SIMPLE SENTENCE A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete

thought. In the following simple sentences, subjects are in yellow, and verbs are in green.

A. Some students like to study in the mornings. B. uan and Arturo play football every afternoon. !. Alicia goes to the library and studies every day. "he three examples above are all simple sentences. #ote that sentence B contains a compound subject, and sentence ! contains a compound verb. Simple sentences, therefore, contain a subject and verb and express a complete thought, but they can also contain a compound subjects or verbs. COMPOUND SENTENCE A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. "he coordinators are as follows$ for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. %&elpful hint$ "he first letter of each of the coordinators spells FANBOYS.' (xcept for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma. In the following compound sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the coordinators and the commas that precede them are in red.

A. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak (nglish. B. Alejandro played football, so )aria went shopping. !. Alejandro played football, for )aria went shopping. "he above three sentences are compound sentences. (ach sentence contains two independent clauses, and they are joined by a coordinator with a comma preceding it. #ote how the conscious use of coordinators can change the relationship between the clauses. Sentences B and !, for example, are identical except for the coordinators. In sentence B, which action occurred first* +bviously, ,Alejandro played football, first, and as a conse-uence, ,)aria went shopping. In sentence !, ,)aria went shopping, first. In sentence !, ,Alejandro played football, because, possibly, he didn.t have anything else to do, for or because ,)aria went shopping., &ow can the use of other coordinators change the relationship between the two clauses* /hat implications would the use of ,yet, or ,but, have on the meaning of the sentence* COMPLEX SENTENCE A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. In the following complex sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the subordinators and their commas %when re-uired' are in red.

"he house which Abraham 1incoln was born in is still standing. The subjects. After they finished studying. uan and )aria went to the movies. "he town where I grew up is in the 2nited States.A. COMPLEX SENTENCES / ADJECTIVE CLAUSES Finally. 0. /hen a complex sentence begins with a subordinator such as sentences A and 0. and (. and sentence ( begins with the independent clause which contains no comma. In sentence (. !. and in these sentences. no comma is re-uired. If a comma is placed before the subordinators in sentences B. "he teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error. /hen the independent clause begins the sentence with subordinators in the middle as in sentences B. B. uan and )aria went to the movies after they finished studying. it is wrong. !. A. "he book that onathan read is on the shelf. !. !. "he woman who%m' my mom talked to sells cosmetics. a comma is re-uired at the end of the dependent clause. What are the different styles of sentences? . there will be no pause when the independent clause begins the sentence. #ote that sentences 0 and ( are the same except sentence 0 begins with the dependent clause which is followed by a comma. "he students are studying because they have a test tomorrow. verbs. (. and (. 0. and subordinators are marked the same as in the previous sentences. and experienced listeners of (nglish will often hear a slight pause there. however. sentences containing adjective clauses (or dependent clauses) are also complex because they contain an independent clause and a dependent clause. B. he forgot to give the teacher the last page. /hen he handed in his homework. "he comma after the dependent clause in sentence 0 is re-uired. the independent clauses are also underlined.

. Bergey enjoys teaching writing and she wants her students to succeed. Bergey enjoys teaching writing. /ompound sentences . She teaches writing. If your writing only contains simple sentences. Bergey. . "+ample: Mrs. POSI I!"#$ %O&I'())) I *now you can do better than that) Simple sentences . Bergey wants her students to succeed. Mrs. What are Compound Sentences? hey .oin ideas of e0ual importance. becomes: Mrs. Bergey enjoys teaching writing. you will need to vary the styles of sentences that you use.oin two or more independent clauses -simple sentences. Mrs. contain only one independent clause. your writing will be very choppy: I like Mrs. .In order for your writing to be interesting. She is my teacher. .

oined by and. 1a teacher at wentynine Palms "lementary School1 is not a .! compound sentence contains two sentences . hese words are called con.oin one or more dependent clauses to the independent clause. ! comple" sentence contains a clause -a statement. Mrs. or but. /ompound sentences e+press more than one complete thought. or. /omple+ sentences are useful when your writing includes some ideas that are more important than others. What are Comple" Sentences? /omple+ sentences . Bergey a teacher at #wentynine $alms %lementary School enjoys teaching writing. his is in addition to the complete sentence.unctions. that is not a complete sentence.

"The train" = subject. Compoun . Joe waited for the train. !n Comple" A common weakness in writing is the lack o varied sentences.. "too!" = verb #. Simple Sentences A simple sentence has the most basic elements that make it a sentence# a subject. . compound. "arrived" and "left" = co "ound verb Tip& $f you use any si "le sentences in an essay. and complex""can help you vary the sentences in your writing. a verb. $ loo!ed for Mary and Sa antha at the bus station. . "Mary and Sa antha" = co "ound subject. Mary and Sa antha too! the bus. "Joe" = subject. "was" = verb 3.complete sentence and would not stand on its own. "$" = subject. It depends on the rest of the sentence. 1. you should consider revisin' so e of the sentences into co "ound or co "le( sentences )e("lained below*. "loo!ed" = verb %. !ecoming aware o three general types o sentences""simple. $xamples o simple sentences include the ollowing# 1. "waited" = verb 2. The most e ective writing uses a variety o the sentence types explained below. "Mary and Sa antha" = co "ound subject. 2I' for succesful writers: 3se a variety of sentences styles in your writing) Sentences: Simple.hat is why it is sometimes called a 1dependent1 clause. and a completed thought. Mary and Sa antha arrived at the bus station before noon and left on the bus before $ arrived. The train was late.

&t is re erred to as %independent% because. . . 'oordinating conjunctions are easy to remember i you think o the words %FA( !)*+%# • • • • • • • For And Nor But Or Yet So $xamples o compoun sentences include the ollowing# 1. without indicating how the two parts o a sentence are logically related. and they left on the bus before $ arrived. so $ did not see the at the bus station. Joe waited for the train. only adds one independent clause to another. Mary and Sa antha left on the bus before $ arrived. but compound sentences o ten are overused. you should consider revisin' so e of the co "le( sentences )e("lained below*. and other elements help lengthen simple sentences. while it might be part o a compound or complex sentence. 2. 3. into Tip& $f you rely heavily on co "ound sentences in an essay. 'learer and more speci ic relationships can be established through the use o complex sentences. A simple sentence can also be re erred to as an in epen ent cl!use.% or example. it can also stand by itsel as a complete sentence. #. but simple sentences o ten are short. The use o too many simple sentences can make writing %choppy% and can prevent the writing rom lowing smoothly. 'oordinating conjunctions are use ul or connecting sentences. $ loo!ed for Mary and Sa antha at the bus station. Mary and Sa antha arrived at the bus station before noon. prepositional phrases (such as %at the bus station%). The word %and. Too many compound sentences that use %and% can weaken writing. they sometimes do not indicate much o a relationship. compound verbs.hile coordinating conjunctions can indicate some type o relationship between the two independent clauses in the sentence. Compound Sentences A compoun sentence re ers to a sentence made up o two independent clauses (or complete sentences) connected to one another with a coo# in!tin$ con%unction.The use o compound subjects. 2. but the train was late. but they arrived at the station before noon and left on the bus before $ arrived.

or complete sentence. !elow are some o the most common subordinating conjunctions# • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • after althou'h as because before even thou'h if since thou'h unless until when whenever whereas wherever while A complex sentence joins an independent clause with one or more dependent clauses. $xamples o • • • epen ent cl!uses include the ollowing# because Mary and Sa antha arrived at the bus station before noon while he waited at the train station after they left on the bus -ependent clauses such as those above c!nnot stand alone as a sentence. a co a should be used to se"arate the two clauses. ollowed by the independent clause. as in the ollowing# Tip& +hen the de"endent clause co es first. A dependent clause is similar to an independent clause. but it lacks one o the elements that would make it a complete sentence. Complex Sentences A comple" sentence is made up o an independent clause and one or more epen ent cl!uses connected to it. but they can be added to an independent clause to orm a complex sentence. The dependent clauses can go irst in the sentence. .3. -ependent clauses begin with su&o# in!tin$ con%unctions.

There is nothing wrong with beginning a sentence with %because." /eriodic sentences can be es"ecially effective because the co "leted thou'ht occurs at the end of it. The short answer is %no. Mary and Sa antha reali-ed that Joe was waitin' at the train station after they left on the bus. 'onversely. 'omplex sentences are o ten more e ective than compound sentences because a complex sentence indicates clearer and more speci ic relationships between the main parts o the sentence. not to begin a new sentence. a co a should not be used to se"arate the two clauses.fter they left on the bus. +hile he waited at the train station. Joe reali-ed that the train was late. Beginning Sentences with "And" or "Because" S'oul (ou &e$in ! sentence )it' *!n * o# *&ut* +o# one o. S'oul (ou &e$in ! sentence )it' *&ec!use*. such sentences can be used e ectively.1. $ did not see the at the station because Mary and Sa antha arrived at the bus station before noon. These words generally are used to join together parts o a sentence.% %or.% %but. The ter periodic sentence is used to refer to a co "le( sentence be'innin' with a de"endent clause and endin' with an inde"endent clause. & you use sentences beginning with one o the coordinating conjunctions. The word %be ore. they are sometimes used or emphasis. the independent clauses can go irst in the sentence. 3.% or instance.% /erhaps some students are told not to begin a sentence with %because% to avoid sentence ragments (something like %!ecause 0ary and +amantha arrived at the bus station be ore noon% is a sentence ragment). at the station. Mary and Sa antha reali-ed that Joe was waitin' at the train station. as in the ollowing# Tip& +hen the inde"endent clause co es first. so the first "art of the sentence can build u" to the eanin' that co es at the end. $ did not see the 2.% *ou should avoid beginning a sentence with %and. t'e ot'e# coo# in!tin$ con%unctions-. as in "+hile he waited at the train station. but it is per ectly acceptable to begin a sentence with %because% as long as the sentence is complete (as in %!ecause 0ary and +amantha arrived at the bus station be ore noon. !ecause sentences beginning with these words stand out. Joe reali-ed that the train was late. 2. 3.%) . Joe reali-ed that the train was late while he waited at the train station. A word such as %although% conveys a more complex relationship than a word such as %and% conveys. . ollowed by the dependent clause. tells readers that one thing occurs be ore another. . you should use these sentences sparingly and care ully.owever.% or the other coordinating conjunctions. & did not see them at the station. .ecause Mary and Sa antha arrived at the bus station before noon. 1.

last +aturday1s match. • • • • It's starting to rain // and I have left my deck-chair outside. there are three basic tenses# present. • • • • The suspect denied that he had been in the neighbourhood . 1last +aturday1s match1. You won't persuade me to stay no matter how hard you try. &n all these examples. when the subject is removed we are le t with a phrase " an utterance which has no inite verb. A compoun sentence is one in which contains two or more co"ordinating parts. complex. and bought a basket of fruit. the subordinate clause is emphasised.e 2ean Ve#& am won is P#e ic!te the head o this department. are all phrases not clauses. in the house. &n the examples which ollow. and 1the head o this department1. and compound. indicating completed action3 each has a progressive orm. although it was raining. past. I went out shopping. A simple sentence is one which contains phrases rather than clauses. &n all the examples above. indicating ongoing action that will be completed at some de inite time. I left the restaurant when I saw him arrive. A simple sentence contains one subject and one object or predicate. &n $nglish. $ach has a per ect orm. The film we saw last night // was interesting and en oyable. !e have no red towels // but we have plenty of green ones. and uture. indicating ongoing action3 and each has a per ect progressive orm. The expressions 1in the house1. . Despite the fact that I had ordered the meal. For example# Su&%ect & . A complex sentence contains one or more subordinate clauses.There are various kinds o sentences " simple. the removal o the main clause leaves another clause (an utterance with a inite verb) and not a phrase.ere is a list o examples o these tenses and their de initions# .

The s"ea!er of the 7ouse will finish her ter in May of 1559. 3rnest 7e the Sea. Me!nin$ 2nchan'in' action 4ecurrin' action +ides"read truth 3very year. &t can also represent a widespread truth." • • 0o#m 4e'ular 6ed "ast $rre'ular for in'way wrote "The 8ld Man and Future Tense Future tense expresses an action or situation that will occur in the uture. . is. • • The uture tense can also be expressed by using !m.$$ ended in 15#%. or !#e with $oin$ to. or reoccurring action or situation that exists only now. /b is the che ical sy bol for lead. 0ost past tense verbs end in /e .+. The irregular verbs have speci!l p!st tense .Simple Forms /resent ta!e0s /ast too! Progressive Forms a 0is0are ta!in' was0were ta!in' will be ta!in' Perfect Forms have0has ta!en had ta!en will have ta!en Perfect Progressive Forms have0has been ta!in' had been ta!in' will have been ta!in' 1uture will0shall ta!e • • • • Simple Forms Present Tense /resent tense expresses an unchanging. E"!mple +. E"!mple The ountains are tall and white. repeated. This tense is ormed by using )ill5s'!ll with the simple .o#m o the verb. the school council elects new e bers.o#ms which must be memori4ed. • • Past Tense /ast tense expresses an action or situation that was started and inished in the past.

Past Progressi e Tense • • • /ast progressive tense describes a past action which was happening when another action occurred.e can also use the p#esent tense orm )it' !n ! 1e#& or adverbial phrase to show uture time. The "resident s"ea!s to orrow. &rregular verbs have speci!l p!st p!#ticiples that must be memori4ed. This tense is ormed by using )!s5)e#e with the verb orm ending in /in$.This tense is ormed by using '!s5'!1e with the p!st p!#ticiple o the verb.ontinues in the "resent +o en have voted in "residential elections since 1521. 0ost past participles end in /e .t an indefinite ti e . The sociolo'ist is e(a inin' the effects that racial discri ination has on society. The e("lorer was e("lainin' the lastest discovery in 3'y"t when "rotests be'an on the streets.• • • • • The sur'eon is 'oin' to "erfor the first by"ass in Minnesota. .* • • • Progressi e Forms Present Progressi e Tense /resent progressive tense describes an ongoing action that is happening at the same time the statement is written. Future Progressi e Tense • • • Future progressive tense describes an ongoing or continuous action that will take place in the uture. This tense is ormed by using )ill &e or s'!ll &e with the verb orm ending in /in$. . • • • • • • Per!ect Forms Present Per!ect Tense /resent per ect tense describes an action that happened at an inde inite time in the past or that began in the past and continues in the present. Jones will be "resentin' on'oin' research on se(ist lan'ua'e ne(t wee!. )To orrow is a future ti e adverb. E"!mple The researchers have traveled to to collect ore si'nificant data. This tense is ormed by using !m5is5!#e with the verb orm ending in /in$. :r. any countries in order Me!nin$ .

the students had been "artici"atin' in Future Per!ect Progressi e any e(tracurricular activities. . This tense is ormed by using )ill '!1e with the p!st p!#ticiple o the verb. Future Per!ect Tense • • • Future per ect tense describes an action that will occur in the uture be ore some other action.• • Past Per!ect Tense /ast per ect tense describes an action that took place in the past be ore another past action. The . This tense is ormed by using '! &een and the p#esent pe#. 2o) o )e m!3e t'e Simple 0utu#e Tense.y the ti e the troo"s arrived. the co bat 'rou" will have s"ent several wee!s waitin'. . lin'uists will have been studyin' and definin' the $ndo63uro"ean lan'ua'e fa ily for ore than 2<< years.ect o the verb (the verb orm ending in /in$). ongoing action that was completed be ore some other past action.38 has been considerin' a transfer to the state of Te(as where "rofits would be lar'er. • • • • • • Per!ect Progressi e Forms Present Per!ect Progressi e /resent per ect progressive tense describes an action that began in the past. . . This tense is ormed by using '! with the p!st p!#ticiple o the verb.y the ti e the troo"s arrive. ongoing action that will occur be ore some speci ied uture time. • Simple Future Tense I will sing The simple . This tense is ormed by using '!s5'!1e &een and the p#esent p!#ticiple o the verb (the verb orm ending in /in$).utu#e tense is o ten called )ill. This tense is ormed by using )ill '!1e &een and the p#esent p!#ticiple o the verb (the verb orm ending in /in$). • • • Future per ect progressive tense describes a uture.y the year 2<2<. because we make the simple uture tense with the modal auxiliary )ill. and may continue into the uture. continues in the present. the war had ended. . Past Per!ect Progressi e • • • /ast per ect progressive tense describes a past.efore the bud'et cuts.

we insert not between the auxiliary verb and main verb. at school to orrow.hen we use the simple uture tense in speaking. we o ten contract the subject and auxiliary verb# $ will you will $All youAll . on ti e@ dinner@ 6 @ @ +e +ill +ill will you they not leave arrive want . For 6uestion sentences. before e. 7ook at these example sentences with the simple uture tense# sub!e ct = = 6 $ ?ou She au"iliar# verb will will will not main verb o"en finish be the door. we exchange the su&%ect and !u"ili!#( 1e#&. yet.The structure o the simple uture tense is# subjec t = au(iliary verb +$>> invariable will = ain verb base V For negative sentences in the simple uture tense.

. we contract with )on4t. we had no irm plan be ore speaking. The decision is made !t t'e time o.he will she will it will we will they will heAll sheAll itAll weAll theyAll For negative sentences in the simple uture tense. spe!3in$. "o Plan . . +e will see what we can do to hel" you. Maybe we$ll sta# in and watc% television toni'ht. 7ook at these examples# • • • 7old on. .e use the simple uture tense when there is no plan or decision to do something be ore we speak.e make the decision spontaneously at the time o speaking. like this# $ will not you will not he will not she will not it will not we will not they will not $ wonAt you wonAt he wonAt she wonAt it wonAt we wonAt they wonAt 2o) o )e use t'e Simple 0utu#e Tense.e o ten use the simple uture tense with the verb to t'in3 be ore it# • • $ t%in& $All 'o to the 'y to orrow. $$ll get a "en. $ t%in& $ will have a holiday ne(t year. &n these examples.

$A 'oin' sho""in'. 'ill you be at wor! to orrow@ Bote that when we have a "lan or intention to do so ethin' in the future. . such as the present continuous tense or going to. we usually use other tenses or e("ressions.hen the main verb is &e. $xamples# • • • $$ll be in >ondon to orrow. we can use the simple uture tense even i we have a irm plan or decision be ore speaking. there is no irm plan. +ho do you thin! will get the job@ Be . Prediction . .ere are some examples# • • • $t will rain to orrow. /eo"le won$t go to Ju"iter before the 22nd century. .e are saying )'!t )e t'in3 )ill '!ppen.e o ten use the simple uture tense to make a prediction about the uture.• $ donAt t%in& $All buy that car. Again. $ won$t be very lon'.