Assignment On

Organization Behavior
Topic: Organizational Culture

Prepared for
Ms. Fahima Mehjabeen ecturer !epartment of Business "dministration #tamford $niversit% Bangladesh

Prepared B%

Mithun Cha&rabort% '!: ()(*+(),

#ubmission date: -(.**.-(*-

differentiation. And there’s the rub. scholars have established abundant links between organizational culture and organizational performance. they have been able to survive " despite incredible competition " as well as venture into new and profitable markets. (ome organizations are effective through focusing on themselves and their internal processes")*f we improve our efficiency and do things right. The spatial implications for each type are presented so that workspace planners . we will be successful in the marketplace. integration. so this is where we will differentiate ourselves. This typology reflects the range of organizational characteristics across two dimensions that were found critical to organizational effectiveness. change. assump$ tions. Four Organizational Culture T!"e# Acknowledging that organizational culture is an important aspect for space planners. artifacts. !ut in order to use culture strategically. ompete reate %adhocracy&. and behaviors. While previously businesses were either unaware of culture’s importance or believed it too difficult to manage. This means that some organizations emphasize adaptation. ulture is a comple# issue that essentially includes all of a group’s shared values. THE COMPETING VALUES FRAMEWORK The first dimension places the values of fle#ibility. beliefs. !y leveraging their culture of innovation toward product as well as internal processes. ollaborate %clan&. and dynamism at one end of the scale with stability. order. The second value dimension is marked by internal orientation. This is something that Apple omputer gets. this paper provides an overview of four organizational culture types. and ontrol %hierarchy&. and rivalry on the other. itigroup. predictable. and mechanistic processes %like 'A(A. and most universities&. and control on the other.Organizational Culture Through decades of empirical research. attitudes. a company first needs to understand its culture. today they recognize that it can be used for competitive advantage.+ Others e#cel by focusing on the market or competition ")Our rivals have weak customer service. and organic processes %like most start$up companies& while others are effective in emphasizing stable. discretion. %market&. and unity at one end of the scale with e#ternal orientation.

coordinate. they are defined by stability and control as well as internal focus and integration.might be able to interpret the results of an organizational culture assessment in their process of designing environments that support the way companies work and represent themselves Fle/ibilit% Clan 'nternal Force "dhocrac% 0/ternal force 1ierarch% Mar&et #tabilit% Cultural Model CONTROL $HIERARCH%& -ierarchical organizations share similarities with the stereotypical large. /ood e#amples of companies with hierarchical cultures are 0c1onald’s %think standardization and efficiency& and government agencies like the 1epartment of 0otor 2ehicles %think rules and bureaucracy&. bureaucratic corporation. and monitor people and processes. control. and a well$defined structure for authority and decision making. As in the values matri#. . having many layers of management" . As well.ffective leaders in hierarchical cultures are those that can organize. They value standardization.

This began largely because of the competitive challenges from overseas that forced American companies to search for a more effective business approach.lectric. optimizes stability and control through rules. fle#ibility and discretion rather than the stability and control of ompete %market& organizations. regulators. contractors. etc. American corporations began to take note of the different way they approached business. simply. they would be sold.apanese companies structured their companies and approached problems Their ollaborate %clan& organizations operated more like families "hence the name"and they valued cohesion. consultants. -e famously announced that if businesses divisions were not first or second in their markets then. ompete %market& organizations are focused on relationships"more specifically. With their outward focus. COMPETE $MARKET& While most ma4or American companies throughout the 56th and much of the 78th centuries believed a hierarchical organization was most effective. group . and specialized 4ob functions. This basic under$ standing affected the way that . While ontrol %hierarchy& operating procedures. With the success of many . the late 5698s gave rise to another popular approach" ompete %market& organizations. is a good e#ample of a ompete %market& organization. Their corporate culture was %and still largely is& highly competitive where performance results speak louder than process. Through effective e#ternal relations they feel that they can best achieve success. customers. These companies are similar to the ontrol %hierarchy& in that they value stability and control: 3ord 0otor ompany with their seventeen levels"is typical of a hierarchical organizational structure.O . . >nlike American national culture. /eneral . legislators. -owever. unions. which is founded upon individualism. a humane working environment.apanese firms had a more team$centered approach. transactions"with suppliers. standard ompete %market& organizations are concerned with competitiveness and productivity through emphasis on partnerships and positioning.ack Welch.apanese firms in the late 56<8s and 56=8s. COLLA'ORATE $CLAN& *n the values matri# ollaborate %clan& are similar to ontrol %hierarchy& in that there is ollaborate %clan& emphasize ontrol %hierarchy& and an inward focus with concern for integration. under the leader $ ship of former . instead of an inward focus they have an e#ternal orientation and they value differentiation over integration.

With the advent of the *nformation Age. a new approach developed to deal with the fast$ paced and volatile business environment. A good e#ample of a ollaborate %clan& in American business is all$natural toothpastes. they do not share the same inward focus. (uccess now was envisioned in terms of innovation and creativity with a future$forward posture. Their ability to @uickly develop new services and capture market share has made them leaders in the marketplace and forced less nimble competition to play catch$up. suppliers. grew the company to respect relationships with coworkers. Adhocracy organizations value fle#ibility. they aim to provide their employees with )a safe and fulfilling environment and an opportunity to grow and learn. adaptability. and loyalty.+ Typical of ollaborate %clan& cultures. reate %adhocracy& in their e#ternal focus and concern for SPATIAL IMPLICATIONS (ince each of these organizational types is distinguished by different attitudes. and other hygiene products.commitment. (ocial. reate %adhocracy& are similar to ollaborate %clan& in that they emphasize fle#ibility and discretion: however. and new relationships"with little e#pectation that these will endure. economic. taking advantage of entrepreneurial software engineers and cutting$edge processes and technologies. CREATE $A(HOCRAC%& *n the values matri# *nstead they are like differentiation. ompanies were made up of semi?autonomous teams that had the ability to hire and fire their own members and employees were encouraged to participate in determining how things would get done. agents. and technological changes made older corporate attitudes and tactics less efficient. new services. customers. A ollaborate %clan& organization. and the environment. soaps. and thrive in what would have earlier been viewed as unmanageable chaos. An entrepreneurial spirit reigns where profit lies in finding new opportunities to develop new products. behaviors. According to their company statement of beliefs. with its emphasis on . values. owners. -igh$tech companies like /oogle are prototypical reate %adhocracy&. The founder. which produces happell. Tom Tom’s of 0aine. Tom’s of 0aine is like an e#tended family with high morale and Tom himself takes on the role of mentor or parental figure. /oogle develops innovative web tools. and beliefs it is understandable that the same workspaces would not best support their different cultures. the community.

a %hierarchy& company may contain a research group that is a engineering department that is a ompete %market&. and a human resources department that is a ollaborate %clan&. *n order to get a more accurate picture of the company. it is important to understand not only the company organizational type. so space planners are faced with greater comple#ity in space solutions. (OMINANT AN( SU')(OMINANT T%PES As a company culture containing potentially numerous subcultures adds to the comple#ity of this approach. Other research being conducted around the same time as the ompeting 2alues 3ramework " 0artin and (iehl %56=B&. (andy 3ekete Companies are People. but the cultures of departments or other important groups as well. that might be appropriate in certain ompete %market& companies. other subcultures are present and often even contradict aspects of the company culture. create %adhocracy&"apply at both levels.teamwork and sociality. The same organizational culture types " ontrol %hierarchy&. /regory %56=B&"emphasizes that the company culture is not homogeneous. needs spaces that foster and reflect this. reports that functional teams within the D< corporations that they studied had a different organizational type than their company =5E of the time. would be incompatible with the way a ollaborate %clan& organization works and how it wants to present itself. The . an %market&. The diagrams on the following page outline specific work space implications relative to the four organizational culture types COMPAN% CULTURE AN( SU')CULTURES *t is very important to note that the substantial research that contributed to the development and validation of the organizational culture types focused on companies as a whole. (o. compete ontrol reate %adhocracy&. collaborate %clan&. market. rather it allows the company to perform effectively in different environments based on function. Too. etc. *n her recent book. product. Aows of high paneled cubes. The spatial implications for these different groups may also compete with those of the company. (chein %5666& notes that this is not necessarily dysfunctional. one other important issue must also be considered. *nstead. Couis %56=B&. location.

A commitment to e#perimentation and thinking differently are what unify the Organization. There is a strong concern for people. *nnovation and risk$taking are embraced by employees and leaders.el 2Collaborate 3Clan45 Culture An open and friendly place to work where people share a lot of themselves. Their research has additionally shown that it is rare to have companies that share e@ual traits of all four culture types"with no dominant or barely dominant type. (uccess means gaining uni@ue and new products or services. . WHAT GOO( ARE THESE CATEGORIES* These organizational categories are helpful in that they provide a foundation upon which space planners can begin to structure their solutions and thus account for the important role that culture plays. Pi+torial Mo. it is like an e#tended family. or both& culture type using the O A* is relatively simple given the potential comple#ity of a comprehensive investigation. This means that an accounting department that is a substantial ompete %market& traits. The means of assessing an organization’s %company. There is an emphasis on the long$term benefits of human resources development and great importance is given to group ohesion. !eing an industry leader is important. it is possible for a company or department to have subdominant elements. 0ost of the company cultures that have been diagnosed using ameron and Fuinn’s Organizational ulture Assessment *nstrument indeed have a strong secondary component. The organization places a premium on Teamwork. space planners still must look deeper and consider potential sub$dominant traits as well as the relationship between groups and the company as a whole. participation. They strive to be on the leading edge. /roup Coyalty and sense of tradition are strong. This is also the case at the departmentGgroup level. Ceaders are considered to be mentors or even parental figures.ven though this procedure provides an easy mechanism for assessment and the four types are easy to understand. group. The long$term emphasis is on growth and ac@uiring new resources. pure ontrol %hierarchy&. ompete %market&. . or reate %adhocracy& are e#tremely rare. entrepreneurial. and consensus 2Create 3"dhocrac%45 Culture A dynamic.ompeting 2alues 3ramework and its inclusion of the four organizational culture types offer a simple means of categorization and understanding: however. and creative place to work. *ndividual initiative and freedom are encouraged. ontrol %hierarchy& may still have *n fact.ach of the different organization types has different cultural attributes and preferred methods and concerns for work. . ollaborate %clan&.

(tability. 0aintaining a smooth$ running organization is most critical. and productive. performance. 0anagement wants security and predictability. smooth scheduling. Aeputation and success are common concerns. (uccess means dependable delivery. ompetitive pricing and market leadership are important. Ceaders are demanding. hard$driving. Cong$term focus is on competitive action and achievement of measurable goals and targets. Le-el# o. The emphasis on winning unifies the organization. Heople are competitive and goal$oriented. Culture . and low cost. and efficient operations are the long$term goals. 3ormal policies are what hold the group together. 2Compete 3Mar&et45 Culture A results$driven organization focused on 4ob completion. Aules and procedures govern behavior. (uccess means market share and penetration. Ceaders strive to be good coordinators and organizers who are efficiency$minded.2Control 31ierarch%45 Culture A highly structured and formal place to work.

The advantages are that the dominant value orientation guides . B. people may interact with one another but what the underlying feelings are or whether there is understanding among them would re@uire probing. leading to cognitive changes turning perception into values and beliefs. technology and other visible forms of behavior like ceremonies and rituals. When the group repeatedly observes that the method that was tried earlier works most of the time. Though the culture would be visible in various forms. it would be only at the superficial level. At evel T6o 7" $0# there is greater awareness and internalization of cultural values. *f the group is successful there will be shared perception of that Isuccess’. The conversion process has both advantages. At evel One ATRIFACTS the organizational culture can be observed in the form of physical ob4ects. Heople in the organization try solutions of a problem in ways which have been tried and tested earlier. evel Three ASSUMPTIONS represents a process of conversion. 3or e#ample.5. it becomes the Ipreferred solution’ and gets converted into underlying assumptions or dominant value orientation. 7.

behavior.  1eveloping an attractive *nduction !ooklet  3ilms on success e#periences in the organization  ompany newsletters  0obility of Heople (e-elo"ing i/"ortant -alue#  2alues of e#cellence and human consideration develop only by demonstrating these values in action. and feel proud of working with the organization. .entit! develops when employees have a sense of belonging.  (urveys of 2alues and differences bGw espoused vGs practiced values. which develops as a result of interaction of employees with the organization.#amining the various systems operating in the organization. .  (pecial value orientation programmes. (e-elo"ing OC in-ol-e#  1eveloping a strong corporate identity  1evelopment of important values  !uilding healthy traditions  1eveloping consistent management practices Strong Cor"orate I.  (pecial O1 intervention in ooperation and ollaboration. however at the same time it may influence ob4ective and rational thinking.

.  .'uil.  Hromotions as transition. on the basis of important 3unctional rituals or celebrations  *nduction programme for new Healt0! tra.#ceptional behavior.ition# 1 "ra+ti+e# Traditions are built in org.  Aitual associated with )old age+ and retirement.  elebration of special individual J important organizational days.