NFC CIS !D .

4SF  -tore @tmosphere NFC ? .

CIS 4SF ?( .

 %onvenient (penin" Hours NFC CIS ?2 .

4SF  %onvenient Par)in" +acilities NFC ?. .

CIS 4SF ?= .

 +riendliness (f -alespeople NFC ?! .

CIS 4SF ?? .

 +ast %hec)out NFC CIS ?7 .

4SF  -hoppin" <ith (thers NFC ?8 .

CIS 4SF ?D .

 -ee (thers -hoppin" NFC CIS 7 .

4SF  3eet (ther People NFC 7( .

CIS 4SF 72 .

 1nformation (n Cew Products @nd6 (r Prices NFC CIS 7. .

4SF 7= .