Works Cited Primary Sources Websites 15.Athenian Democracy. Perf. Professor Kagan. Www.Youtube.com.

YaleCourses, 20 Nov. 2008. Web. 26 an. 201!. "#tt$%&&'''.(outube.)o*&'at)#+v,C*u$K-s#C.Y/. Professor Kagan s$eaks of t#e rise of t#e 0t#enian 1*$ire to t#e organi2ation of t#e 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)(. 4e goes in detail about t#e legislative and e5e)utive $arts of t#e govern*ent. 4e e5$lains '#at ea)# bran)# of t#e 0t#enian govern*ent does and #o' t#e( do it. 0lso, Kagan s$oke about '#at 'ent on before and during t#e asse*blies. 16.63e*o)ra)( 7uotes.6 ::: International Endowment for Democracy. N.$., n.d. Web. 06 0$r. 201!. 7uotes t#at $ertain to de*o)ra)(. 8o*e of t#ese 9uotes are dire)tl( fro* books $rodu)ed during t#e 0t#enian $eriod, so 'e *a( )onsider t#is a $ri*ar(. W#at t#is #el$s us understand is t#e $ri*ar( vie's on govern*ent going around t#e )it( during t#at ti*e. 17.Books 0ristotle, and :i)#ard :obinson. Aristotle's Politics, Boo ! and ". ;5ford% Clarendon, 1<62. Print. =#is book *ostl( 0ristotle talking about $oliti)al rig#ts. =#is 'a( it gives us a better $ers$e)tive of #o' t#ings 'ere ba)k t#en. 0ristotle t#inks t#at not all $eo$le #ave t#e )a$a)it( to rule, in t#e best regi*e onl( an elite fe' 'ill a)tuall( be )iti2ens. 4e also talks about t#e differen)es bet'een ea)# t($e of govern*ent rule. 0ristotle, and W. 3. :oss. #he Wor s of Aristotle: $olume II . C#i)ago% 1n)()lo$ 訶 ia .ritanni)a, 1<52. Print. 0ristotle ru*inates about t#e definitions of *an( $oliti)al

ter*s, in)luding king, state, and de*o)ra)(. =#is $rovides us 'it# insig#t on #o' 0t#enians during our ti*e $eriod t#oug#t ba)k t#en, and also lets us see t#eir troubles, '#i)# are $rett( si*ilar to ours toda(. >or e5a*$le, 6Pro$ert( is a $art of t#e #ouse#old, and t#e art of a)9uiring $ro$ert( is a $art of t#e art of *anaging t#e #ouse#old? for no *an )an live 'ell, or indeed live at all, unless #e be $rovided 'it# ne)essaries.6 .asi)all(, ever( *an is entitled to a $ursuit of #a$$iness, '#i)# is in our 3e)laration of @nde$enden)e. 0ristotle. #he Athenian %onstitution. =ranslated b( P. . :#odes ed. Aondon% Penguin Brou$, 2002. Print. 0ristotle )o**ents on 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)(. 4e la(s do'n #is t#oug#ts for us, su)# as a $oe*, 6@ be#old, and 'it#in *( #eart dee$ sadness #as )lai*ed its $la)e, 0s @ *ark t#e oldest #o*e of t#e an)ient @onian ra)e 8lain b( t#e s'ord. 6 .asi)all( t#e book is 0ristotleCs t#oug#ts during t#e develo$*ent of 0t#enian de*o)ra)(. 0ristotle. Politics: Boo s $ and $I. =ranslated b( 3avid Ke(t ed. Ne' York% ;5ford Dniversit(% Press, 1<<<. Print. 0ristotle 'arns about t#e dangers of an oligar)#(, and also )o**ents on #o' a )onstitution *a( be $reserved. 4e states t#at if t#e $eo$le serving t#e govern*ent are lo(al to t#e govern*ent, t#an t#e )onstitution 'ill sta( strong. 4e also argues for t#e ot#er side, against de*o)ra)(, and e5$lains #o' one )ould $reserve a kings#i$ or a t(rann(, but t#is gives us valuable insig#t on t#e ot#er side of t#e argu*ent. 3illon, Eatt#e', and A(nda Barland. Ancient &reece: 'ocial and (istorical Documents from Archaic times to the Death of 'ocrates )c. *++,!-- B%. . Aondon% :outledge, 1<<!. Print. 3o)u*ents fro* t#e ti*e $eriod. >ornara, C#arles W. Archaic times to the End of the Pelo/onnesian War. .alti*ore%

o#ns 4o$kins DP, 1<FF. Print. 3evoted to t#e $eriod '#i)# begins 'it# t#e era of Breek )oloni2ation and ends 'it# t#e )lose of t#e Pelo$onnesian War in !0! .. C. C#arles >ornara #as gat#ered toget#er *aterial )o*$iled fro* ins)ri$tions, an)ient en)()lo$edias, s)#olia, and si*ilar sour)es. =#e *aterial, *u)# of it translated b( #i* for t#e first ti*e, )overs not onl( events of national signifi)an)e G 'ars and treaties, t#e founding of to'ns and )olonies, t#e dedi)ation of te*$les G but also $resents su)# re)ords of dail( life as ration lists, 'ine trade regulations, inventories of treasure, drinking songs, and finan)ial re)ords. =#e do)u*ents are a))o*$anied b( a brief )o**entar(, '#i)# is basi)all( intended to )larif( obs)urities in t#e te5t. 0n e5tensive glossar( and inde5es e5$lain obs)ure ter*s of Breek so)ial and govern*ental stru)ture and $er*it detailed $roso$ogra$#i)al anal(sis. Plato. #he 0e/ublic. =ranslated b( .enHa*in o'ett ed. N.$.% Penguin DK, n.d. Print. 7uestions '#( *en be#ave Hustl(. @s it be)ause t#e( fear so*e sort of retribution+ W#et#er fro* god or so)ial )onstru)ts or *a(be *en be#ave 'ell for t#e*selves, Plato defines individual Husti)e, and t#en goes on to state t#at $oliti)al #ar*on( )an be a)#ieved t#roug# a )o*bination of )lasses. Plato #olds Husti)e to be t#e greatest good. Plutar)#. Pericles. =ranslation b( .ernadotte Perrin ed. Ca*bridge% 4arvard DP, 1<16. Print. Plutar)#Cs a))ount of Peri)lesC life. 4e des)ribed #is a)#ieve*ents and also #ad so*e 9uotes fro* Peri)les in t#e book. Plutar)#. 'olon. =ranslated b( :obin Waterfield ed. Ne' York% ;5ford DP, 1<<8. Print. Breek Aives% 0 8ele)tion of Nine Breek Aives. 0 #istori)al a))ount of 8olonCs life. 0 bit #ard to read, sin)e itCs in $oe* for*at, but it is a ver( des)ri$tive and

e5aggeration a))ount of 8olonCs life. 8olon 'as t#e first $erson to la( do'n t#e foundations for de*o)ra)(, and #aving #is life stor( gives us )onte5t. 0nd )onte5t is all. 6PseudoGIeno$#on, Constitution of t#e 0t#enians 1. C. Ear)#ant, 1d.6 Pseudo, 1eno/hon, %onstitution of the Athenians,cha/ter 2. N.$., n.d. Web. J1 an. 201!. 0 $erson )o**enting on t#e 0t#enian )onstitution. 0 translated version )an be found at 6#tt$%&&'''.$erseus.tufts.edu&#o$$er&te5t+do),PerseusKJate5t KJa1<<<.01.01586. =#is gives us infor*ation as to '#at t#e $eo$le t#oug#t of t#eir $oliti)al s(ste* and #o' t#e( felt about it. 8tanton, B. :. Athenian Politics, %. *++,3++ B.%.: A 'ourceboo . Aondon% :outledge, 1<<0. Print. =#is stud( is designed to s#ar$en #istori)al skills b( utili2ing a )riti)al a$$roa)# to t#e sour)es of infor*ation on an)ient 0t#enian $oliti)s. @t $resents )onte*$orar( sour)es, later #istori)al and biogra$#i)al 'ritings, ar)#aeologi)al eviden)e, ins)ri$tions on stone and $a$(ri fro* 1g($t. =#e reader #as available in translation virtuall( all t#e do)u*ents in '#i)# s)#olars of t#is $eriod base t#eir )on)lusions.?=#e $eriod )overed e*bra)es t#e refor*s of 8olon, t#e t(rann( of Peisistratos and #is sons, and t#e )onstitutional )#anges of Kleist#enes. W#en 0t#enian $oliti)s first be)o*e visible, t#e noble fa*ilies are fir*l( in )ontrol. 0t t#e end of t#e $eriod de*o)ra)( is Hust beginning to e*erge. Central to an understanding of t#e $oliti)s of t#e ti*e is t#e )onfli)t bet'een aristo)rati) )lans and verti)al ties bet'een noble $atrons and t#eir su$$orters and de$endents in t#e lo'er so)ial strata. Parado5i)all(, de*o)ra)( e*erged fro* t#e a)tions of noble leaders '#o 'ere )ertainl( not of de*o)rati) dis$osition.

=#u)(dides. #he 0ise of an Athenian Em/ire. =ranslated b( >ran)is 4enr( Colson ed. N.$.% Nabu, 2010. Print. =#u)(dides do)u*ents t#e rise of 0t#ens. =#is book $rovides ba)kground kno'ledge on 0t#ens and also in '#at )onte5t de*o)ra)( 'as first introdu)ed. >ro* #is 'riting and #is tone, 'e )an infer t#at =#u)(dides did not believe in t#e )o**on *an and #is abilit( to *ake de)isions. =ravlos, o#n. Pictoral Dictionary of Ancient Athens. Ne' York% Praeger, 1<F1. Print. P#otogra$#s, $i)tures, and $lans of 0n)ient 0t#ens. Secondary Sources Websites 612 P#ases of 0t#ens and @ts 3e*o)ra)(.6 About.com Ancient 4 %lassical (istory. N.$., n.d. Web. 20 an. 201!. =#e 12 P#ases of 0t#ens ans @ts 3e*o)ra)( lists #istori)al events t#at lead to t#e develo$*ent of a de*o)ra)( in 0t#ens. 0t#ens sees its ter*s of t#e rise and fall to be a big )ontribution to t#e West. 3e*o)ra)( did not #a$$en all of a sudden, but graduall( develo$ed in res$onse to t#e #istori)al )onditions. =#e $eo$le of 0t#ens lost t#eir for* of de*o)ra)( b( t#e ti*e of 0ke5ander of Ea)edonia and later t#e :o*ans. 60n)ient 0t#ens 3e*o)ra)( G 0n)ient Bree)e for Kids.6 Ancient Athens Democracy , Ancient &reece for 5ids. N.$., n.d. Web. 1F Nov. 201J. "#tt$%&&gree)e.*rdonn.org&at#ensde*o)ra)(.#t*l/. 0t#ens is t#e 'orldCs first de*o)ra)(. @t 'as not a $erfe)t de*o)ra)(, but it 'as t#e roots of '#i)# our de*o)ra)( 'as based on. @n 0t#ens, 500 )iti2ens are $i)ked out fro* all of t#e )iti2ens to serve as la' *arkers.=#e rest of t#e )iti2ens 'ere re9uired to vote on t#ese la's.=#is s(ste* of la' *aking be)a*e kno'n as a dire)t de*o)ra)(. 60n)ient Breek 3e*o)ra)(.6 (istory.com. 0L1 =elevision Net'orks, n.d. Web. 1F Nov.

201J. "#tt$%&&'''.#istor(.)o*&to$i)s&an)ientGgree)eGde*o)ra)(/. Clesist#enes, an 0t#enian leader, introdu)ed a s(ste* of $oliti)al refor* )alled de*okratia, 6rule b( t#e $eo$le,6 in 50F ..C. 3e*okratia abolis#ed all $oliti)al distin)tion, and stressed e9ualit( a*ong )iti2ens. 19ualit( 'as li*ited to onl( *ale )iti2ens '#o 'ere older t#an 18. =#is *eant onl( !0,000 of 100,000 'ould be $art of de*os. 0t#enian de*o)ra)( 'as *ade u$ of t#ree institutions. 1kklesia, or 0sse*bl( 'as *ade u$ of an( *e*ber of de*os. =#e( *ade de)isions about 'ar and foreign $oli)(, 'rote an revised la's, and a$$roved or )onde*ned t#e )ondu)t of $ubli) offi)ials. =#e .oule 'as t#e se)ond institution, '#i)# 'as *ade u$ of 50 *en fro* ea)# of t#e ten 0t#enian tribes. Positions 'ere not deter*ined b( ele)tion, but 'ere )#osen b( a lotter( s(ste* so 'ealt# and $o$ularit( 'ould not influen)e an(t#ing. =#e( #andled govern*ent 'orkers and 'ere in )#arge of nav( s#i$s and ar*( #orses. =#e 3ikasteria 'as t#e t#ird institution, '#i)# 'as $o$ular )ourts. =#ere 'as no su)# t#ing as a $oli)e for)e, so de*os 'ould bring u$ t#eir o'n )ourt )ases. Merdi)ts and senten)es 'ere deter*ined b( *aHorit( rule. Peri)les evolved 0t#enian de*o)ra)( to so*et#ing si*ilar to aristo)ra)( in !60 ..C. =#e ruling did not survive, but de*o)rati) ideals and $ro)esses #eavil( influen)ed *odernGda( govern*ent. 6=#e 0n)ient Breeks G t#e 0t#enians of 0n)ient Bree)e.6 #he Ancient &ree s , the Athenians of Ancient &reece. 0rro'#ead Website 3esign, n.d. Web. J0 an. 201!. =#e 0t#enians believed t#at a *an s#ould be free as long as #e a)ted 'it#in t#e la's of a Hust and rig#teous state. =#e( also t#oug#t t#at individualit( 'as i*$ortant to so)iet( and for*ed it as t#e basis. ='o *aHor ideas t#at 'e get fro* t#e* is 6not#ing in e5)ess6 and 6kno' t#(self6. =#is 'ebsite su*s u$ t#e )ulture

of 0t#enian de*o)ra)(, '#i)# $rovides us 'it# t#e )onte5t in '#i)# de*o)ra)( 'as first t#oug#t of. 60ristotle, 8olon and t#e ;rigins of 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)(.6 Aristotle, 'olon and the 6ri7ins of Athenian Democracy. N.$., n.d. Web. 2< an. 201!. "#tt$%&&)ourses.')u$a.edu&Hones&#is101&'eb&05at#ens.#t*/. @t talks about 8olonCs breakt#roug# '#en #e be)a*e )#ief *agistrate. 8olon *ade refor*s s$e)ifi)all( to a$$ease t#e de*ands of t#e soldiers for $oliti)al $o'er, =#is 'a( *ore $eo$le 'ould Hoin t#e *ilitar(. 8olon in)reased t#e nu*ber of $eo$le '#o s#ared in $oliti)al de)isions b( )reating a 6Coun)il of t#e !006 t#at in)luded t#e #eads of t#e *ost $ro*inent *er)#ant and far*ing fa*ilies, and an 60sse*bl(6 t#at in)luded all *ales of *ilitar( age. =#is idea soon enoug# be)a*e '#at 'e )all de*o)ra)(. 60t#enian 3e*o)ra)(% 0 .rief ;vervie'.6 Athenian Democracy: A Brief 68er8iew. N.$., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 201J. "#tt$%&&'''.stoa.org&$roHe)ts&de*os&arti)le-de*o)ra)(-overvie'+$age,!/. 0t#enCs de*o)rati) govern*ent relied on t#ree *ain foundations. =#e t#ree foundations of 0t#enian de*o)ra)( 'ere% t#e 0sse*bl( of t#e 3e*os, t#e Coun)il of 500, and t#e Peo$le 痴 Court. =#ese 'ere #el$ed b( t#e Coun)il of t#e 0reo$agus, t#e 0r)#ons, and t#e Benerals. 0)tual legislation involved bot# t#e 0sse*bl( and t#e Coun)il, and boards of la'*akers. 60t#enian 3e*o)ra)(% 0 .rief ;vervie'.6 Athenian Democracy: A Brief 68er8iew. N.$., n.d. Web. J0 an. 201!. 0t#enian de*o)ra)( lasted fro* 508 to J22 .C1. =#e $eo$le )ontrolled ever(t#ing, fro* de)isions about 'ar to t#e 9ualifi)ations of a ferr(G*an. 4o'ever, it 'asnCt Hust a freeGforGall voting $ro)ess. 0t#enians understood t#e idea of )#e)ks and balan)es, and )reated t#ree *ain institutions,

'#o ea)# li*ited t#e ot#er. 1ver(one at t#e 1kklesia #ad free s$ee)#, but if so*eone s$oke outside of #is e5$ertise, #e 'ould get s#outed do'n. 1kklesia is also )alled t#e 0sse*bl(, and t#e( #ad rituals to start t#e *eetings and a s#o' of #ands de)ided #o' *an( votes. =#e ne5t institution 'as t#e Coun)il of 500, '#i)# 'as t#e fullGti*e govern*ent of 0t#ens. =#e( 'ere audited so as to kee$ virtuous $eo$le in )#arge of t#e )it(. =#e )oun)il 'ould de)ide t#e agenda for t#e 0sse*bl(. 0 t#ird and final institution 'as t#e Aegislation, '#o )ould ena)t la's t#at li*ited t#e 0sse*bl(Cs $o'ers, but t#e 0sse*bl( also #ad so*e #old over t#e Aegislation be)ause t#e( )ould )#oose not to follo'. 60t#enian 3e*o)ra)(.6 Athenian Democracy. N.$., n.d. Web. 1F Nov. 201J. "#tt$s%&&'''.$rin)eton.edu&Na)#ane(&t*ve&'iki100k&do)s&0t#enian-de*o)ra)(.# t*l/. 0t#enian de*o)ra)( 'as develo$ed in 0t#ens. 3e*o)ra)( in 0t#ens 'as )onsidered one of t#e *ost $o'erful and stable of all Breek )ities. Parti)i$ation 'as ver( o$en, '#ere an(one $arti)i$ate 'it# no e)ono*i) standard. =#e $ubli) o$inion 'as #eavil( influen)ed b( $oliti)al satire $erfor*ed b( t#e )o*i) $oets at t#e t#eaters. 8olon, Cleist#enes, and 1$#ialtes all )ontributed to develo$ 0t#enian de*o)ra)(. =#e longest and greatest leader of all ti*e 'as Peri)les. 0fter #is deat#, 0t#enian de*o)ra)( 'as t'i)e briefl( interru$$ted b( revolutions to'ards t#e end of t#e Pelo$onnesian War. =#e Ea)edonians ended t#e de*o)ra)( in J22 ..C.1. =#e 0t#enian institutions 'ere later revived, but to t#e e5tent of '#et#er t#e( 'ere a real de*o)ra)( is 9uestionable. 60t#enian 3e*o)ra)(.6 Athenian Democracy. N.$., n.d. Web. 22 3e). 201!. "#tt$%&&'''.uv*.edu&NHbaill(&)ourses&)las21&notes&at#eniande*o)ra)(.#t*l/. =#is gave us t#e basi) outlines of t#e develo$*ent of de*o)ra)( run fro* 8olon

to Peri)les. @t infor*ed us 'it# t#e )#anges *ade fro* 8olon to Cleist#enes to 1$#ialtes to Peri)les. Consisting of Cleist#enes )#anging 8olonCs Coun)il of !00 to t#e Coun)il of 500. @t also talks about #o' '#en it 'as under Peri)les it 'as *ore of a radi)al de*o)ra)(. =#at *eans t#at t#e asse*bl( and t#e la' )ourts #ad ulti*ate sa( in t#ings. 60t#enian 3e*o)ra)(.6 (onors 0esearch #em/late22 A.m. N.$., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 201J. "#tt$s%&&'''2.b).edu&Nde$al*ad&#onorsJ.#t*l/. Bives an overvie' on 0t#ens, and t#en des)ribes inGde$t# t#e rules of 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)(, in)luding t#e 0sse*bl(, Coun)il, Aegislation, Coun)il of 0reo$agus and t#e Peo$leCs Court. =#e 0sse*bl( *et and de)ided on *atters t#at in)luded la', foreign $oli)(, and 'ar. =#e )oun)il *et ever( da( and de)ided on dail( govern*ent a)tivities. @n )ontrast, t#e Aegislation onl( *et '#en t#ere 'as a )ourt )ase to be Hudged. =#e )oun)il of 0reo$agus 'as a )oun)il of t#e elders of t#e )it(, and rivlaed t#e boule in t#e de)isionG*aking $ro)ess. 60t#ens.6 Ancient (istory Encyclo/edia. N.$., n.d. Web. J1 an. 201!. =#is 'ebsite $rovides us 'it# t#e #istor( of 0t#ens. Kno'ing t#e #istor( of 0t#ens gives us ba)kground kno'ledge about t#e $la)e '#ere de*o)ra)( 'as develo$ed. 60=41N8 4istor( and Culture.6 Athens %ity &reece &uide:. N.$., n.d. Web. 2< an. 201!. 0t#ens #as t#e longest #istor( out of an( )it( in 1uro$e and in t#e 'orld. Na*ed after 0t#ena, goddess of 'isdo* and kno'ledge, 0t#ens #as been )ontinuousl( in#abited sin)e t#e .ron2e 0ge and is generall( )onsidered to be t#e )radle of Western )ivili2ation. @t be)a*e t#e leading )it( of 0n)ient Bree)e in t#e first *illenniu* .C and t#e strongest Breek )it(Gstate around 500 .C, entering its Bolden 0ge after e*erging vi)torious fro* t#e Persian Wars O500 G !!< .CP.

60t#ens% =#e =rut# about 3e*o)ra)(.6 #o/ Documentary 9ilms 0''. N.$., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 201J. "#tt$%&&to$do)u*entar(fil*s.)o*&at#ensGtrut#GaboutGde*o)ra)(&/. 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)( is not as golden as #istorians *ake it out to be? 0 de*o)ra)( for e9ual and free *en t#at 'as built u$on slave labor, *ani$ulated b( t#e ri)# and $o'erful, and featured so$#isti)ated s(ste*s t#at #ad *an( loo$#oles in bet'een. .arrett, Eatt. 64istor( of Bree)e0 .rief ;utline of 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)(.6 (istory of &reece: Athenian Democracy. N.$., n.d. Web. 1F Nov. 201J. "#tt$%&&'''.a#istor(ofgree)e.)o*&at#ensGde*o)ra)(.#t*/. 3e*o)ra)( in t#e 0t#ens 'as t#e best t($e of govern*ent s(ste* during t#e fift# and fourt# )enturies. Cleist#enes is *ost )redited for develo$ing t#e s(ste*. 4e turned 0t#ens fro* an oligar)#( Ogovern*ent b( t#e fe'P to a de*o)ra)( Ogovern*ent of t#e $eo$leP. =#e ke( of t#e de*o)ra)( 'as redra'ing t#e so)ialG$oliti)al lands)a$e of 0t#ens and 0tti)a. >our of t#e e5isting tribes 'ere re$la)ed b( ten ne' tribes. =#e 0sse*bl( or ekklesia 'as o$en to all *ale )iti2ens. =#e( *ad all de)isions u$on foreign $oli)( and dis)ussed legislative issues. @f t#e( de)ided to, ostra)is* 'as #eld on)e a (ear. =#is is '#ere a $erson )ould be banis#ed for ten (ears. @t ke$t )iti2ens fro* being too aggressive due to t#e fear of being e5iled. =#e boule )onsisted of 50 *en fro* ea)# of t#e ten tribes. =#e( de)ided on '#at t#e asse*bl( 'ould dis)uss. =#e *e*bers 'ere )#osen b( t#eir *uni)i$alities. =#e )#ief of t#e )it( 'as )alled t#e ar)#on. 4e 'as res$onsible for )ondu)tion investigations of legal )ases. =#e ar)#on 'as de)ided b( t#e )oun)il of elders. =#e $ole*ar)# 'as #ead of t#e *ilitar( *atters. Eilitar( in t#e 0t#ens 'as set u$ t#e sa*e 'a( as t#e boule, '#ere 50 *en fro* ea)# tribe 'ould Hoin. =#ere 'ere also )ourts 'it# si5 offi)ial Hudges kno'n as t#e =#es*ot#atae. =#e( #ad little $o'er

sin)e trials involved *ass $arti)i$ation. urors 'ere $aid for t#eir servi)e, but re)eived roug#l( as *u)# as a laborer. 0t#enian de*o)ra)( introdu)ed t#e )on)e$t of e9ualit( and rotation of $o'ers. 6=#e .oule O=#e 8enateP.6 Birth of Democracy: #he Boule. N.$., n.d. Web. J1 an. 201!. 3es)ribes #o' t#e .oule 'orked. =#e( *et in a building )alled t#e .ouletuerion, but t#at 'as dit)#ed and turned into storage as a ne' one 'as built beside it to #ouse 500 $eo$le. =#e $eo$le '#o served in t#e .oule #ad to di$ t#eir #ands in #ol( 'ater before entering t#e building as a ritual. 6.ouleuterio @ntrodu)tion.6 Bouleuterio Introduction. N.$., n.d. Web. J1 an. 201!. =#e boule 'as not onl( li*ited? @t e5isted in ot#er @onian )ities too. Na*es for t#e boule 'ere% boule, gerousia, s(nedrio, alia, a$ella, or alaiai. 4o*erCs e$i)s also *ention t#e boule. ;ne Hob of t#is institution 'as to dra' u$ $rovouleu*ata, or $ro$osals for la's. =#e( also ensured t#at t#e govern*ent )ontinued to run da( b( da(. 60 .rief 4istor( of 3e*o)ra)( and @ts .enefits.6 , Introduction to Democracy, Potentials of Democracy, '6'E Year -, :'W. N.$., n.d. Web. J0 an. 201!. 15$lains #o' t#e 'ords 6de*os6 and 6kratia6 )a*e to for* t#e 'ord de*o)ra)(. 3e*o)ra)( is a s(ste* of govern*ent '#ere all )iti2ens )ould vote. @n an)ient Bree)e, a )it(G state na*ed 0t#ens )a*e )losest to establis#ing a de*o)ra)(, be)ause it allo'ed itCs )iti2ens to $arti)i$ate in t#e govern*ent. @n realit(, #o'ever, t#e )iti2ens 'ere a)tuall( t#e '#ite *ales over 18, so 'o*en, slaves, and freed slaves 'ere left out of t#e voting $ro)ess, dis9ualif(ing 0t#enian de*o)ra)( to be a true de*o)ra)(. Cartledge, Paul. 6=#e 3e*o)rati) 15$eri*ent.6 BB% :ews. ..C, n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 201J. "#tt$%&&'''.bb).)o.uk&#istor(&an)ient&greeks&greekde*o)ra)(-01.s#t*l/.

@n Bree)e, t#e $oliti)al s(ste*s varied fro* )it(Gstate to )it(Gstate. 4o'ever, t#e rarest and t#e freest out of t#e* all 'as in 0t#ens, '#ere t#e( )a*e u$ 'it# t#e idea for de*o)ra)(. @t 'as 8olon, a 'ise *an and $oet, t#at laid do'n t#e foundations for de*o)ra)(, even t#oug# #e didnCt believe in it. Cliest#enes, one of 0t#enCs rulers, i*$le*ented it to #el$ out t#e failing )it(. 3e*o)ra)( 'as not 'it#out ene*ies, as oligar)#ies 'ere violentl( restored fro* ti*e to ti*e, but t#e $o'er of t#e $eo$le 'as too strong. =#e $o'er invested into t#e )iti2ens of 0t#ens 'ere *an(, in)luding )ourt de)isions, 'ar de)isions, la' de)isions, and even ostra)is*. 6CA1@8=41N18.6 %;EI'#(E:E'. N.$., n.d. Web. J0 an. 201!. 0 )lear e5$lanation of t#e a)#ieve*ents of Cliest#enes in regards to govern*ent and $oliti)s, in)luding na*ing #i* t#e founder of 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)(, fig#ting against t#e Persians, ostra)is*, and $reventing fa)tion building. 3avis, Willia*. 60 3a( in ;ld 0t#ens.6 #he Ecclesia of Ancient Athens. N.$., n.d. Web. J1 an. 201!. 0 $age leading to arti)les on 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)(. We find out t#at 0t#enian de*o)ra)( 'as founded b( 8olon and Cliest#enes, and develo$ed b( =#e*isto)les and Peri)les. 0lso, 0tti)a onl( a)kno'ledges one lord during t#is ti*e $eriod G King 3e*os, or king ever(bod(. 8o)rates also sa(s t#at itCs t#e Hob of t#e 'ealt#( to #old feasts and $rovide entertain*ent for t#e *asses. 63e*o)ra)( =#en and No'.6 'olon's 0eforms , Democracy #hen and :ow. N.$., n.d. Web. J1 an. 201!. 8olon% 68u)# $o'er @ gave t#e $eo$le as *ig#t do, 0bridged not '#at t#e( #ad, no' lavis#ed ne'. =#ose t#at 'ere great in 'ealt# and #ig# in $la)e, E( )ounsel like'ise ke$t fro* all disgra)e. .efore t#e* bot# @ #eld *( s#ield of *ig#t, 0nd let not eit#er tou)# t#e ot#erCs rig#t.6 8olon freed all debtors

'#o sold or $ledged t#eir o'n bodies to $a( off t#eir debts, and li*ited t#e 'ealt#(Cs $o'er a little bit. 8olon 'as an i*$ortant turning $oint for 0t#ens, en#an)ing t#e standard of living and setting in $la)e t#e roots of de*o)ra)(. 63e*o)ra)(.6 Wi i/edia. Wiki*edia >oundation, 22 an. 201!. Web. 2J an. 201!. "#tt$%&&en.'iki$edia.org&'iki&3e*o)ra)(/. Cliest#enes 'as t#e fat#er of 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)(, '#i)# 'as a dire)t de*o)ra)(, t#at t#e $eo$le dire)tl( )ontrolled t#e govern*ent. =#e fa)t t#at #eCs #ad a bust *ade of #i* s(*boli2es #is i*$ortan)e to t#e 0t#enian )ulture and so)iet(. 6=#e 3evelo$*ent of 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)(.6 #he De8elo/ment of Athenian Democracy. N.$., n.d. Web. J0 an. 201!. =#is 'ebsite des)ribes 8olonCs refor*s, '#i)# in)luded a )onstitution and freeing all enslaved *en be)ause of t#eir debts. 4e also )reated t#e Coun)il of 0reo$agus, '#i)# regulated t#e la's given out b( t#e 0r)#ons. =#is 'ebsite 'as ver( detailed and gave us *an( an)ient Breek 'ords. 63evelo$*ent of 3e*o)ra)( in 0t#ens.6 De8elo/ment of Democracy in Athens. N.$., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 201J. "#tt$%&&#istor(link101.)o*&2&gree)eJ&de*o)ra)(-at#ens.#t*/. =#e states*an Cleist#enes is )onsidered t#e founder of 0t#enian de*o)ra)(. 4e introdu)ed a ne' division of t#e $o$ulation of 0t#ens into ten tribal grou$s. 1a)# 'ould ele)t b( lot fift( re$resentatives to t#e 0sse*bl(. =#is e5tended t#e re$resentation and voting rig#ts to *ost all *ale )iti2ens in 0t#ens. =#is laid t#e foundation u$on '#i)# t#e 0t#enians develo$ed a de*o)ra)(.=#e 0t#enian govern*ent 'as a dire)t de*o)ra)(. 0n( )iti2en )ould s$eak to t#e grou$ to $ersuade t#e* to t#eir 'as of t#inking. =#e asse*bl( #ad to #ave at least 6,000 )iti2ens in attendan)e. @f not enoug# )iti2ens s#o'ed u$, J00 s$e)iall( trained slaves 'ould go t#roug# t#e

to'n 'it# a ro$e di$$ed in red $aint. 0n(one #it b( t#e $aint #ad to $a( a fine for not doing #is )ivi) dut(. 63evelo$*ent of 3e*o)ra)( in 0t#ens.6 De8elo/ment of Democracy in Athens. N.$., n.d. Web. J0 an. 201!. "#tt$%&&#istor(link101.)o*&2&gree)eJ&de*o)ra)(-at#ens.#t*/. =#e founder of 0t#enian de*o)ra)( 'as Cleist#enes, '#o divided 0tti)a into ten tribes. =#e tribes t#en send 50 )iti2en for t#e asse*bl(. =#is set u$ t#e foundation of de*o)ra)(. 3e*o)ra)( 'as full( establis#ed in 0t#ens on)e t#e 0reo$agus lost $o'er. 0long 'it# t#e asse*bl(, t#ere 'as t#e Coun)il of 500, strategoi and ar)#ons. 3o'ling, Eike. 60t#ens and 3e*o)ra)(.6 Athens and Democracy. N.$., n.d. Web. 1F Nov. 201J. "#tt$%&&'''.*rdo'ling.)o*&F01Gat#ens.#t*l/. 3e*o)ra)( in slo'l( 'it#in #undreds of (ears. 0t#ens develo$ed as a *er)#ant )it( '#ose s#i$s traded 'it# *an( fara'a( $la)es.=raders 'ere e5$osed to *an( ne' ideas, '#i)# #el$ed influen)e ne' rule. =#e 0t#enian ar*( foug#t in a $a#lan5. =#ere 'as no need for #orses, so an(one )ould Hoin t#e ar*(.Aeaders #ad to be )on)erned 'it# ea)# individual need, so t#e( 'ouldnCt lose t#e su$$ort. 8olon be)a*e t#e leader in 5<! ..C. 4e re$ealed 3ra)oCs #ars# la's and )reated a de*o)ra)(, '#ere $eo$le ruled t#e $olis. ;nl( adult *en born in 0t#ens 'ere allo'ed to $arti)i$ate in t#e asse*bl(. =#is a))ounted for onl( oneGfourt# of t#e total $o$ulation. =#e asse*bl( *et !0 ti*es a (ear.=#e boule 'as )alled before t#e asse*bl( to a))ount for t#eir 'ork. Ee*ber of t#e boule 'ere )#osen rando*l(, so ever(one #ad t#e sa*e o$$ortunit( to serve on t#e )oun)il. 0t#ens relied on )iti2ens to $arti)i$ate. .e)ause 0t#ens 'as a s*all )it(Gstate, dire)t de*o)ra)( 'as $ossible. 3e*o)ra)( 'as li*ited, but introdu)ed t#e idea of $arti)i$ation of t#e )o**on *an.

61))lesia Oan)ient Breek 0sse*bl(P.6 Encyclo/edia Britannica 6nline. 1n)()lo$edia .ritanni)a, n.d. Web. J1 an. 201!. 1kklesia *eans 6gat#ering of t#e su**oned6. @tCs roots la( t#e 4o*eri) era, 'it# t#e *eeting of t#e $eo$le. =#e 0t#enian ekklesia 'as not t#e onl( ekklesia in t#e 'orld. Eost )it(Gstates #ad so*e sort of ekklesia to *ake de)isions and to #el$ t#e )it( run. 6=#e 1kklesia OCiti2ensC 0sse*bl(P.6 Birth of Democracy: #he E lesia. N.$., n.d. Web. J1 an. 201!. =#e 1kklesia *et on)e ever( 10 da(s. 0ll de)rees t#at 'ere ratified b( t#e 1kklessia be)a*e la's. 4eld on t#e Pn(5, and stru)ture built on a #illside t#at rese*bles an auditoriu* and )ould seat, at itCs biggest, about 1J,500 $eo$le, $eo$le 'ere $aid for attending t#e 1kklesia, so t#erefore 'orking )iti2ens )ould attend and $arti)i$ate and still not lose an( *one( for not 'orking t#at da(. 6=#e >inal 1nd of 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)(.6 PB'. P.8, n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 201J. "#tt$%&&'''.$bs.org&e*$ires&t#egreeks&ba)kground&!8.#t*l/. 0fter defeating 0t#ens in !0! .C, t#e 8$artans allo'ed t#e 0t#enians to re$la)e t#eir govern*ent 'it# a ne' for*.=#eir $revious govern*ent ruler, a t(rant, #ad been a terrible and failed, and even t#e 8$artans t#oug#t t#at a for* of de*o)ra)( 'ould be *ore $referable. @t t#en talks about #o' 0le5ander t#e Breat took t#e t#rone and t#at 'as t#e end of 0t#enian de*o)ra)(. >oto$oulos, =akis. 63ire)t and 1)ono*i) 3e*o)ra)( in 0n)ient 0t#ens.6 #A5I' 96#6P6<;6' , Direct and Economic Democracy in Ancient Athens. N.$., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 201J. "#tt$%&&'''.de*o)ra)(nature.org&vol1&foto$oulos-at#ens.#t*/. =#e failure of 0t#enian de*o)ra)( 'as not due to t#e dire)t $arti)i$ation, but rat#er t#e al'a(s $artial $arti)i$ation, 'it# onl( t#e )iti2ens of 0t#ens, '#o did not *ake u$ *ost

of t#e $o$ulation, '#o )ould vote and serve in t#e de*o)ra)(. 0not#er reason t#at 0t#enian de*o)ra)( failed 'as be)ause even t#oug# $oliti)all( t#e s(ste*s 'ere t#ere, e)ono*i)all( t#e )it( )ould not su$$ort su)# a s(ste*. =#e 'ealt# in t#e )it( 'as still in t#e #ands of t#e ri)#, and t#e $oor still ke$t getting $oorer, '#i)# does not *ini*i2e t#e so)ioGe)ono*i) differen)es in bet'een t#e )lasses. >o5, :obin Aane. #he %lassical World: An E/ic (istory from (omer to (adrian. Ne' York% .asi), 2006. Print. 0t#enian de*o)ra)( 'as not at all kindG#earted. Near t#e end of it, before t#e rule of Peri)les, t#e ostra)is* $o'er invested into t#e 1kklesia 'as being e5$loited, as nobles and $eo$le in $o'er 'ere getting e5iled. =#e( even tried to e5ile a #ero na*ed Eiltiades, '#o ran t#e *arat#on. Bill, N. 8. 6F 8tages in 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)(.6 About.com Ancient 4 %lassical (istory. N.$., n.d. Web. 1F Nov. 201J. "#tt$%&&an)ient#istor(.about.)o*&od&govern*en1&9t&Fstagesde*o)rat.#t*/. =#e 0t#enian institution is believed to #ave e*erged in seven distin)t stages in res$onse to $oliti)al, so)ial, and e)ono*i)al )onditions. 8olon 'as t#e first stage, '#ere debt 'as building u$ and loss of #olding to )reditors led to $oliti)al unrest. 8olon 'as, t#en, ele)ted to be ar)#on OrulerP to refor* la's in 5<! ..C. 8olon failed to su))eed in #is )o*$ro*ise, so benevolent des$ots took )ontrol. =#is $eriod 'as )alled t#e =(rann( of t#e Pisistratids. Eodern de*o)ra)( 'as t#e t#ird stage, '#ere Cleist#ened ends t#e aristo)ra)(. :adi)al de*o)ra)( e*erges '#en Peri)les introdu)es $a( for $ubli) offi)e OHur( dut(P. ;ligar)#( #a$$ens '#en 8$arta defeats 0t#ens and t'o oligar)#i) )ounterG revolutions tried to destro( de*o)ra)(. 0 stable ti*e )o*es and orators A(sias, 3e*ost#nes, 0es)#ines )onverse on '#at 'as best for t#e )it(. =#e final stage of 0t#enian de*o)ra)( is

Ea)edonian and :o*an do*ination. 0t#enian ideals )ontinue even t#oug# outside $o'ers do*inated. Bill, N. 8. 61))lesia.6 About.com Ancient 4 %lassical (istory. N.$., n.d. Web. J0 an. 201!. "#tt$%&&an)ient#istor(.about.)o*&od&greek$oliti)s&$&1))lesia.#t*/. =#e e))lesia 'as a *eeting $la)e '#ere )iti2ens )ould debate about issues. =#e( 'ould often tr( to influen)e one anot#er to t#eir o$inions. =#e( *et on a $la)e )alled t#e Pn(5, '#i)# 'as an o$ened roofed auditoriu*. ;n)e an 0t#enian *ale turned 18, t#e( 'ere $ut on t#e )iti2ens list and be)a*e eligible to Hoin t#e 0sse*bl(, unless t#e( 'ere not allo'ed due to debt or ot#er reasons. =#e 0sse*bl( *et !0 ti*es a (ear, and t#ose '#o attended 'ould be $a(ed 1 to J obols. Bill, N.8. 6Cleist#enes and t#e 10 =ribes of 0t#ens.6 About.com Ancient 4 %lassical (istory. N.$., n.d. Web. J1 an. 201!. 0 ver( des)ri$tive anal(sis of Cliest#enes refor*s, in)luding '#ere it )a*e fro* and #o' it #a$$ened. >ro* t#is 'e learned t#e na*es of t#e ten tribes t#at Cliest#enes *ade. =#e( 'ere )alled% 1re)#t#esis, 0egeis, Pandianis, Aeontis, 0)a*antis, ;eneis, Ce)ro$is 4i$$ot#ontis, 0eantis, 0ntio)#is, '#o 'ere all lo)al #eros. 0lso des)ribed t#e struggle t#at Cliest#enes 'ent t#roug# to a)#ieve #is leaders#i$, in)luding overt#ro'ing a t(rant. 6Bovern*ent in 0n)ient Bree)e.6 #hin =uest. ;ra)le >oundation, n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 201J. "#tt$%&&librar(.t#ink9uest.org&61J2&govern*ent.#t*l/. 0t#ens, a))ording to Peri)les, t#e leader of 0t#ens, 'as de*o)rati) )it(. 0t#ens #ad a govern*ent t#at 'as ran b( t#e )iti2ens of 0t#ens. =#e )iti2ens of 0t#ens 'as li*ited to onl( a sele)ted fe'. Aike all of Bree)e, )iti2ens 'ere onl( *ale. Wo*en, slaves, and so*e )#ildren 'ere not )onsidered )iti2ens of 0t#ens. 6Bree)e =i*eline.6 &reece #imeline. N.$., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 201J. "#tt$%&&'''.an)ientG

gree)e.org&resour)es&ti*eline.#t*l/. 0 ti*eline s#o'ing under '#at kind of influen)es and )onditions t#e 0t#enian de*o)ra)( 'as *ade. 0lso $rovides a ni)e #istor( of 0t#ens. Bress, 3avid. 9rom Plato to :A#6: #he Idea of the West and Its 6//onents. Ne' York% >ree, 1<<8. Print. =#oug# t#is book is not entirel( about 0t#enian de*o)ra)(, it does give us valuable insig#t u$on t#is *atter. 0t#enian de*o)ra)( 'as tested '#en one of itCs leading $#iloso$#ers 'as )alled into )ourt in J<< ..C. under t#e )#arges of blas$#e*( and i*$iet(, bot# religious reasons. W#en 8o)rates 'as in )ourt, #e )alled into 9uestion t#e fitness and abilit( of t#e )o**on *an to rule t#e govern*ent? #e turned to'ards 8$arta and said t#at t#at t($e of govern*ent 'ould 'ork in 0t#ens as 'ell. 4o'ever, in t#e end, 0t#enian de*o)ra)( 'on out and still gave $o'er to t#e )o**on *an, '#o t#e( believed #ad virtue due to #is )lass. 4ar$er, 3ouglas. 6;nline 1t(*olog( 3i)tionar(.6 6nline Etymolo7y Dictionary. N.$., n.d. Web. 26 an. 201!. @t gave us a ba)kground of #o' t#e 'ord 6de*o)ra)(6 )a*e about. @t infor*s us t#at t#e 'ord 6de*o)ra)(6 derives fro* t#e t'o Breek 'ords 6de*osG6 and 6Gkratia6. 63e*osG6 *eaning t#e $eo$le and 6Gkratia6 *eaning rule and strengt# 4arrison, =#eresa. 6W#( 0n)ient Bree)eCs 3e*o)ra)( Was @*$ortant.6 #he %lassroom. 3e*and Eedia, n.d. Web. J1 an. 201!. 6@t is true t#at 'e O0t#eniansP are )alled a de*o)ra)(, for t#e ad*inistration is in t#e #ands of t#e *an( and not t#e fe', 'it# e9ual Husti)e to all alike in t#eir $rivate dis$utes,said t#e Breek Beneral Peri)les. =#is 'ebsite $rovides a ni)e su**ar( of ever(t#ing t#at 'eCve learned t#roug#out all our resear)#.

64istor( of 3e*o)ra)(.6 (tt/:44library.thin >uest.or7. N.$., 26 an. 201!. Web. 1<<<. "#tt$%&&librar(.t#ink9uest.org&26!66&#istor(-of-de*o)ra)(.#t*l/. =#is 'ebsite $rovided us 'it# t#e #o' t#e 'ord, 6de*o)ra)(6 )a*e about. @t also dis)usses #o' de*o)ra)( #as )#anged over ti*e. @t states '#at it 'as at first and #o' it #as evolved t#roug# ti*e. Aike going t#roug# t#e :o*ans, t#e *iddle ages, 1ngland, and lastl( t#e Dnited 8tates. @t also dis)ussing so*e s$e)ifi) $eo$le and #o' t#e( tried to $ro*ote t#is t($e of govern*ent '#i)# in)luded t#e na*es of ean a)9ues :ousseau and o#n Ao)ke . 64istor( of Bree)e0 .rief ;utline of 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)(.6 (istory of &reece: Athenian Democracy. N.$., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 201J. "#tt$%&&'''.a#istor(ofgree)e.)o*&at#ensGde*o)ra)(.#t*/. 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)( #a$$ened due to Cleist#enes. Cleist#enes redre' t#e $oliti)alGso)ial lands)a$e of 0t#ens. =#is allo'ed 0t#ens, as a '#ole, sta( fo)us on affairs and getting t#ings done, instead of fig#ting 'it# one anot#er. =#e govern*ent in 0t#ens )o*$osed of *an( t#ings. =#e 0sse*bl( #ad t#e final de)ision on $oli)ies and issues )reated b( t#e Coun)il of 500. =#e )#ief of t#e )it(, )alled 0r)#on e$on(*ous, )ondu)ted investigations of legal )ases. =#e ar)#on basileus 'as an ele)ted and )ere*onial offi)e in )#arge of religious *atters. 0t#ens #ad trials t#at 'ere based on *ass $arti)i$ation. 0lso, t#e *ilitar( 'as ran like t#e boule or )oun)il of 500. 4ug#es, .ettan(. 60t#ens% =#e =rut# about 3e*o)ra)(.6 #o/ Documentary 9ilms 0''. N.$., n.d. Web. 2F Nov. 201J. 0t#ens follo'ed an aggressive overseas e5$ansion and $erse)uted so*e of its leading intelle)tuals. 3e*o)ra)( did not flouris# and 9ui)kl( died. 3e*o)ra)(, libert(, and freedo* of s$ee)# triu*$#ed as t#e basis in t#e Western )ivili2ation. 0t#ens 'as built on slave labor, *ani$ulated b(

aristo)rats, '#ere 'o*en 'ore t#e veil and *en $ursued a blood( foreign $oli)(. Parti)i$ation 'as a big $art of so)iet(. =#ose '#o did not vote 'ere kno'n as idiotes. 6@ntrodu)tion.6 Birth of Democracy: Democracy. N.$., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 201J. "#tt$%&&'''.agat#e.gr&de*o)ra)(&/. Not onl( did 0t#ens give us $#iloso$#(, t#eater, $ainting, s)ul$ture, and ar)#ite)ture, but a*ong t#ose t#e *ost i*$ortant is de*o)ra)(. 3e*o)ra)( is a for* of govern*ent ruled b( t#e $eo$le. @ndeed, it )an be )onvin)ingl( argued t#at all t#e ot#er a)#ieve*ents de$ended first on #o' t#e )it( 'as governed, on t#e o$en and free so)iet( t#at res$e)ted t#e dignit(, rig#ts, and as$irations of t#e individual. ones, i*. 6.a)kground to 8olon and t#e ;rigins of 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)( b( 0ristotle.6 (tt/:44courses.wcu/a.edu4. West C#ester Dniversit( of Penns(lvania, 2002. Web. 1! an. 201!. "#tt$%&&)ourses.')u$a.edu&Hones&#is101&'eb&05at#ens.#t*/. =#e 'ebsite gave us a ba)kground kno'ledge of 8olon, 0ristotle and t#e origin of 3e*o)ra)(. @t ans'ered *an( of our 9uestions like% 6;n '#at basis did 8olonCs )onstitution organi2e 0t#enian so)iet(+6, 64o' did so*e $eo$le tr( to take advantage fro* t#e 68#akingGoff of .urdens6 de)lared b( 8olon+6, and 6W#at 'ere t#e )onse9uen)es+6 W#at so)ial divisions e5isted in 0t#ens before t#e ti*e of 8olon+ Kreis, 8teven. 6Ae)ture 6% =#e 0t#enian ;rigins of 3ire)t 3e*o)ra)(.6 ;ecture ?: #he Athenian 6ri7ins of Direct Democracy. N.$., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 201J. "#tt$%&&'''.#istor(guide.org&an)ient&le)ture6b.#t*l/. 0round !60 ..C., Peri)les used t#e $o'er of t#e $eo$le in t#e la' )ourts and t#e 0sse*bl( to break u$ t#e Coun)il of >ive 4undred. Dnder Peri)les, 0t#enian de*o)ra)( )a*e to *ean t#e

e9ualit( of Husti)e and t#e e9ualit( of o$$ortunit(. =#e e9ualit( of Husti)e 'as se)ured b( t#e Hur( s(ste*, '#i)# ensured t#at slaves and resident aliens 'ere re$resented t#roug# t#eir $atrons. =#e e9ualit( of o$$ortunit( did not *ean t#at ever( *an #as t#e rig#t to ever(t#ing. W#at it did *ean is t#at t#e )riteria for )#oosing )iti2ens for offi)e 'as *erit and effi)ien)( and not 'ealt#. W#ereas 8olon #ad used t#e )riterion of birt# for #is offi)ials and Cleist#enes #ad used 'ealt#, Peri)les no' used *erit. =#is 'as t#e ideal for Peri)les. W#at indeed #a$$ened in $ra)ti)e 'as 9uite different. =#e Breek #istorian =#u)(dides )o**ented on t#e realit( of de*o)ra)( under Peri)les '#en #e 'rote% 6@t 'as in t#eor(, a de*o)ra)( but in fa)t it be)a*e t#e rule of t#e first 0t#enian.6 0nd t#e #istorian 4erodotusadded t#at 6not#ing )ould be found better t#an t#e one *an, t#e best.6 =#is 6one *an, t#e best,6 'as t#e aristoi, t#e 'ord fro* '#i)# 'e get t#e e5$ression aristo)ra)(. 8o, '#at began as Breek de*o)ra)( under Cleist#enes around 500 ..C., be)a*e an aristo)ra)( under Peri)les b( !J0 ..C. Aoflin, Ae'is. 63e*o)ra)( and t#e ;rigins of t#e D8 Constitution.6 Democracy and the 6ri7ins of the <' %onstitution. N.$., n.d. Web. J0 an. 201!. 3efines a de*o)ra)( )learl( to us. @n a de*o)ra)(, Citi2ens ele)t t#eir leaders Peo$le #ave a rig#t to )#ange t#eir leaders Peo$le )#oose t#eir leaders t#roug# ele)tions '#i)# are #eld fre9uentl(. 1le)tions are free and fair Peo$le #ave )ivil rig#ts. 0t#enian de*o)ra)( onl( 'orked be)ause t#e )it(Gstate of 0t#ens 'as s*all enoug# to #ave a dire)t de*o)ra)(. 0not#er 9ualifi)ation t#at 0t#enian de*o)ra)( doesnCt *eet is t#e )iti2ens#i$ be)ause 'o*en, slaves, and foreigners 'ere e5)luded fro* t#e $ro)ess. Aong, :oderi)k =. 6=#e 0t#enian.6 #he Athenian. Aibertarian Nation >oundation, 1<<6.

Web. J0 an. 201!. "#tt$%&&'''.)onstitution.org&ele)&f!1l1.#t*l/. 0t#enian de*o)ra)( 'as )onsidered one of t#e *ost e5tre*e and $urest for*s of de*o)ra)(. =#e 0t#enians defined libert( as 6living as one $leased6. .e)ause of t#is, 0t#ens 'as )onsidered one of t#e freest )ountries in t#e 'orld. =#e( e5er)ised intelle)tual freedo*. so)iet( 'as se$arated into t#ree )lasses. =#e 64orse*en6, t#e 6Yoke*en6, and t#e 6Eenials6. =#e 64orse*en6 'ere t#e ri)#est, follo'ed b( t#e 6Yoke*en, t#en t#e 6Eenials6. 0ll t#ree )ontributed to t#e )onstru)tion of 3e*o)ra)(, '#i)# )ontained t'o bran)#es% t#e legislative bran)# and t#e Hudi)ial bran)#. Eark, os#ua . 60t#ens.6 Ancient (istory Encyclo/edia. 0n)ient 4istor( 1n)()lo$edia Ai*ited, 28 0$r. 2011. Web. 28 an. 201!. "#tt$%&&'''.an)ient.eu.)o*&0t#ens&/. .efore de*o)ra)( 'as establis#ed in 0tti)a, 0t#ensC $oor 'ere often $ut into slaver( due to debt. =o fi5 t#ese $roble*s, 3ra)o, an 0t#enian states*an, establis#ed la's to $revent it fro* #a$$ening, but t#ese la's 'ere )onsidered to #ars#. 8olon 'as sent to revise 3ra)oCs la' and t#us, )reated t#e foundation of de*o)ra)(. 0s ti*e 'ent on, 8olonCs la's 'ere *odified into t#e 'orldCs first de*o)ra)(. 0fter 0t#ens defeated t#e Persians at t#e .attle of Earat#on, 0t#ens flouris#ed, onl( to be defeated b( 8$arta during t#e Pelo$onnesian War. Eeiggs, :ussell. 6Cleist#enes ;f 0t#ens OBreek 8tates*anP.6 Encyclo/edia Britannica 6nline. 1n)()lo$edia .ritanni)a, n.d. Web. J0 an. 201!. 3es)ribes #o' Cliest#enes )a*e into $o'er and #is fa*il( life. 0lso #as so*e infor*ation about t#e i*$ortant events t#at #a$$ened to #i* and '#at drove #i* to develo$ de*o)ra)(. =#is 'ebsite gives us i*$ortant ba)kground kno'ledge and )onte5t as to '#at t#e leaders of 0tti)a t#oug#t.

6Notes.6 :otes. N.$., n.d. Web. 26 an. 201!. "#tt$%&&*kat2.'eb.'esle(an.edu&10.neaira&neaira-notes.#t*/. 0 $i)ture of a 'aterG)lo)k, '#i)# 'as used to ti*e t#e $eo$le in t#e diskasteria on t#e a*ount t#e( #ad to talk so t#at t#e( 'ould ea)# get an e9ual sa(. =#is gives us insig#t on t#e 'a( t#at $eo$le used to t#ink ba)k t#en )o*$ared to no'. 6;nline 1t(*olog( 3i)tionar(.6 6nline Etymolo7y Dictionary. N.$., n.d. Web. J1 an. 201!. =#e Breek used to t#e 'ord 6de*okratia6 O $o$ular govern*ent P to *ean de*o)ra)(. =#e 'ord is *ade u$ 'it# 6de*os6 O )o**on $eo$le P and 6kratos6 O rule&strengt# P. 6=#e Peisistratid =(rann( at 0t#ens% Confli)ting 8our)es and :evisionist 4istor( 0t Work.6 Ale/h @ournal. N.$., n.d. Web. 26 an. 201!. 0 $i)ture of t#e )it(. @t gives us insig#t on #o' t#e stru)ture of t#e )it( 'as linked to t#e )#anges in $o'er. 0s 'e )an see fro* t#e $i)ture, t#ere see*s to be onl( a single road leading u$ to t#e building on to$, '#i)# *ig#t #ave been a strategi) $oint. 6=#e Pelo$onnesian War G World 4istor( >or Kids G .( KidsPast.)o*.6 #he Pelo/onnesian War , World (istory 9or 5ids , By 5idsPast.com. N.$., n.d. Web. 26 an. 201!. =#e Pelo$onnesian War 'as instigated b( an 0t#enian general na*ed Peri)les, and t#e result of t#e 'ar left Bree)e ver( 'eak, and t#usl( 0le5ander t#e Breat )ould t#en )o*e b( and )on9uer t#e*. 6Peri)les 0nd :ise ;f 3e*o)ra)(.6 Pericles And 0ise 6f Democracy. N.$., n.d. Web. J1 an. 201!. 15$lained #o' Peri)les 'as in )#arge of t#e 3elian league, '#i)# i*$a)ted #o' 0t#ens 'ould run itCs $oliti)al govern*ent. 4e built a $o'erful nav( and ar*( '#i)# #e used to $rote)t #is )it(, and t#us 0t#enian de*o)ra)( too. 4e $aid )iti2ens '#o $arti)i$ated in t#e dire)t de*o)ra)(. 0 9uote fro* #i*

is% 64aving kno'ledge but la)king t#e $o'er to e5$ress it )learl( is no better t#an never #aving an( ideas at all.6 6Peri)les.6 Pericles. N.$., n.d. Web. J0 an. 201!. Peri)les 'as one of t#e leaders of 0t#ens. 4e #ad a signifi)ant i*$a)t on raising 0t#ens to its golden ti*es. @n fa)t, an)ient great Breek #istorian =#u)(dides $raised Peri)les, na*ing #i* 6as t#e first )iti2en of 0t#ens.6 6P1:@CA18.6 PE0I%;E'. N.$., n.d. Web. J1 an. 201!. 0n i*$ortant states*an to 0t#ens, Peri)les led 0t#ens to itCs #eig#t in $oliti)al $o'er and arts, leading to t#e Peri)lean 0ge. 4e 'as related to t#e de*o)rati) refor*er Cliest#enes, and )ontinued Cliest#enesC $oli)ies after #e died. =#is 'ebsite gives us *ore insig#t on t#e leaders of 0t#ens, and #o' t#e( #andled de*o)ra)(. 6P#ili$ of Ea)edon.6 Phili/ of Aacedon. N.$., n.d. Web. 26 an. 201!. 0n engraving of P#ili$ @@ of Ea)edon. 4e raised 0le5ander t#e Breat and took )ontrol of a seriousl( 'eakened )ountr(. 4e reorgani2ed t#e ar*(, '#i)# led t#e* to #ave a #uge advantage over t#e ot#ers in t#e for*ation of t#e $#alan5. 6Ploigos QRSTUVW.6 Ploi7os. N.$., 8 ;)t. 2010. Web. J0 an. 201!. =#e $i)ture of t#e .oule dis$la(ed #o' t#e 0t#ens 'ere organi2ed. =#e .oule 'as t#e 6$oli)e for)e6 of 0t#ens. Ee*bers#i$ 'as e5)lusive to onl( 50 rando* *e*bers of ea)# of t#e ten tribes. Ee*bers 'ould serve on)e (ear and 'ere not allo'ed to serve again in t#e ne5t (ear. =#e( 'ere not allo'ed an( *ore t#an to serve t'i)e in a lifeti*e. 6Politi)al ;rgani2ation of 0tti)a% 3e*es and =ribal :e$resentation.6 Birth of Democracy: Political 6r7aniBation of Attica. N.$., n.d. Web. J0 an. 201!. "#tt$%&&'''.agat#e.gr&de*o)ra)(&$oliti)al-organi2ation-of-atti)a.#t*l/. =#e ten tribes of 0tti)a 'ere se$arated into t#irds )alled tritt(s, '#i)# 'ere t#en se$arated

into de*es. =#e de*es sent a nu*ber of re$resentatives to t#e )oun)il of 500, or t#e boule, based on t#e si2e of t#e de*e. @n t#e Huries, ea)# tribe #ad an e9ual nu*ber of Hurors. =#is ensured e9ual re$resentation to all of 0tti)a. 6=#e Po$ular Courts.6 Birth of Democracy:. N.$., n.d. Web. J0 an. 201!. "#tt$%&&'''.agat#e.gr&de*o)ra)(&t#e-$o$ular-)ourts.#t*l/. =#e $o$ular )ourts )ontained no less t#an 201 Hurors. =#e( 'ielded unli*ited $o'er in t#e )ourt )ases. 1ver( )iti2en 'as allo'ed to be)o*e a Huror. Eost )ases )a*e to t#e Hurors to de)ide, but before t#is, t#e )ase 'ould be #eard b( t#e *agistrate. 3uring t#at trial, t#e eviden)e used 'ould be sealed for t#e $o$ular Hur(. 6=#e Pr(taneis O15e)utive Co**itteeP.6 Birth of Democracy: #he Prytaneis. N.$., n.d. Web. J0 an. 201!. "#tt$%&&'''.agat#e.gr&de*o)ra)(&t#e-$r(taneis.#t*l/. =#e $r(taneis 'as t#e 15e)utive Co**ittee. @t )onsisted of senators in t#e boule or Coun)il of 500 t#at 'ere in t#e sa*e tribe. =#e( served for around J5 da(s before t#e( 'ere rotated. =#e( 'ere res$onsible for t#e da(GtoGda( ad*inistrations, s)#edules, and order of businesses. =#e $r(taneis *et in t#e t#olos, a round building near t#e bouleuterion. =#ere 'as al'a(s senators $osted in t#e t#olos in )ase of e*ergen)ies. 6=#e :efor*s of Cliest#enes.6 PB'. P.8, n.d. Web. J1 an. 201!. Cliest#enes )reated *an( refor*s, in)luding se$erating t#e ! tribes of 0t#enians into 10 total tribes, ea)# '#o #ad 6 de*es, or lo)al )ourts. @n order to en)ourage unit(, #e also balan)ed t#e de*es in )o*$arison to t#e 0tti)a. =#is 'ebsite $rovides infor*ation on '#at Cliest#enes a)tuall( did. 68olon.6 &reece. N.$., n.d. Web. 26 an. 201!. 8olon 'as on of t#e 8even Wise Een of 0n)ient Bree)e. 4e 'as also an i*$ortant 0t#enian legislator, $#iloso$#er, and

$oet. 4e 'as 0r)#on at one $oint, and *ade ver( bold and radi)al la's. 68olon t#e Aa'giver.6 Birth of Democracy:. N.$., n.d. Web. J1 an. 201!. =#is 'ebsite des)ribes 8olonCs a)#ieve*ents and )ontributions to 0t#enian so)iet(, notabl( 6@X8olonY stood 'it# a *ig#t( s#ield in front of bot# )lasses, and allo'ed neit#er of t#e* to $revail unHustl(6. 4e also )reated t#e foundation for 0t#enian de*o)ra)(, but not t#e a)tual t#ing. =#is 'ebsite allo's us to see #o' a great ar)#on of 0t#ens 'as able to start t#e )it( do'n t#e road of de*o)ra)(. 68our)es of @deas =#at 8#a$ed t#e 0*eri)an Plan of Bovern*ent.6 Dsusd. 2C.ca.us. N.$., n.d. Web. J0 an. 201!. 0t#ens used to be governed b( t#e ri)# )lass, and t#e( )alled t#e*selves t#e Breat Coun)il. Not sur$risingl(, t#e( $assed la's t#at favored t#e 'ealt#(. 8eeking to )#ange, t#e $oor far*ers and $easants of 0t#ens began to $rotest, and *anaged to )onvin)e 0t#enian leaders to )reate a de*o)ra)(, '#ere t#e( )ould vote and $arti)i$ate in t#e govern*ent. 4o'ever, t#e rig#t to $arti)i$ate 'as still restri)ted to a s*all $er)ent of t#e $o$ulation. 6=#e 8$eakers.6 Birth of Democracy:. N.$., n.d. Web. J0 an. 201!. "#tt$%&&'''.agat#e.gr&de*o)ra)(&t#e-s$eakers.#t*l/. =#e s$eakers of t#e Huries usuall( s$oke on t#eir o'n be#alves. ;))asionall(, t#e s$eakers $re$ared s$ee)#es before #and. No trials lasted *ore t#an a da(. =#e s$eakerCs ti*e 'as *anaged t#roug# s)#edules and 'ater )lo)ks )alled kle$s(drai. =#e s$eaker 'ould #ave to end #is s$ee)# before t#e 'ater )lo)k ran out. 8#o'ed t#e res$onsibilit( of t#e s$eaker during t#e 0t#enian )ourt )ase. 6=#o*as :. Eartin, 0n ;vervie' of Classi)al Breek 4istor( fro* E()enae to 0le5ander.6 #homas 0. Aartin, An 68er8iew of %lassical &ree (istory from Aycenae to AleDander,#he ;ate Archaic %ity,'tate, Persuasion and %leisthenic

Democracy. N.$., n.d. Web. J1 an. 201!. =#e )ontent in)ludes #o' Cliest#enes develo$ed 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)( b( using 8olonCs basis for de*o)ra)(. 0s an aristo)rat looking for $o$ular su$$ort, #e develo$ed a s(ste* t#at #e t#oug#t t#e ordinar( *an 'anted. =#is 'ebsite gives us t#e )onte5t and t#e gears in '#i)# 0t#enian de*o)ra)( 'as first offi)iall( develo$ed. 6Winged 8andals% 4istor(% 0t#enian Politi)s and Bovern*ent.6 Win7ed 'andals: (istory: Athenian Politics and &o8ernment. N.$., n.d. Web. 1F Nov. 201J. "#tt$%&&'''.ab).net.au&arts&'ingedsandals&#istor(5.#t*/. 0t#ens 'as a dire)t de*o)ra)(, in '#i)# all )iti2ens took $la)e in all govern*ental de)ision. 0t#ens #ad a )oun)il of 500 )alled 6boule6. =#e boule 'as $i)ked t#roug# a lotter( of all )iti2ens. =#e Hob of t#e boule 'as to *ake la's for 0t#ens. =#ese la's 'ere t#en $ut to vote b( t#e 0sse*bl(. =#e 0sse*bl( )o*$osed of all )iti2ens over 20. @n addition, Huries 'ere $i)ked t#roug# lotter(. Aike toda(, t#ese Huries de)ided '#et#er a $erson 'as guilt( or not. @f found guilt(, t#e $erson #ad to $a( a fine or be $ut to deat#. 0lso, 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)( #ad ostra)is*. =#e )iti2ens 'ould $ut na*es of $eo$le '#o t#e( 'anted to get rid of on $ie)e of $otter(. @f t#ere 'ere *ore t#an 6000 $ie)es of $otter( sub*itted, t#e na*e if t#e *ost votes #ad to leave t#e )ountr( for 10 (ears. Zivkovi), 3a*ir 8. 64istor( in t#e Classroo*.6 ミEミ。ミ「ミEミ ミEミEミE ミ」 ミ」ミァミEミEミEミEミヲ ミE. N.$., 2! 3e). 2011. Web. J0 an. 201!. =#e si5G$art video e5$lains t#e e*ergen)e of de*o)ra)( in 0t#ens. =#e idea of de*o)ra)( flouris#ed, but eventuall( )a*e to an end. =oda(Cs de*o)ra)( is based on t#e t#ree *ain ideals t#at give all )iti2ens libert(, e9ualit(, and freedo* of s$ee)#.=#is is '#at be)a*e kno'n as t#e first dire)t de*o)ra)(. =#e 0t#ens re$la)ed a set of rulers 'it# t#e

ruling b( t#e $eo$le. 19ualit( 'as e*$#asi2ed greatl(.=#e )#airs for t#e asse*bl( did not de$end on a )ertain )lass, but 'el)o*ed all )iti2ens to a )ertain a*ount. =#e boule 'el)o*ed 500 *en, '#i)# 'ould t#en )reate an agenda for t#e asse*bl( to dis)uss. =#e( develo$ed a lotter( s(ste* t#at 'ould give ever(one an e9ual )#an)e and )reated se)ret ballots to avoid briber(. Pictures 60n)ient Breek 3e*o)ra)( P#otos.6 4istor(.)o*. 0L1 =elevision Net'orks, n.d. Web. J1 an. 201!. 0 $i)ture of t#e )it( of 0t#ens '#i)# #el$s us visuali2e our de*o)ra)(. 6Counterlig#tCs Pe)uliars.6 : 6ctober C+22. N.$., n.d. Web. 0F 0$r. 201!. 0 $i)ture of t#e 0t#enian lot s(ste*, t#e 'a( it 'as before de*o)ra)(. 63e*o)ra)(, a .rief 4istor(.6 No Candidate. N.$., n.d. Web. 1< an. 201!. "#tt$%&&'''.no)andidate.org.uk&de*o)ra)(GaGbriefG#istor(&/. =#e $i)ture de$i)ts a *an reading a s)roll )ontaining la's and su)# for t#e asse*bl( do de)ide u$on. =#e $i)tures #el$s visuali2es t#e *eetings t#e 0t#enians #eld. 63e*o)ra)( @n 0t#ens.6 .(rneat#ens. N.$., n.d. Web. 26 an. 201!. "#tt$%&&b(rneat#ens.'ord$ress.)o*&de*o)ra)(GinGat#ens&/. =#is is t#e boule, or t#e )oun)il of 500. =#e( 'ould *eet to dis)uss i*$ortant and dail( govern*ent a)tivities, and ke$t t#e )ountr( running da( to da(. =#is $i)ture #el$ed us envision #o' t#e( 'ould *eet. 61))lesia Oan)ient 0t#ensP.6 Wiki$edia. Wiki*edia >oundation, 2! an. 201!. Web. 26 an. 201!. "#tt$%&&en.'iki$edia.org&'iki&1))lesia-Oan)ient-0t#ensP/. =#is is a $i)ture of t#e Pn(5, '#i)# t#e ekklesia *et on. @t #el$ed us envision '#at kind of o$enGair environ*ent t#e )iti2ens of an)ient 0t#ens debated in. @*agine t#e raised

voi)es in su)# a )lear $la)e, and one )an see '#( t#e( )#ose t#at #ill to debate on. 6Ber テコ sia.H$g %% )*ontteiro.6 Ber テコ sia.H$g %% )*ontteiro. N.$., n.d. Web. J0 an. 201!. =#e $i)ture of t#e 3ikasteria illustrates t#e )iti2ens of 0t#ens in a )ourt #ouse and #o' t#e )iti2ens 'ere organi2ed. =#is $rovided us 'it# a $i)ture a$$ro5i*atel( #o' *an( $eo$le t#ere 'ere and #o' t#e )iti2ens 'ould $artGtake in t#ese *eetings. 6Boogle @*age :esult for 4tt$%&&'''.greene'ave.)o*&'$G )ontent&u$loads&2012&06&Peisistratos.H$g.6 Boogle @*age :esult for 4tt$%&&'''.greene'ave.)o*&'$G)ontent&u$loads&2012&06&Peisistratos.H$g. N.$., n.d. Web. 21 an. 201!. =#is 'as a $i)ture of a statue of Peisistratos. Peisistratos 'as t#e one '#o be)a*e t#e first t(rant of 0t#ens. =#is $i)ture allo'ed u$ to get a better vie' of t#e *an '#o took over 8olonCs $oliti)al s(ste*. 64istor( of 3e*o)ra)(.6 Wiki$edia. Wiki*edia >oundation, 21 an. 201!. Web. J0 an. 201!. 0 $i)ture of t#e 0)ro$olis 'it# so*e $eo$le *eeting on an o$enGair $latfor*. =#is s#o's us t#e beaut( of 0t#enian stru)ture. 6@onian :evolt.6 Wiki$edia. Wiki*edia >oundation, 2! 3e). 201J. Web. 25 an. 201!. 0 Breek #o$lite and a Persian 'arrior are battling it out on an engraving. @tCs a Persian $ie)e of art be)ause t#e Persian 'arrior is 'inning, and t#e Breek #o$lite is losing t#e battle. os#. 6 os#Cs .log.6 0n)ient Bree)e. N.$., n.d. Web. 26 an. 201!. "#tt$%&&Hos#d'e.edublogs.org&/. 0 $i)ture of a )ourtroo* t#at t#e diskasteria *ig#t #ave debated in. @t gives us insig#t on '#at t($e of building t#at t#e old *en 'ould #ave debated in, and t#e stout stru)ture and raised roof signifies #o' *u)# 'eig#t t#eir 'ords )arried.

6Kleroteria. 0t#ens 0gora Euseu*.6 5leroteria. Athens A7ora Auseum. N.$., n.d. Web. 06 0$r. 201!. 0 $i)ture of t#e kleroteria, t#e voting *a)#ine t#at 0t#enians used. Books Carradi)e, @an.%oina7e and Administration in the Athenian and Persian Em/ires: #he :inth 6Dford 'ym/osium on %oina7e and Aonetary (istory. ;5ford, 1ngland% ..0.:., 1<8F. Print.=alks about t#e effe)ts of t#e govern*ent on t#e )oinage )ir)ulating t#roug#out t#e kingdo* *ainl(. 4o'ever, reading t#roug# it, it $rovides #ints at t#e stru)ture and )ulture of 0t#ens and t#e influen)es of 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)( at t#e ti*e. 4ansen, Eogens 4er*an. #he Athenian Assembly in the A7e of Demosthenes. ;5ford% .. .la)k'ell, 1<8F. Print. =#e 0t#enian de*o)ra)( of t#e fift# and fourt# )enturies ..C. is t#e *ost fa*ous and $er#a$s *ost nearl( $erfe)t e5a*$le of dire)t de*o)ra)(. Covering t#e $eriod !0JGJ22 ..C., Eogens 4er*an 4ansen fo)uses on t#e )ru)ial last t#irt( (ears, '#i)# )oin)ided 'it# t#e $oliti)al )areer of 3e*ost#enes. 4ansen distinguis#es bet'een t#e )it(Cs seven $oliti)al institutions% t#e 0sse*bl(, t#e no*ot#etai, t#e Peo$leCs Court, t#e boards of *agistrates, t#e Coun)il of >ive 4undred, t#e 0reo$agos, and #o boulo*enos. 4e dis)usses #o' 0t#enians )on)eived libert( bot# as t#e abilit( to $arti)i$ate in t#e de)isionG *aking $ro)ess and as t#e rig#t to live 'it#out o$$ression fro* t#e state or ot#er )iti2ens. 19ualit( 'as )on)eived of as an e9ualit( not of nature but of o$$ortunit(. ones, 0. 4. E. Athenian Democracy. ;5ford% .. .la)k'ell, 1<5F. Print. 0 )lassi) brief a))ount of t#e 'orkings of t#e 0t#enian 3e*o)ra)( in t#e age of Peri)les and after. Kirb(, o#n =. World 1ras, Molu*e 6% Classi)al Breek Civili2ation, 800GJ2J ..C.1.

3etroit% Bale Brou$, 2001. Print. 3es)ribes 0t#ens as a li*ited de*o)ra)(? t#e first de*o)ra)( in t#e 'orld. 1ver( *ale )iti2en over age t'ent( after t'o (ears of *ilitar( servi)e )ould serve in t#e 1kklesia, '#o *ade de)isions regarding la's b( ele)ting $anels to *ake t#e*, ele)t generals, and initiate $oliti)al trials.. 0not#er institution of t#e de*o)ra)( 'as t#e .oule, '#i)# )onsisted of 50 *en fro* ea)# of t#e ten tribes of 0t#ens, and t#e( *et ever( da( to oversee all t#at 'ent on in t#e )it(, fro* $la(s and entertain*ent to *arkets and e)ono*i)s. =#e t#ird and final $oliti)al asse*bl( 'as t#e 3ikasteria, and t#e( 'ere t#e )ourts of 0t#ens, but not all )ases 'ere $ut t#roug# as t#e( )ould )#oose '#i)# ones t#e( 'anted to Hudge. Nardo, 3on. 0n)ient Civili2ations. Mol. 1. 8an 3iego, C0% Breen#aven, 2002. Print. NardoCs book $rovides a brief overvie' of an)ient Bree)e fro* !,000 ..C.1 to !85 ..C.1. =#e 8tone 0ge 'as )onsidered one of t#e *ost stressful ti*es in #istor(. 4u*ans struggled to survive in #ostile )onditions, '#ile kee$ing t#eir traditions. Nardo, 3on. Classi)al Bree)e and :o*e. 8an 3iego, C0% Breen#aven, 2002. Print. 8$arta and 0t#ens led t#e Breeks t#roug# a su))essful invasion against t#e Persians. .e)ause of t#eir leading role Bree)e be)a*e i*$erial. 0fter t#e Pelo$onnesian War, Ea)edonia s$ontaneousl( rose to $o'er. 0le5ander )arries out P#ili$Cs $lan of invading Persia. Nu*erous vi)tories later, 0le5ander )reated t#e largest e*$ire t#e 'orldCs ever seen. Po'ell, 0nton. Athens and '/arta: %onstructin7 &ree Political and 'ocial (istory from "F* B%. Portland, ;r.% 0reo$agiti)a, 1<88. Print. 0 #andbook to t#e *ain to$i)s of Breek #istor( in t#e )lassi)al $eriod. @t deals not onl( 'it# t#e establis#ed areas

of $oliti)al #istor(, but also 'it# so*e of t#e *ost i*$ortant as$e)ts of Breek so)ial #istor( and #istori)al *et#ods to t#e *ain to$i)s of Breek #istor( in t#e )lassi)al $eriod.