Topics in Computer Hardware Servicing A.

1. Installing Computer Systems and Networks 1.1 Identify the names, purpose, and characteristics of system modules. Recognize these modules by sight or definition.
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Motherboard Firmware Power supply Processor/CPU Memory Storage devices

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Display devices Adapter cards Ports Cases Riser cards


Identify basic procedures for adding and removing field-replaceable modules for desktop systems. Given a replacement scenario, choose the appropriate sequence. Desktop/Server components:
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Motherboard Storage device FDD HDD CD/CDRW DVD/DVDRW Tape drive Removable storage Power supply o AC adapter o AT/ATX Cooling systems o Fans o Heat sinks o Liquid cooling
o o o o o o

Processor/CPU Memory Display device Input devices o Keyboard o Mouse/Pointer devices o Touch screen Adapters o Network Interface Cards (NIC) o Sound card o Video card o Modem o SCSI o IEEE 1394/FireWire o USB o Wireless


Identify basic procedures for adding and removing field-replaceable modules for portable systems. Given a replacement scenario, choose the appropriate sequences. Portable components/Laptop:
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Storage devices o FDD o HDD o CD/CDRW o DVD/DVDRW o Removable storage Power sources o AC adapter o DC adapter o Battery o Memory o Input devices o Keyboard o Mouse/Pointer devices o Touch screen

PCMCIA/Mini-PCI adapters o Network Interface Card (NIC) o Modem o SCSI o IEEE 1394/FireWire o USB o Storage (memory and hard drive)

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Docking station/Port replicators LCD panel Wireless o Adapter/Controller o Antenna

Choose the appropriate installation or configuration sequences in given scenarios. and connectors by sight. 5.4 Identify typical IRQs. 3. Choose the appropriate installation or configuration steps in a given scenario. and 5) Master/Slave/Cable select Devices per channel Primary/Secondary Cable orientation/requirements . Recognize ports. May include the following: 1. Recognize the associated cables..g.5 Identify the names. purposes.1. DMAs. IDE interface types o o o o EIDE ATA/ATAPI Serial ATA PIO 2. cabling.g. 4. and their connectors. ISA. 6. 1. 36) o o o PS2/MINI-DIN USB IEEE 1394 Connector types 1. and performance characteristics of standardized/common peripheral ports. CAD/CAM) Internal modems Floppy drive controllers Hard drive controllers Multimedia devices NICs I/O ports o o o o o Serial Parallel USB ports IEEE 1394/FireWire Infrared 1.. May include the following:         Legacy devices (e. and I/O addresses. RAID (0. and procedures for altering these settings when installing and configuring devices. sound card) Specialized devices (e. Content may include the following: Port types o o o o o  o Serial     Serial Parallel USB ports IEEE 1394/FireWire Infrared o DB-9 DB-25 RJ-11 RJ-45 Parallel Cable types o o o  Serial (straight through versus null modem) Parallel USB   DB-25 Centronics (mini. associated cabling.6 Identify proper procedures for installing and configuring common IDE devices.

Choose the appropriate installation or configuration sequences in given scenarios. Recognize the associated cables.) o Cables NICs Specialized video cards . Predict the effects of specific procedures under given scenarios. RAID. 1. etc.1. Choose the appropriate installation or configuration sequences in given scenarios. ISDN) External storage Digital cameras PDAs Wireless access points Infrared devices Printers UPS and suppressors Monitors 1. May include the following:          Modems and transceivers (dial-up.9 Identify procedures to optimize PC operations in specific situations. passive. auto) 1. DSL.. Topics may include:     Cooling systems o Liquid o Air o Heat sink o Thermal compound Disk subsystem enhancements o Hard drives o Controller cards (e. and 5) Cabling o o o Length Type Termination requirements (active.8 Identify proper procedures for installing and configuring common peripheral devices.g. cable.7 Identify proper procedures for installing and configuring common SCSI devices. ATA-100. May include the following:  SCSI interface types o o o o o o Narrow Fast Wide Ultra-wide LVD HVD   Internal versus external SCSI IDs o o Jumper block/DIP switch settings (binary equivalents) Resolving ID conflicts   RAID (0.

III cards 2. I/O ports and cables o Serial o Parallel o USB ports o IEEE 1394/FireWire o Infrared o SCSI 2. and identify steps to isolate and troubleshoot the problems. Issues may include:         Drivers for legacy devices Bus types and characteristics Cache in relationship to motherboards Memory capacity and characteristics Processor speed and compatibility Hard drive capacity and characteristics System/Firmware limitations Power supply output capacity Components may include the following:        o o o o Motherboards Memory Hard drives CPU BIOS Adapter cards Laptop power sources Lithium ion Fuel cell NiMH PCMCIA Type I. Storage devices and cables o FDD o HDD o CD/CDRW o DVD/DVDRW o Tape drive o Removable storage 6. Processor/CPU . Peripherals 4. May include the following: 1.  Memory Additional processors 1.10 Determine the issues that must be considered when upgrading a PC. interpret the symptoms and infer the most likely cause. Computer case o Power supply o Slot covers o Front cover alignment 5.1 Recognize common problems associated with each module and their symptoms. II. Given a problem situation. Diagnosing and Troubleshooting 2. In a given scenario. Motherboards o CMOS/ BIOS settings o POST audible/visual error codes 3. Cooling systems o Fans o Heating sinks o Liquid cooling o Temperature sensors 7. determine when and how to upgrade system components.

and how to elicit problem symptoms from customers. Input devices o Keyboard o Mouse/Pointer devices o Touch screen 11. and moisture control on the PC hardware interior Hard disk maintenance (defragging. May include the following:    Troubleshooting/Isolation/Problem determination procedures Determining whether it is a hardware or software problem Gathering information from the user o Customer environment o Symptoms/Error codes o Situation when the problem occurred 3. power supplies.1 Identify the various types of preventive maintenance measures. Display device 10. Memory 9. Content may include the following:        Liquid cleaning compounds Types of materials to clean contacts and connections Nonstatic vacuums (e.8. scan disk. Content may include the following:  ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) precautions and procedures o o o What ESD can do..2 Identify various safety measures and procedures. for chassis. PC Preventive Maintenance. Justify asking particular questions in a given scenario. dust. products. Safety. Adapters o Network Interface Card (NIC) Sound card Video card Modem SCSI IEEE 1394/FireWire USB 12. and how it might be apparent or hidden Common ESD protection devices Situations that could present a danger or hazard  Potential hazards and proper safety procedures relating to o High-voltage equipment . CHKDSK) Verifying UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) and suppressors 3. and when/how to use them. and when/how to use them.g. fans) Cleaning monitors Cleaning removable media devices Ventilation. and procedures. and Environmental Issues 3.2 Identify basic troubleshooting procedures and tools. Portable Systems o PCMCIA o Batteries o Docking stations/Port replicators Portable unique storage o o o o o o 2.

Content may include the following:     Special disposal procedures that comply with environmental guidelines Batteries CRTs Chemical solvents and cans MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) 4.3 Identify environmental protection measures and procedures. and 32 bit) o Parity chips versus nonparity chips o ECC versus non-ECC o Single sided versus double sided . Motherboard/Processors/memory 4.2 Identify the types of RAM (Random Access Memory). form factors. Content may include the following:       Popular CPU chips (Pentium-class compatible) Voltage Speeds (actual versus advertised) Cache Levels 1. and when/how to use them. 16 bit. Content may include the following:  Types EDO RAM (Extended Data Output RAM) DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) SRAM (Static RAM) VRAM (Video RAM) SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM) DDR (Double Data Rate) RAMBUS Form factors (including pin count) o SIMM (Single In-line Memory Module) o DIMM (Dual In-line Memory Module) o SoDIMM (Small outline DIMM) o MicroDIMM o o o o o o o  RIMM (Rambus In Line Memory Module)  Operational characteristics o Memory chips (8 bit. 3 Socket/Slots VRM(s) 4. Determine banking and speed requirements under given scenarios. and operational characteristics.o Power supply CRTs 3.1 Distinguish between the popular CPU chips in terms of their basic characteristics. 2.

density Hard drive—size and drive type Memory—speed. disable/enable. nonparity Boot sequence Date/Time Passwords Plug-and-Play BIOS Disabling onboard devices Disabling virus protection Power management Infrared .4. parity. disable Floppy drive—enable/disable drive or boot. what it contains. EPP COM/serial port—memory address. wide. ultra-DMA. CMOS settings:               Default settings CPU settings Printer parallel port—uni-/bi-directional. speed. interrupt request. fast. ECP. ATAPI. Content may include the following:  Types of motherboards o o AT ATX Socket 478 Socket 370  External cache memory (Level 2)  Bus architecture  ISA  PCI o o  Components o o o o o o Communication ports Serial USB Parallel IEEE 1394/FireWire Infrared  Memory o o o o o o o o o o PCI 32 bit PCI 64 bit AGP 2x 4x SIMM DIMM RIMM SoDIMM MicroDIMM 8x (Pro)        Processor sockets o o o o o o o Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot A Socket A Socket 7 Socket 8 Socket 423 USB AMR (Audio Modem Riser) slots CNR (Communication Network Riser) slots Basic compatibility guidelines IDE (ATA. choose the appropriate course of action.3 Identify the most popular types of motherboards. their components. and their architectures (bus structures). and how and when to change its parameters. Given a scenario involving CMOS. HVD. EIDE) SCSI (narrow. ultra. LVD [Low Voltage Differential]) Chipsets 4.4 Identify the purpose of CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) memory.

stapling.1 Identify printer technologies. Content may include the following:                Printer drivers Firmware updates Paper feed and output Calibrations  Printing test pages Errors (printed or displayed) Memory Configuration Network connections Connections Paper jam Print quality Safety precautions Preventive maintenance Consumables Environment 6.  Technologies include: Laser      Ink dispersion Dot matrix Solid ink Thermal Dye sublimation       SCSI USB Infrared Serial IEEE 1394/FireWire Wireless Options/Upgrades include: Memory Hard drives NICs Trays and feeders Finishers (e. and connectors.g. . and options/upgrades. including how a network works. interfaces. etc.. their characteristics.1 Identify the common types of network cables.2 Recognize common printer problems and techniques used to resolve them.   Cable types include:  STP Fiber o o Coaxial o RG6 o RG8 o RG58 o RG59 Plenum/PVC UTP o o o Single mode Multimode Connector types include:        CAT3 CAT5/e CAT6 BNC RJ-45 AUI ST/SC IDC/UDC 6. Basic Networking 6.2 Identify basic networking concepts.) Scanners/Fax/Copier      Interfaces include:   Parallel Network  5.5. Printers 5.

6. Windows 2000 Professional.3 Technologies include:        LAN DSL Cable ISDN Dial-up Satellite Wireless Characteristics include:    Definition Speed Connections B. and their functions. Differentiate the characteristics of Windows 9x/Me.0 Workstation. RS-232 Networking models o Peer to peer o Client/Server Infrared Wireless Identify common technologies available for establishing Internet connectivity and their characteristics. Content may include the following:    Contrasts between Windows 9x/Me. fiber optic.Concepts include:          o Installing and configuring network cards Addressing Bandwidth Status indicators Protocols o TCP/IP o IPX/SPX (NWLINK) o AppleTalk o NetBEUI/NetBIOS Full duplex. and Windows XP.1 Identify the major desktop components and interfaces. Windows 2000 Professional. SOFTWARE 7. and Windows XP Major operating system components o Registry o Virtual memory o File system Major operating system interfaces o Windows Explorer o Computer o My Computer management console o Control Panel . coaxial. Operating System Fundamentals 1. half duplex Cabling—twisted pair. Windows NT 4.0 Workstation. Windows NT 4.

DAT Windows NT-based specific files o o o o o o BOOT. locations.SYS NTUSER.DAT Registry data files 1. and contents of major system Content may include the following:  Windows 9x specific files o IO. Accessories/System o Task bar/Systray tools o Start Menu Command line o Device Manager Network Neighborhood/My Network Places Identify the names.SYS EMM386.SYS o AUTOEXEC. purposes.2 files.3 Demonstrates the ability to use command-line functions and utilities to manage the operating system. and files.4 Identify basic concepts and procedures for creating.SYS o MSDOS.COM SYSTEM. viewing. Command-line functions and utilities include:            Command/CMD DIR ATTRIB VER MEM SCANDISK DEFRAG EDIT XCOPY COPY FORMAT           FDISK SETVER SCANREG MD/CD/RD Delete/Rename DELTREE TYPE ECHO SET PING 1.. security issues).exe WIN.o o o 1. Content may include the following: .INI NTLDR NTDETECT. directories.g. This includes procedures for changing file attributes and the ramifications of those changes (e.DAT USER. and managing disks. including the proper syntax and switches.INI Registry data files SYSTEM.SYS o o o o     HIMEM.COM NTBOOTDD.COM o CONFIG.BAT o COMMAND.

EXE REGEDIT.EXE Backup/Restore utility (MS Backup. hidden.) ScanDisk CHKDSK Disk cleanup Format  System management tools o o o o o o o o o o Device manager System manager Computer manager o Windows Explorer . etc. subdirectories.EXE FDISK.EXE Edit.EXE EXTRACT. Disk management tools o o o o o o o DEFRAG.x  Directory structures (root directory.3. location.EXE (view information/backup registry) REGEDT32. Disks o Partitions  Active partition  Primary partition  Extended partition  Logical partition o Files systems  FAT16  FAT32  NTFS4  NTFS5.EXE SCANREG COMMAND/CMD Event viewer o Task manager  File management tools o o o ATTRIB. NT Backup. their purposes.5  o Identify the major operating system utilities. etc. maximum length) o File attributes—read only. and available switches.) o Create folders o Navigate the directory structure Maximum depth  Files o Creating files o File naming conventions (most common extensions. and archive attributes o File compression o File encryption o File permissions o File types (text versus binary file) 1.EXE SYSEDIT. system. 8.

and Upgrading 2.g. choose the appropriate next steps. o o o o Installation type (typical. including the steps to create an emergency boot disk with utilities installed for Windows . Windows NT 4. Installation. Windows NT 4.1 Identify the procedures for installing Windows 9x/Me.0 Workstation. Windows 2000 Professional. 2. custom. patches. Determine OS installation options. and bringing the operating system to a basic operational level.2 Content may include the following:       Upgrade paths available Determine correct upgrade start-up utility (e. and updates Install additional Windows components 2. Content may include the following:   Verify hardware compatibility and minimum requirements. Given an upgrade scenario.. WINNT32 versus WINNT) Verify hardware compatibility and minimum requirements Verify application compatibility Apply OS service packs. Windows 2000 Professional. and Windows XP. or Windows XP. other) Network configuration File system type Dual boot support  Disk preparation order (conceptual disk preparation) o o o Start the installation Partition Format drive  Run appropriate set-up utility Setup Winnt Installation methods o Bootable CD-ROM o Boot floppy o Network installation o Drive imaging o o   Device driver configuration o Load default drivers o Find updated drivers o Restore user data files (if applicable) o  Identify common symptoms and problems Identify steps to perform an operating system upgrade from Windows 9x/Me.8.0 Workstation.3 Identify the basic system boot sequences and boot methods. Configuration.

0 Workstation. Windows NT 4. and identify steps to correct the problems. Content may include the following:  Device driver installation o o o o o o Plug-and-Play (PnP) and non-PnP devices Install and configure device drivers Install different device drivers Manually install a device driver Search the Internet for updated device drivers Using unsigned drivers (driver signing)   Install additional Windows components Determine if permissions are adequate for performing the task 2.1 Recognize and interpret the meaning of common error codes and start-up messages from the boot sequence.ini switches Dual boot   Creating emergency disks with OS utilities Creating an Emergency Repair Disk (ERD) 2. including loading. Content may include the following: Virtual memory management Disk Defragmentation Files and Buffers Caches Temporary file management      10.9x/Me.4 Identify procedures for installing/adding a device. and configuring device drivers and required software. Content may include the following: . Diagnosing and Troubleshooting 3. Windows 2000 Professional. adding. or Windows XP. Content may include the following:  Boot sequence o o Files required to boot Boot steps (Windows 9x/NT based)  Alternative boot methods o o o o o o o o Using a start-up disk Safe/VGA-only mode Last known good configuration Command prompt mode Booting to a system-restore point Recovery console Boot.5 Identify the procedures necessary to optimize the operating system and major operating system subsystems.

and resources o o o o o o o o  User/Installation manuals o Internet/Web resources o Training materials o Task Manager o Dr. WIN. Common error messages and codes o Boot failure and errors     Invalid boot disk Inaccessible boot device Missing NTLDR Bad or missing command interpreter o Start-up messages     Error in CONFIG. Watson Boot Disk Event Viewer 3.sys not loaded Missing or corrupt Himem. select the appropriate steps needed to resolve the problem. Watson Eliciting problem symptoms from customers Boot disk Event Viewer Device Manager WinMSD MSD Recovery CD-ROM CONFIGSAFE . Utilities and tools may include the following:  Start-up disks o o Required files for a boot disk Boot disk with CD-ROM support  Startup Modes o o o o o Safe mode Safe mode with command prompt Safe mode with networking Step-by-step/Single-step mode Automatic skip driver (ASD.exe)  Diagnostic tools.2 Recognize when to use common diagnostic utilities and tools.INI. utilities.INI.sys Device/Service has failed to start o o o o o o A device referenced in SYSTEM. Registry is not found Event Viewer—event log is full Failure to start GUI Windows Protection Error User-modified settings cause improper operation at start-up Registry corruption  Using the correct utilities o o o Dr.SYS line XX Himem. Given a diagnostic scenario involving one of these utilities or tools.

Networks 4. input device) or will not function Application will not start or load Cannot log on to network (option-NIC not functioning) Applications don’t install Network connections  Viruses and virus types o o o o What they are TSR (Terminate Stay Resident) programs and virus Sources (floppy. Content may include the following:  Troubleshooting Windows-specific printing problems o o o Print spool is stalled Incorrect/incompatible driver for printer Incorrect parameter  Other common problems o o o o o o o o o o General Protection Faults Blue screen error (BSOD) Illegal operation Invalid working directory System lockup Option (sound card. etc.) How to determine presence 11. configure the operating system to connect to a network. modem.  Having the customer reproduce error as part of the diagnostic process Identifying recent changes to the computer environment from the user 3. DHCP) o IPX/SPX (NWLink) o AppleTalk o NetBEUI/NetBIOS Configure client options o Microsoft o Novell Verify the configuration . e-mails. Content may include the following:          Configure protocols o TCP/IP Gateway Subnet mask DNS (and domain suffix) WINS Static address assignment Automatic address assignment (APIPA.3 Recognize common operational and usability problems. and determine how to resolve them. Given configuration parameters.1 Identify the networking capabilities of Windows.

configure the operating system to connect to.EXE Share resources (understand the capabilities/limitations with each OS version) Setting permissions to shared resources Network type and network card 4. and use Internet resources. In a given scenario. SMTP. DSL networking ISDN networking Cable Satellite Wireless LAN Installing and configuring browsers o Enable/Disable script support o Configure proxy settings o Configure security settings Firewall protection under Windows XP o o o o o o Content may include the following:   Protocols and terminologies o ISP o TCP/IP o E-mail (POP.2 Identify the basic Internet protocols and terminologies.EXE o WINIPCFG.EXE o NSLOOKUP.EXE o PING o TRACERT. IMAP) o HTML o HTTP o HTTPS o SSL o Telnet o FTP o DNS Connectivity technologies o Dial-up networking   .    Understand the use of the following tools o IPCONFIG. Identify procedures for establishing Internet connectivity.