TYPES OF ADVERB

English Paper

Created by : Ade Mulia Pratama Panjaitan Zulkifli Jurusan Teknik Sipil 1S2 sore

POLITEKNIK NEGERI JAKARTA 2010

Competition in all cases can not be avoided. local competition. Jakarta. we also like to thank the authors whose articles we have quoted as reference material. Therefore. and global competition. we must equip ourselves to face the competition. the Almighty God who has given his blessing and guidance so that the preparation of papers Types of Adverb be resolved. September 2010 i . Finally. Provision of science and technology alone is not enough if not balanced with good language skills Papers Types of Adverb is designed to give an explanation about the form. a century full of competition. In addition. our gratitude goes to all those who have helped resolve this paper. national competition. We hope this paper can assist students in learning English.PREFACE Praise we pray toward the presence of the only God. type and function of the adverb with the aim of completing the task of making a paper for English subject. Now we are in the 21st century.

Types of Adverbs B.6 C.5 Adverb in English Adverb as a “catch-all” Azerbaijan linguistic school Adverb is Derived from other parts of Speech A. Types of Adverbs Pharases 5.8 CHAPTER 3 ENDING 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY 10 ii .TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE i TEBLE OF CONTENT ii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 2 DISCUSSION 1 1 3 3 3 4. Types of Adverbs Clause 7.

(There is also an obsolete English word lych or lich with the same meaning. The connection between -ly and like is easy to understand.Zulkifli CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In this era of globalization. such as friendly and lovely. Adverbs in English In English. (Note that some words that end in -ly. clauses. and beautiful yields beautifully. such as holy and silly. adverbs) but by adverbial phrases and adverbial clauses. and to what extent?. we are required to be proficient in English for one day to compete in all areas because English is the language most widely used in the world. The connection to lich is probably that both are descended from an earlier word that meant something like "shape"or 1 .)The suffix -ly is related to the Germanic word "lich" meaning corpse or body. An adverb is a part of speech. The Purpose of this paper is to assist in understanding the adverb used in the English language CHAPTER 2 DISCUSSION Adverb (adv) is the word used to qualify the adverbial. great yields greatly. when?. In English there is an adverb that has many forms and uses. This function is called the adverbial function. adjectives (including numbers). adverbs of manner (answering the question how?) are often formed by adding -ly to adjectives. It is any word that modifies any part of language other than a noun (modifiers of nouns are primarily adjectives and determiners). There are also underived adjectives that end in -ly. in what way?. Moreover. but adjectives..) Both words are also related to the word like.TYPE OF ADVERB created by Tama. in which case the root word is usually a noun. Adverbs can modify verbs. as now.e. In this paper we discuss about type of adverb. For example. are not adverbs. Adverbs typically answer questions such as how?. sentences and other adverbs. language proficiency is one of ability to be controlled because it is a start-up capital to compete in the world of office. where?. and is realized not just by single words (i. as a student.

In this way. especially those ending -ly. "The hat is red". modern grammarians recognize that words traditionally grouped together as adverbs serve a number of different functions. However. most.g. Some would go so far as to call adverbs a "catch-all" category that includes all words that do not belong to one of the other parts of speech. There are a number of other suffixes in English that derive adverbs from other word classes. A more logical approach to dividing words into classes relies on recognizing which words can be used in a certain context. whereas others cannot. -wise competed with a related form -ways and won out against it.while some accept both forms. and least. The usual form pertaining to adjectives or adverbs is called the positive. Others. in 2 .)When this approach is taken. Comparative adverbs include more. The comparative and superlative forms of some (especially single-syllable) adverbs that do not end in -ly are generated by adding er and -est (She ran faster. the suffix -wise may be used to derive adverbs from nouns. Some adverbs are formed from nouns or adjectives by appending the prefix a(such as abreast. words like clockwise show the transition. astray). it is not a foolproof indicator of a word being an adverb. a noun is a word that can be inserted in the following template to form a grammatical sentence:The _____ is red. less. Adverbs also take comparisons with as . Even when a sentential adverb has other functions. are periphrastically compared by the use of more or most (She ran more quickly) -. He jumps highest). For example. Again. Historically. In some cases.). In a few words."form". like sideways. e. Formally. just like adjectives. For example. most easily etc.. oftener and more often are both correct. the meaning is often not the same. it is seen that adverbs fall into a number of different categories. for example in the sentence He wore red yesterday it does not make sense to speak of "more yesterday" or "most yesterday". (For example. Adverbs as a "catch-all" category Adverbs are considered a part of speech in traditional English grammar and are still included as a part of speech in grammar taught in schools and used in dictionaries. or -mense meaning "of/like the mind". This same process is followed in Romance languages with the ending mente. and there are also many adverbs that are not morphologically indicated at all. as.. Not all adverbs are comparable. some adverbs can be used to modify an entire sentence. adverbs in English are inflected in terms of comparison. For example. least. -ment. -ly in English is cognate with the common German adjective ending -lich and the Dutch ending -lijk. -ways survives. and less (in phrases such as more beautiful.

playing role of adverbial. There are three types of adverb:    Types of Adverbs ( kata keterangan nama diri ) Types of Adverb Phrases ( kata keterangan ungkapan/peribahasa ) Types of Adverb Clauses ( kata keterangan syarat/ketentuan ) 3 . but context makes it clear which is meant. automatically transform (convert) into an adverb. Huddleston distinguishes between a word and a lexicogrammatical-word Azerbaijan linguistic school» does not consider an adverb to be an independent part of speech. as it is an adverbialized form of other parts of speech.e. Its functions are performed by other parts of speech when they play the role of "means of expression" for an adverbial. other parts of speech. whereas the class of adverbs that modify verbs isn't. the word naturally has different meanings.the sentences She gave birth naturally and Naturally. recognition of its equity. (Actually the first sentence could be interpreted in the same way as the second. Words like very and particularly afford another useful example. violates the second and fourth laws of logic division. That is. These words can modify adjectives but not verbs. The fact that many adverbs can be used in more than one of these functions can confuse this issue. We can say Perry is very fast. On the other hand. this distinction can be useful.) Naturally as a sentential adverb means something like "of course" and as a verb-modifying adverb means "in a natural manner". there are words like here and there that cannot modify adjectives. However. she gave birth. alongside with other parts of speech. especially considering adverbs like naturally that have different meanings in their different functions. We can say The sock looks good there but not It is a there beautiful sock. Adverb is derived from other parts of speech. This "naturally" controversy demonstrates that the class of sentential adverbs is a closed class (there is resistance to adding new words to the class). and it may seem like splitting hairs to say that a single adverb is really two or more words that serve different functions. I. but not Perry very won the race.

He didn’t get a bad test score. (adjective) Adverb untuk “good” adalah “well“. Untuk adverb yang terbentuk dari adjective yang berakhiran dengan huruf “-le” ganti “-le” dengan “-ly“. (adjective) * He studies hard. * simply (adverb) .It’s a hard life. * She plays the piano well. * You can speak English well. * easily (adverb) . Contoh: * quick (adjective) .A.He works happily every day. * happy (adjective) .He didn’t do badly in his test.He learns quickly. yakni kata keterangan menjelaskan bagaimana sesuatu dilakukan. Untuk adverb yang terbentuk dari adjective yang berakhiran dengan huruf “-y” ganti “-y” dengan “-i” dan tambahkan “-ly“. * badly (adverb) .He can do math easily. Adverb sering dibentuk dengan menambahkan -ly di belakang adjective.He’s a fast runner.He’s quick at learning new things. * quickly (adverb) . Contoh: * easy (adjective) . Contoh: * She learns quickly.He teaches simply and clearly. * happily (adverb) . Contoh: * simple (adjective) . * bad (adjective) . Contoh: * He runs fast (adverb) .The teacher makes difficult things simple.He’s a happy man. (adverb) . 4 . Beberapa adverb sama dengan adjective.He thinks math is easy. Contoh: * She’s a good pianist.Types of Adverbs Adverb (kata keterangan) merubah kata kerja.

Contoh: * That’s a good book. This page will explain the basic types of adverb phrases (sometimes called "adverbial phrases") and how to recognize them. some made with prepositions. * You’re right! * You’re absolutely right! B.Adverb juga bisa mengubah adjective dan adverb-adverb lainnya. I write computer programs for fun. it is a prepositional phrase which functions as an adverb phrase. Types of Adverb Phrases An adverb may be a single word. However. others made with infinitives. 5 . Here are some example: Type Frequency Purpose Adverb usually for fun Example Mika usually gets up early. here or yesterday. adverbs can also be phrases. * She’s an incredibly talented girl. Purpose adverbs answer the question "Why?". * That’s a very good book. usually. place and time adverbs. such as quickly. is a single word. There are at least two more that are important. * She’s a talented girl. Frequency adverbs answer the question "How often?" about an action. the second example (for fun) is a phrase consisting of a preposition and a noun -. Basic types of adverbs In the section on adverbs. you learned about three basic types of adverb: manner. While the first example.in other words.

We must finish our project before the holidays. Here are some examples: Type Manner Place Time Frequency Purpose Adverb phrase with a hammer next door before the holidays every month for his mother Example The carpenter hit the nail with a hammer.Adverb phrases made with prepositions All kinds of adverb phrases can be made with prepositions. 6 . Jack bought the flowers for his mother. The woman who lives next door is a doctor. as in these examples: Type Purpose Purpose Purpose Adverb phrase to buy a car to support the team to show to her mother Example I'm saving my money to buy a car. Sally brought a painting home from school to show to her mother. Adverb phrases made with infinitives Another kind of adverb phrase can be made with the infinitive form of a verb. The students all showed up to support the team. Most of these phrases express purpose. Jodie buys two CDs every month.

and "before I left for Calgary" is an adverb clause. is a dependent clause that does the same job as an adverb or an adverb phrase. Types of Adverb Clauses An adverb may be a single word such as quickly.C. adverb phrases. It needs a main clause ("I saw the movie"). "on Friday" is an adverb phrase. In the first sentence. However. All of them answer the question "When?". This means that it cannot stand alone: "Before I left for Calgary" would not be a full sentence. and adverb clause Look at these sentences: I saw the movie yesterday. but the adverb clause has a subject ("I") and a full verb ("left"). 7 . I saw the movie before I left for Calgary. Adverbs. so it is a dependent clause. adverbs can also be clauses. here or yesterday (see the page Adverbs). containing a subject and a full verb. or a phrase such as the day before yesterday or to see my mother (see the page Adverb Phrases). Thispage will explain the basic types of adverb clauses (sometimes called "adverbial clauses") and how to recognize them. An adverb clause. It is introduced by "before". I saw the movie on Friday. "yesterday" is a one-word adverb. then.

though. and there are many of them. since. because.). These words and phrases are called subordinating conjunctions. etc. even though. As you can see from the examples above. whether. although. it is sold at the market. there is Microsoft software. he works as a store clerk. you will be able to go to college. as. Here are some examples of the most common types: Type Place Time Cause Purpose Concession Condition Question answered Where? When? Why? (What caused this?) Why? (What was the reason for doing this?) Why is this unexpected? Under what conditions? Example Wherever there are computers. in order that. She took a computer course so that she could get a better job. After the fruit is harvested.Types of adverb clause There are many types of adverb clauses. Although Jay has a Master's degree. If you save your money. most adverb clauses can be recognized because they are introduced by a particular word or phrase (such as "when". "so that". so that. while. if. including these: Subordination conjunctions after. I didn't call her because I'm shy. where 8 . before. until. unless.

but it must be practiced in everyday language. Then we should practice it in everyday life. In English are so many types. It is therefore not enough just to memorize. There are so many kinds of adverb.CHAPTER 3 ENDING The adverb is a word to describe adverbia.Karena dengan memahami dan lebih mengenal many kinds of adverb and sentences in other kit a dapat lebih cepat memahami dan mengerti dalm menggunakan bahasa inggris sebagai penghubung kita dalam mendalami ilmu teknik sipil 9 . Each form has their role respectively. In this case is an adjective. shapes and uses adjectives. Each type also has a shape and its own characteristics. To better understand in every language studied. especially the English language we must understand the basic concepts in English.

cc/?p=113 10 .co. http://englishtutorial.BIBLIOGRAPHY “ADVERB”.