THE INtERNAtIONAL MAGAZINE OF tHE GEA GROUP SPECIAL ISSUE NOVEMBER 2009

BEST OF GENERATE 2006-2009

GENERATE is published by the GEA Group Aktiengesellschaft, a globally successful technology group with more than 250 companies in 50 countries. Listed on MDAX stock index, the company focuses on specialty mechanical engineering – especially process engineering and equipment. GEA Group technologies are applied in the food, chemical and petrochemical industries, the energy sector, air treatment and shipbuilding as well as the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The GEA Group is one of the world`s market and technology leaders in 90 per cent of its businesses. In 2008 the group employed more than 21,000 people who generated sales of more than EUR 5 billion.

AIR TREATMENT

Welcome to this special online issue of GENERATE, published by the GEA Group Aktiengesellschaft.
Dear Readers, Earlier this year GENERATE was shortlisted in the Deutscher Preis für Wirtschaftskommunikation (DPWK), one of Germany’s leading corporate communications awards. The official recognition as one of Germany’s best and most innovative corporate communicators is a real achievement. Ever since being launched in November 2006, GENERATE has highlighted how GEA technologies and engineering are used all over the world in an incredibly diverse range of applications. These have included everything from processing coffee, preserving famous paintings in art museums, improving the quality of wine, protecting the world’s oceans to how different parts of our business are playing a key role in the growth of China’s powerhouse economy. The past 12 months have shown that every society or company is well advised to take precautions based on different possible scenarios. Even though the industries in which we operate are considered to be relatively robust, they have still felt the impact of the current economic environment. To counteract this, we have taken measures to adapt the group to meet new challenges. As part of these adjustments, we are promoting our expertise in engineering ‘efficiency in food and energy processes’ as one of our core strengths. So when we put this GENERATE special together not only did we include articles the DPWK jury particularly liked, but we also included features that illustrate GEA’s place as an important player in the world’s food and energy markets; two areas where we are particularly strong and where we believe there will be continued growth in years to come. I hope you enjoy reading this special edition. The next issue of GENERATE will be published in March 2010.

FARM Technologies

THERMAL ENGINEERING

Emission Control

REFRIGERATION

PROCESS Equipment

MECHANICAL Separation

PROCESS ENGINEERING

PHARMA SYSTEMS

Jürg Oleas Chairman of the Executive Board GEA Group Aktiengesellschaft

Contact GEA Group Aktiengesellschaft Dorstener Straße 484 44809 Bochum Tel: +49-(0)234-980-0 Fax: +49-(0)234-980-1087 www.geagroup.com

FEATURE STORY
THE HEAT IS ON – WITH THE WORLD DEMANDING MORE POWER, DIVERSITY IS THE KEY TO PROVIDING IT

FEATURE STORY
Milk – something for everyone: How the global dairy industry has kept pace with increasing demand for milk and its associated products

FUELING CHINA’S POWER NEEDS

MESSAGE IN A BOTTLE
The soft drinks market is really bubbling

Vaccination boost

GEA helps to mitigate the environmental impact of coal-fired power stations

Revolutionizing drug delivery in the developing world

HOW TO DO IT

Making orange juice

Q&A

ART IN ENGINEERING

Passion for chocolate: We talk to Pierre Marcolini, one of the world's leading chocolatiers

LAST WORD

Global news from GEA

All the features in this special issue first appeared in copies of GENERATE magazine published from 2006 to 2009. Any forward-looking statements have not been updated.
GENERATE MAGAZINE SPECIAL ISSUE

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is king Coal seeks China to grow 2 as .

twice the average for any other country.000 coal-fired power stations and plans to build over 500 more. led a delegation. using its own resources is the cheapest way to fuel its energy needs. At the same time. the Buddhist Yungang Grottoes and the famous Hanging Monastery. According to a BBC news report. It mines more coal per year than Britain. China has around 2. These and many other cultural sites from Shanxi’s long and rich history are the reason why the province is known as the ‘Chinese Ancient Architecture Museum’. who founded the Chinese nation. In this way the power stations run without being a drain on the water supply. March 2007 Shanxi also has a wealth of natural wonders. But. During the visit GEA highlighted how their Energy Technology Division’s pioneering air-cooled condensers are helping to protect Shanxi’s natural resources. including protecting the water supply. China has around 2. China is investing heavily in new technology to mitigate the environmental impact. iron and energy industries. Featuring former United States Vice President Al Gore. It takes around two years to build a coal-fired power station – nuclear power plants take much longer. The high environmental cost of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions from China’s coalfired power stations was highlighted in the recent documentary film An Inconvenient Truth. GENERATE MAGAZINE SPECIAL ISSUE 3 . And Shanxi has it in abundance.5 billion tons of coal that China is expected to use during 2007 will come from Shanxi. Additional decanters are also used for treating the general wastewater from the plant. In October 2006 the Governor of Shanxi Province. including highranking officials and representatives from the coal. A large proportion of the 2. Hydroelectric projects such as the Three Gorges Dam can only meet a fraction of demand and oil is considered too expensive. Germany and Russia combined and accounts for a third of China’s estimated thousand billion tons of coal deposits. the film reviews the scientific evidence for global warming and predicts terrifying consequences for the planet if greenhouse gases are not reduced. Germany. once lived here. including the Wutai Mountains and the Hukou Waterfalls. to have desulfurization installations. They are ideal in dry regions like Shanxi because the steam is condensed into water. that visited GEA’s head office in Bochum. As China strives to grow its economy and reduce poverty. POWER PLANtS GEA air-cooled condensers have been installed or are under installation at a number of power plants. The Chinese Government wants all new coal-fired power stations. There have been people in this region for more than a million years and legend has it that the Yellow Emperor. as well as existing ones. 80 per cent of China’s electricity comes from coal. which is then recirculated. First published in Generate magazine issue 2. interestingly. In the case of coal-fired power stations. But.000 coal-fired power stations and plans to build over 500 more. so much so that it is known as the ‘Kingdom of Coal’. it’s one of the region’s natural resources that is threatening this environment and contributing to global climate change – coal. Gore also makes the point that China is far stricter about emissions from cars than the state of California. ironically. These are small but essential steps towards enabling China to use its own energy resources without damaging the environment. GEA is one of the companies providing a technical solution to this. Dr Yu Youjun. GEA Westfalia Separator is supplying decanters that are used as part of the process for neutralizing the sulfuric acid contained in flue gas. many of which are in Shanxi Province.isitors to Shanxi Province in the north of China marvel at the ancient city of Pingyao.

But it wasn’t long before people wanted to take their beverages home – and the commercial bottled soft drink market was born. The bottles themselves were made of glass. But those bubbles were a problem and in 1892 William Painter patented the ‘Crown Cork Bottle Seal’. which became part of American culture. The first bottled soft drinks appeared in the 17th century made from water and lemon juice sweetened with honey. Italian specialist in bottling technology. known as the ‘Father of American soda water’. the first successful method of keeping the bubbles in the bottle. a machine for dispensing carbonated soft drinks. Joseph Priestley. invented an apparatus for charging water with carbon dioxide gas. usually from pharmacies. became part of the GEA Group in April this year. made the first glass of carbonated water and not until 1832 that John Mathews. In 1883. Technology The soft drinks market has come a long way since those days.oft drinks have been available for longer than you might think. James Tufts patented the ‘soda fountain’. 4 . Procomac. hand-blown in the early days. It was only when Michael Owens of the Libby Glass Company developed a bottle-blowing machine that production rocketed and the bottled soft drinks market took off too. But it was nearly 100 years later that an English doctor.

It’s a specialist in aseptic bottling – bottling performed entirely under sterile conditions – the latest development in bottling and one that allows consumers to enjoy a much more extensive range of drinks than ever before. according to Paolo Pagliarini. Tufts.” he explained. Quality control is also vitally important. and. Eastern Europe is considered to be a big growth area and. “The chemicals are very carefully managed and approximately 85 per cent are recycled within a closed-loop system. However. “We put an aseptic product in an aseptic bottle with an aseptic cap and perform the whole process under aseptic conditions.000 bottles every hour. Before aseptic bottling the accepted technology was the ‘hot fill’ technique. When that is approved. technical developments and economies of scale are continually reducing the investment and running costs of plants. access to the world’s biggest consumer market with these technically challenging products will be very exciting. This required the beverage to be heated up to 90°C to kill bacteria.” The beverage industry is embracing aseptic technology as a way of achieving natural flavor and long shelf life with the greatly expanded product range demanded by today’s consumers. a process that consumed a great deal of energy. “I see electronic equipment becoming more and more the foundation of the aseptic process with extensive checks and higher process accuracy. aseptic cold filling suffers from none of these problems. Low acid products such as milk drinks or vegetable juices are more difficult and require more stringent measures to be taken as part of the company’s HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) procedures. However. birthplace of the bottled soft drink. may see the biggest opportunities. Environment No industry today can or should escape the demands of environmental sustainability and the switch from hot to cold aseptic techniques is undoubtedly positive. It’s a multi-billion dollar industry that is still expanding rapidly as technology improves and the world becomes richer. Mathews. have a better tasting product with a higher nutritional value and can use lightweight PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) bottles that reduce material costs and power usage. low-acid filling technology. Procomac has recently filed with the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) for high-speed. no bottled water with a touch of citrus on a long hot car ride.” The latest equipment can achieve filling speeds of up to 60. of course. Where will growth come from in the future? Ferrari expects UHT (ultra heat treated) milk and fruit juices to be the most popular although a new market for beer would be very exciting if PET containers for beer gained market acceptance. Although aseptic production was initially more expensive than the hot fill technique. as prosperity rises. Deputy General Manager & Group Companies Co-ordinator for Procomac. then it had to be cooled again. According to Carlo Ferrari. will be targets for the future.” he explains. the heating affected the taste of the product. Media Manager for Procomac. Surprisingly perhaps the US. November 2007 GENERATE MAGAZINE SPECIAL ISSUE 5 . We are constantly aware of the need to do all we can in this area.Can anyone imagine a world without soft drinks? Probably not. Unthinkable! Since 1979 the company has supplied bottling equipment to a growing market and now provides complete bottling lines. worst of all perhaps. “This way we use less power. Painter and Owens have made of it all?  First published in Generate magazine issue 4. No lemonade with the picnic. China and India. What would Messrs Priestley. no ‘Real Thing’ to refresh after a punishing game of tennis. perhaps. Today’s technology allows a wide range of beverages to be bottled safely and economically without compromising the taste or risking contamination. Ferrari explains that recycling is fundamental within the system to minimize the environmental effect. High acid products such as isotonic sports drinks and citrus fruit juices are the easiest because they are less susceptible to biological attack. aseptic production does require the use of chemicals to maintain the sterile environment. Products It’s no longer just carbonated drinks that are suitable for bottling. it’s electronics that provides the key. no isotonic sports drinks to sustain the long-distance runner. More importantly.

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By 2030. the International Energy Agency predicts. with much of that increased demand coming from China. the world will need 50 per cent more energy than today. Steve Hobson examines the considerable challenges facing the energy industry as it tries to balance the world’s insatiable energy demands and diminishing oil reserves with the need to preserve the environment for future generations. photography: peter dazeley styling: sabrina jard GENERATE MAGAZINE SPECIAL ISSUE . India and other rapidly developing economies.

They also provide fuel for transport and feedstock for the chemical and manufacturing industries. For example. The industry originally depended on thousands of miles of pipeline transporting the gas from the source to the user.both processes currently rely largely on the same fossil fuel sources that would have provided the transport fuel. More fossil fuel reserves are likely to be discovered: for example. Our demands for electricity. the energy industry has been focused on finding and exploiting the best heat sources. Now twelve countries export natural gas and ten more may become exporters in the next few years. The question of whether these unconventional sources will be fully exploited is a complex one. global energy demand – which rose by around 42 per cent between 1980 and 2000 (from 283 quadrillion British Thermal Units [btu] in 1980 to 400 quadrillion btu in 2000) – will nearly double again in the years to 2030. And. It’s not just demand for electricity and process heat for industry putting pressure on fossil fuel resources. Since much of our electricity production has relied on producing steam to move the turbines that produce power. about 143 billion tonnes had been exploited to the end of 2005 and within the next ten years fully half of the reserves will have been extracted. the ‘Estimated Ultimate Recovery’ (useable reserves) of conventional oil was originally 387 billion tonnes. And that has generally meant extracting fossil fuels such as coal. and it has been a constant of our search for the best energy sources for thousands of years. so-called ‘unconventional’ sources such as the immense oil sands in Canada. Whether it’s pipelines or LNG plants. But the sheer rate of growth in demand and increasing fears over the future of fossil fuels have sent the energy supply industry back to the drawing board to look at how energy is delivered and used. Our energy needs may be more varied now and electricity was discovered long ago but heat still forms the basis of many of our systems. and transport are growing faster than ever. oil and gas. not removing. A recent example is the switch to using gas as both a direct source of heat and as a clean and efficient fuel for electricity generation. heat. allows it to be transported by ship. Changing directions It’s not the first time the energy industry has needed to make a step change. however. he need for bodily warmth and for cooking food was what drove the first humans to make use of fire. but it requires huge investment. Overcoming this technical challenge has been the basis for developing a global market for liquefied natural gas (LNG). this is shifting. Fossil fuels No one is sounding the death knell for fossil fuels. Cooling and liquefying the gas. It’s also inflexible and restricts the gas market. That network is still being extended. the burden. while electricity and hydrogen have both been mooted as potential fuels for the transport industry. Iran and Qatar – hold around 50 per cent of the world’s natural gas resources. a very real concern when three countries – Russia. Developments like LNG have broadened the options available for the global energy market. Some have already been tapped and it is technically possible to recover most of them. Of this. Electricity must be generated and hydrogen produced and 8 . According to US Department of Energy figures. The World Energy Council (WEC) points out that there are still extensive reserves of fossil fuel – but they are being depleted faster than ever. GEA’s Thermal Engineering Division takes a leading position in supplying cooling components for these applications.

The answer.There are ‘finite’ and ‘renewable’ energy resources. wave. Managing Director of UK generation at German energy giant Eon. The utilization of geothermal energy has reached the state of industrial application. it is vital CCS is developed for fitment to India and China’s rapidly growing fleets of coal-fired power stations. Geothermal steam and hot springs have been used for centuries but geothermal energy wasn’t used to make electricity until 1904 when a steam field in Italy powered a small generator to light four bulbs. says that. or biofuels. Its economics are expected to be greatly improved when used in conjunction with enhanced oil recovery. GEA Ecoflex GmbH from the Process Equipment Division supplied plate heat exchangers. along with the uranium and thorium resources used as nuclear fuel. Perpetually available they may be. The UK Government wants to see a smallscale demonstration of CCS by 2014 and applied to 300 to 400MW plant by 2018. geothermal energy can produce a constant source all year round. Unlike many other renewable energy sources. Geothermal energy currently accounts for less than one per cent of the world’s energy but a range of pilot projects are underway around the globe to explore its potential. instead. have delivered the cooling towers including the cooling tower fills. photovoltaic. The geothermal power plant Unterhaching in Bavaria.or postcombustion before transporting it via pipelines to underground storage on. but they can’t always be guaranteed to match the place or time of demand. CCS involves extracting carbon from the fuel either pre. ‘Renewable’ energy sources include solar. oil.or offshore. is a perfect example of cross-divisional collaboration within the GEA Group: GEA Energietechnik GmbH and 2H Kunststoff GmbH. The first are the organicallybased resources of coal. wind. > GEOtHERMAL ENERGY One of the lesser-known forms of electricity generation. Bob Taylor. and the UK Government is holding a competition to develop viable CCS among power station operators. both from the Thermal Engineering Division. Germany. as well as contributing to a reduction in the UK’s carbon emissions. as will the increasing burden of extracting them. Coal power stations on the UK’s North Sea coast are ideal proving grounds. tidal and bioenergies. GENERATE MAGAZINE SPECIAL ISSUE 9 . There are no ‘reserves’ to be mined. is power generated from beneath the earth’s crust. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is expected to be commercially viable by around 2020 and will allow fossil fuels such as gas. and storage. geothermal energy. is diversity: a mix of ‘renewable’ energy sources. exploitation is a matter of harvesting them whenever they are available. then. where the liquefied carbon dioxide is used to help extract more oil from depleted fields. oil and coal to be used without contributing to carbon emissions. The costs of abating emissions of carbon dioxide will drive up the price of using fossil fuels. Hot water from below the earth’s surface is extracted and converted into electric power. gas and tars. either electrical or in the form of an energy carrier such as hydrogen. robust and extensive energy networks that make the best of the energy available at any one time.

but in recent years the popularity of wind power has been too high for the industry to manage. especially in the offshore wind sector. providing 94GW of electricity capacity. such as solar photovoltaics. Their common thread is the need to step up these niche technologies to meet a significant proportion of global energy and power needs. there have been true technological leaps. . Major suppliers and volume production had combined to bring down capital costs. It can also be installed in stand-alone applications far from the electricity grid to feed directly into the building supply. the high capital cost of the panels. In others. so it is often the first choice for new renewable energy. In some cases. That means the potential for different types of installation is enormous. Turbine 10 manufacturers have full order books for years to come and so have companies providing installation and commissioning services. and can be staged as more turbines are added to an existing wind farm. Renewable energy Tapping ‘renewable’ energy resources has proved challenging. The European Photovoltaics Industry Association estimates that installed peak capacity could grow by around 35 per cent annually. The European Wind Energy Association puts the number of wind turbines in use worldwide at 85. Photovoltaics (PV) is unique in the variety of potential applications it offers. from the around 1000MW installed worldwide in 2005. from large stand-alone panel arrays to thin films or glasses integrated into buildings. exploiting the resource has sent engineers back to re-examine technologies that have been used for centuries and consider how they can be re-engineered for modern purposes. such as wind power. Problems with silicon supply may ease during the next few years as new manufacturing facilities come on line. a vital material. The growth of the industry has been slowed by three major factors: the price and availability of silicon.000. The capital cost of onshore wind is relatively low. Wind power is probably the fastest growing of the new power sources. High sales volumes (the industry hopes) will start to bring down capital costs.Wind power is probably the fastest growing of the new power sources. and the problems of providing financial credit for domestic levels of power generation.

It is an attractive solution. which are used in any application where heat needs to be transferred in large quantities. Large-scale hydropower is another part of the renewable energy portfolio. The UK. gas pipelines and GTL (gas to liquid) and biomass facilities. GEA has been a major player in the energy sector. sometimes in stages. supply and erection of Air Cooled Condensers for Medupi power station. free and does not require treatment.g. The Thermal Engineering Division has businesses worldwide. Renewables target All these energy sources will be needed to meet our needs. GEA is currently heavily involved in the development of new power stations there. such as California and Spain. The growth of refineries. petrochemical plants. >  Air Cooled Condensers. The different types of hydropower include waterwheels. And it’s not just GEA’s Thermal Engineering Division that plays a leading role in the energy industry. streams and oceans). GTL plants and gas processing plants in the Middle East has created a new market for air cooling as water is scarce. and damless hydro (using the kinetic energy of rivers. de-sublimination. and at ever faster rates of deployment. a second solar industry is developing alongside: using the sun’s heat. GENERATE MAGAZINE SPECIAL ISSUE 11 . it may not be a major option for the future in developed countries as there is little scope for further development and the building of new dams may present environmental problems. South Africa is experiencing energy shortages and GEA is also involved in projects that will recommission power stations shut down in the 1990s. Bio-energies Biomass and biofuels are. >  Special applications (e. >  Indirect dry cooling by means of Heller ® cooling towers (a two-step method – water is cooled in a Dry Cooling Tower and the cooled water cools or condenses the fluid or steam). The division teams up with different GEA businesses to offer clients integrated engineering solutions to both energy production and boosting energy efficiency. Collecting and concentrating the sun’s energy with specially shaped mirrors can allow it to be used to produce steam for driving a conventional steam turbine. crystallization). Heat transfer technology plays a central role in the world’s power stations. The boost of India’s economy is great news for its petrochemical industry and GEA is supplying components there. are at an early stage of development but are likely to encounter the issues of supply-chain development that have checked the wind industry. They enable low cost energy to be used at long distances from the water source. will soon require transport fuels to include a mix of up to five per cent plant-based equivalents. but it will not allow the EU to dominate world markets. In January 2008. Other technologies. Air cooling is used at all modern industrial facilities (from energy generation to energy transportation) – air is unlimited. and the Group’s reputation for knowledge. and it is growing fast in areas which can rely on sunshine. winning one of the largest orders in the history of its Thermal Engineering Division in December 2007 for the design. > GEA’S ROLE IN tHE ENERGY INDUStRY As countries and energy companies around the world explore how to meet future energy needs. as it will also fit directly into our existing energy infrastructure. for direct condensing. South Africa’s power industry is also developing at a fast rate. Demand is growing still faster in areas such as China and India. the European Commission published detailed plans on how its member states would together produce 20 per cent of their primary energy supplies from renewables by 2020. Historically. GEA company Batignolles Technologies Thermiques opened a new manufacturing site for Air Coolers in Qatar to tap into this market. which are used to condense steam. Central to GEA’s energy offering are: >  Air Cooled Heat Exchangers (also known as Air Fin Coolers) for direct dry cooling. for example. not least food crops. GEA’s Thermal Engineering Division will be with them every step of the way. >  Wet cooling (a two-step method – water is cooled in a wet cooling tower and then the cooled water cools or condenses the fluid or steam). a new way to fuel familiar technologies. manufacture. Although hydroelectricity doesn’t give out harmful emissions and is cheaper than energy generated from fossil fuels. such as oceanbased devices that abstract energy from waves and tides. building its first Air Cooled Condenser in 1939. or vegetable oils for fossil oil. It is a big increase and will fuel the European market for all these technologies. similarly. oil refineries. It is a new way to use a familiar technology that fits well into our existing energy networks. GEA has invested heavily in China and it is paying off with a host of contracts to supply Air Cooled Condensers for the fleet of coal-fired power plants and Air Fin Coolers for the petrochemical refineries that will power the China of the future. and there was an outcry when cash crops such as palm oil were seen to be the cause of destruction of virgin forest. reliability and engineering excellence means it is well positioned to benefit from projected increases in energy consumption. Thus. Fossil fuels are directly replaced with their plant-based equivalents: wood or other solid biomass for coal. But the biggest question is over their production: they compete for space with existing crops. hydroelectricity (dams) which is the most widely used. too. There are questions over the costs and environmental impact of refining and transporting the necessary quantities of bio-energies.As the PV industry grows.

twothirds of the global population will call a city home. To encourage the use of energy-efficient lighting in homes. squat buildings with shaded courtyards and no cars. the human race has just reached the point where more than half of the world’s population lives in cities. two city-scale projects are beginning to make waves. Incandescent light bulbs.000 to 20. Consultants Arup are working on what is claimed to be the world’s first sustainable city at Dongtan in China. Meanwhile. Ministers also want to see ten so-called eco-towns climbing off the drawing board by the end of the decade. GREEN URBAN DEVELOPMENt According to urbanists and statisticians. 12 . have been specially targeted. with super-efficient buildings clustered in dense. The environmental and political imperatives surrounding the need to cut greenhouse gas emissions have already persuaded the UK Government to lead the world by committing to the ambitious goal that all new homes will be built to a zero carbon standard by 2016. Work is also now underway to look at equally tough energy efficiency targets for new commercial and industrial buildings. a multi-billion-dollar green city in the desert. The target is definitely zero carbon with energy supplied by photovoltaics. With sales of A-rated white goods rising from 20 per cent to 60 per cent in the first three years. waste to energy and other technologies. This 50. reinvent themselves as exemplars of sustainable development? There’s a queue of designers.000 homes and all will have to achieve zero carbon development. the EU introduced an energy rating scheme covering white goods and light bulbs. while last year the European Union set a target of saving 20 per cent of its energy consumption compared to projections for 2020. Many governments are proposing to phase out incandescent lighting and replace it with more efficient technologies such as compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs).IS ENERGY LABELLING WORKING? Essentially. walkable neighborhoods. In 1985. Each will be a small new town of at least 5. improving the efficiency of fossil fuel plant etc). At the same time the United Arab Emirates has announced plans to start building Masdar. renewable energy. which waste 95 per cent of electricity consumption. Can cities be green. In 2004. domestic microgeneration systems. This will be delivered by a mix of renewable energy projects. the scheme was a success but any gains were more than wiped out by modern consumers’ insatiable demand for electronic gadgets. the European Commission set up the European Design Competition ‘Lights of the Future’. This year’s awards will be presented at the Light+Building event to be held as part of a giant trade fair in Frankfurt in April 2008. internationally. Solar and wind energy will power the city and its water desalination plant.000-inhabitant city will feature narrow streets. By 2050. The US Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program has called upon Federal agencies to reduce energy use by 35 per cent by 2010 on 1985 levels. wind. or reducing the energy intensity of consumption (bringing down the MWh per square meter by improving energy efficiency of buildings or appliances or reducing energy-hungry activities). engineers. The house building industry has signed up to this. The designers envisage a city powered by local. there are two routes to diminishing carbon emissions from electricity use: cutting the carbon intensity of power generation (reducing the carbon dioxide emissions per KWh by using more nuclear or renewable energy. where A+ indicates appliances that consume 30-42 per cent of standard energy consumption and A++ those consuming under 30 per cent. and community heating projects based on combined heat and power systems and ultra energy-efficient new dwellings. The city will get the bulk of its energy from wind turbines and bio fuels. architects and politicians who say emphatically ‘yes’. two new categories for refrigerators and freezers were added. Appliances are rated from A (the best) to G (the worst) based on energy and water efficiency. solar power.

Past experience shows that when oil prices in particular rise too high.8 > 211. with oil consumption rising 37 per cent to 116 million barrels per day (Mbbl/d) in 2030. and warns in its 2007 World Energy Outlook: “If governments around the world stick with current policies the world’s energy needs would be more than 50 per cent higher in 2030 than today. And the steep increase in demand for energy – as more and more people in the developing economies aspire to own cars and have electricity – means looking long and hard at options to power the world’s economies. Coal analysts McCloskey’s expects China’s coal consumption to rise rapidly to 3. But the picture has changed.3 bnt by 2011.3 > 59. In 1990 the developed world used more than double the non-industrialized nations.8 > 622. Russia.4 > 14.” It forecasts that world energy demand will hit 17.9 The energy outlook World energy prices are likely to continue rising because of the combination of falling supplies of fossil fuels and rising demand from emerging economies.1 > 20. correcting prices downwards.0 > 75. Those emerging economies expected to see the largest increases in wealth and hence energy demand are the ‘BRICS’ – Brazil. First published in Generate magazine issue 5. partly fuelled by coal-fired generating capacity rising at 90 gigawatts (GW) a year. While the developed world still accounts for most of the world energy consumption.3 > 139.5 14.3 > 53. After 2009.5 > 236. The International Energy Agency (IEA) calls the consequences of China’s and India’s rise in energy demand “alarming”. China and India are currently seeing gross domestic product growth running at almost ten per cent a year and energy consumption is outpacing this growth as domestic and industrial electricity demand rockets.3 > 281. Western Europe and Australia ENERGY CONSUMPTION (QUADRILLION BTU) 1990 2001 2010 2025 182.4 > 403.6 > 173.1 9. Most of this increase in coal use will be in China and India.4 > 36. AMERICA total Developing nationS TOTAL WORLD Source: Energy Information Administration *US.9 89. currently exporting around 50 million tonnes of its massive 2.9 > 470. March 2008 GENERATE MAGAZINE SPECIAL ISSUE 13 . however. fossil fuels will account for 84 per cent of this increase in demand. India.6 > 265. rising output and stabilizing demand are expected to more than cover this domestic increase and China will have a rising surplus for export. The global energy industry knows the world can no longer rely predominantly on fossil fuels and that renewable forms of energy must become an increasing part of the energy supplies of the future if greenhouse gas emissions are to be reduced. demand in the developed economies – especially in the US – falls.REGION Industrialized nations* Eastern Europe/ Former Soviet Union Developing nations ASIA MIDDLE EAST AFRICA CENTRAL & STH. China is both the world’s largest producer and consumer of coal.6 52.7 billion tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) by 2030.5 > 85.3 > 12.1 > 175.3 billion tonnes annual production. the developing world will be consuming only five per cent less than the industrialized nations. while coal demand will leap 73 per cent. No country has ever managed to increase its gross domestic product without increasing its energy consumption and this will certainly hold true for China's and India’s surging economies.6 > 21.0 > 34.8 > 25.0 > 110.4 13. up from 11. China and South Africa.9 > 25. China and India together account for 45 per cent of the increase in demand in this scenario. Worryingly for the climate. By 2025. Our future depends on it.4 76.9 348.4 billion toe in 2005. the developing economies – especially in Asia – are increasing consumption fast (see table).4 > 20.

A revolutionary method of manufacturing vaccines is improving their availability for people in the developing world. 14 .

containing the stable active ingredient. But some drugs must be delivered through injection and it is these that must be kept cooled. Drugs taken orally can be provided in tablet or capsule form and are. First published in Generate magazine issue 8.. “If all vaccines were made by spray drying we could overcome the problems of shortages. This logistical nightmare is compounded by the fact that vaccines must be stored and transported under strict temperature-controlled conditions of between 2°-8ºC otherwise they will become ineffective1. are then suspended in an inert anhydrous syrup (anhydrous meaning ‘without water’) such as medically approved fluorocarbons. 1 According to the UK’s Health and Safety Executive 2 Figures from Cambridge Biostability Ltd.000 people die of AIDS every year in Africa alone (WHO) – and it’s understandable that finding a solution has been called the ‘holy grail’ of vaccine research. transport and maintenance of vaccines to ensure that they are protected from inappropriate temperatures and light from the time of manufacture to administration. The spheres. Add to the problem the fact that much of the greatest need for vaccines is in the developing world – 400. said that simply using ‘spray drying’ rather than the more common ‘freeze drying’ increases the availability of these vital drugs. enzymes and nucleic acids. unlike in wealthier countries. March 2009 GENERATE MAGAZINE SPECIAL ISSUE 15 . proteins. immunization programs are not taken for granted. This eliminates the risk of contamination and the need for antiseptics. For three years GEA Niro has been at the forefront of this research by working with a UK company. The resulting suspension is a thermo-stable. Measles. Chief Scientific Advisor for CBL. in the war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo only one of the eleven provinces is accessible by road. ready-to-inject liquid that can be stored and transported at ambient temperature without losing its potency. As the vaccines are themselves inert while in suspension it’s possible to mix vaccines for simultaneous injection making delivery faster and easier.findING a solution has been called the ‘holy grail’ of vaccine research. In the developed world the Cold Chain is relatively easy to manage with access to electricity. Life-saving The process involves mixing the active ingredient with a water-soluble glass-like material which is then dried. The rest rely on airlifts and subsequent distribution by canoe. to develop a revolutionary method of stabilizing vaccines using spray drying. The GAVI Alliance is one of several organizations working to improve access to vaccines and immunization for children in developing countries. Cambridge Biostability Limited (CBL). Leading the way The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that currently nearly half of all global vaccines are wasted due to suspected or real temperature damage.. Spray drying could significantly increase the availability of vaccines in the developing world. bicycle or on foot. size ASD-1 spray dryer that enables batches of 10. Spray drying takes seconds and can run continuously until sufficient quantity is made. To solve the problem. Drugs transported in this way can be injected immediately without the need for reconstitution as the body’s fluids naturally dissolve the glass spheres to release the active ingredient. “Traditionally. saving an estimated USD 200-300 million per year2 and helping to make effective vaccines available to the world’s most vulnerable people. vaccines are made in a batch process. For some vaccines the amount needed is very limited and in these cases the ASD-1 will fulfil the needed capacity. Such a reaction is not uncommon in the developing world where. It’s vaccination day and the tears bring joy because she knows her child is one of the lucky ones who can look forward to a healthy future.5 million children died in 2008 from vaccine preventable diseases – more than the entire population of Paris. But procuring and supplying the vaccines is relatively easy compared with actually delivering them safely.. with GEA Niro’s help. so millions of people go without life-saving vaccinations.” he says. for example. temperaturecontrolled vehicles and fast communications.000 doses to be produced under cGMP (Current Good Manufacturing Practices) conditions2. refrigerators. not susceptible to temperature degradation. using the GEA Niro spray dryer.” Overcoming shortages is good news but doesn’t address the problem of temperature control. According to the GAVI Alliance 2. Dr Bruce Roser. During the trial period the spheres are produced under aseptic conditions through spray drying in an ASEPTICSD™. are pioneering a process that is set to revolutionize drug delivery and make the need for the Cold Chain obsolete. enabling production to be linked more precisely to demand. baby cries and its mother smiles. insulin. It’s called the Cold Chain: the system of correct storage. hydrofluroethers or lowdensity metabolized oils chosen to match the density of the powder to prevent the powder floating or sinking. into highly-polished solid or hollow glass spheres of 3µ to 20µ diameter (1mm = 1000µ)2. These spheres can be engineered to provide the desired rate of solubility and release. But transfer that same problem to a region of the world where the Cold Chain is more difficult – such as Africa or the remote areas of South America – and providing potent drugs can be almost impossible. takes three days to manufacture and freeze dry. antibodies.Nearly half of all global vaccines are wasted due to suspected or real temperature damage. Although the ASD-1 is essentially designed for R&D projects the process itself can be easily scaled up using production capacity machines as soon as clinical trials are complete. therefore. growth hormones. Although trials of the process have focused on the preparation of pentavalent vaccine for the treatment of children with a risk of exposure to Hepatitis B – a virus that affects around one third of the world’s population – tests have demonstrated that it can be successfully applied to a wide range of pharmaceutical preparations including vaccines. CBL. For example.

right) are used in these processes. oranges have been pressed manually to separate solids and liquids but automatic processing. have helped facilitate the industry’s widespread growth. Juice is then ready for concentration or pasteurization. Here are the landmark stages in the oranges’ journey from the tree to the breakfast table. their sweet citrus scent remains. There are two main extraction methods: one cuts the fruit in half and the juice is extracted by rotating squeezing heads and the second uses circular cutters to extract juice by cutting through the top and bottom of the oranges. sometimes described as packaged sunshine. the oranges are hand-picked and delivered to industrial processing facilities where they undergo quality control checks before industrial processing begins. Oranges are grown on commercial farms across the world but orange juice production is dominated by Brazil and the US. The technology used for processing the raw products into juice is similar across the world. CLEANING/CRUSHING The fruit is washed and cleaned and sorted according to size. JUICE EXTRACTION Traditionally. is the world’s citrus juice of choice. Despite being washed. A range of GEA technology and equipment including separators and decanters (see panel. Jets of water spray the oranges as they pass along conveyor belts. HARVESTING Farms generally grow varieties of oranges that mature at different times to enable them to produce a steady supply of fruit. The pulp content is adjusted by centrifugal technology according to the individual requirements. Ripened. Oranges are fed into huge juicing machines (known as extractors) and the juice is extracted from fruit as well as separated from the peel and oil in a series of processes. allied with gentler ways of treating the oranges to produce more juice. which are placed in cup-shape holders. EXtRACtOR 16 FINISHER CELLS COLLECtOR TANK PUMP HYDROCYCLONE SAND/SOLIDS CLARIFIER PULP .Making orange juice Orange juice. No two oranges are exactly the same but on average an orange is 43 per cent juice and 57 per cent peel and pulp.

The oil itself is in the citrus fruit’s peel. GEA Westfalia Separator has been the market leader in centrifugal separation technology for over 100 years and its range of separators. decanters and membrane filtration help manufacturers to ensure maximum yield and the highest product quality. JUICE PUMP BUFFER TANK HEAtER CONCENtRAtE PUMP BUFFER TANK EVAPORAtOR GEA AND tHE jUICE INDUStRY Various GEA Group companies are involved in all the key stages of the citrus juicing industry including production. The oil in the peel wash water is then concentrated by separators in a twostage separation process. This process also extends the products’ shelf live. GEA Procomac. The product is transported in ‘juice carriers’. manufactures and services complete cold aseptic and ESL filling lines for juices in PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) bottles. which draw off the water through heat to produce a juice that is five times more concentrated than freshly squeezed juice. or stored in refrigeration tanks before being loaded into tankers. the juice can be reconstituted close to the fruit’s original flavor after transportation and storage. also part of the Mechanical Separation Division. GEA Hovex.PASTEURIZATION OF NFC JUICE When the orange juice is not concentrated but sold as NFC (not from concentrate) juice. Its customers include Tropicana. in the shape of Grasso and Grenco. resulting in higher product yields and consistently high quality juice and oil. A number of companies from GEA Process Engineering are also involved in the production First published in Generate magazine issue 9. GEA Westfalia Separator’s range of separators and decanters are used in the extraction process. CITRUS OIL RECOVERY Essential oils are a valuable byproduct of the citrus juice production process. is a specialist in cutting-edge bottling and packaging technology. driven to ports and transported around the world in specially refrigerated ships. Leading the way in beverage technology expertise is GEA Westfalia Separator Process. To make concentrated juice. the juice passes through evaporators. GEA Niro’s freeze-drying technology improves juices’ shelf life and reduces storage and transportation costs. GEA Filtration technology is used for reclaiming CIP (Clean In Place) chemicals for reuse in the CIP process. especially oils from lemons and grapefruit but also from oranges. Finally. part of GEA’s Mechanical Separation Division. This concentrated orange juice is frozen for transportation and is then reconstituted in the country it is exported to through defrosting and the addition of water and flavorings. it has to be pasteurized (heated rapidly for a short time) to kill any harmful bacteria. using state-ofthe-art bottling technology. GEA’s Refrigeration Division. supplies desanding cyclones to protect the downstream equipment from the erosive effect of the sand. is involved in the refrigeration of juice. one of the US’s biggest juice manufacturers. PACKAGING/TRANSPORTATION The product can now begin its journey to customers across the world. GEA TDS is one of the world’s leading manufacturers and suppliers of process technology for producing fruit juices and concentrates. equipment from GEA TDS is designed to meet the industry’s strict hygiene standards. CONCENTRATION The majority of the world’s orange juice is manufactured for export so turning the juice into concentrated juice gives it a better stability for storage and transport and makes it more cost-effective. specially designed bulk vessels that can hold up to half a million refrigerated liters of juice. It is released during pressing in the extractors and washed off. The industry is constantly striving for ways to make pasteurized orange juice look and taste like its freshly squeezed equivalent. which is also part of the Process Engineering Division. GEA Wiegand’s evaporation technology (taking out water from solids by thermal energy) is used to concentrate juices. It designs. bottling and refrigeration. August 2009 process. From specialist components to complete plants. It is either bottled on site. GENERATE MAGAZINE SPECIAL ISSUE 17 . By extracting the flavors from the thin juices to create a thick concentrate.

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GENERATE MAGAZINE SPECIAL ISSUE 19 . Generate talked to him about the joy of chocolate. The demand for quality chocolate has seen stratospheric growth over recent years as customers worldwide have realized that fine chocolate products with an astonishing range of flavors offer a luxurious experience which is both available and affordable.Chocolate is one of the most popular and recognizable flavors in the world. is one of the pioneers taking hand-made quality chocolates to a whole new level. mainly in Africa – is worth a staggering $75 billion annually and it’s growing. Pierre Marcolini. Alternatively described as food of the gods or food of the devil. chocolate is the ultimate sensual fix. The global chocolate market – which all starts with raw cacao being harvested. one of the world’s leading chocolatiers.

Even though the business has grown I’ve tried to keep the friendly. We now employ more than 300 people. Size and merchandising are also important – small products with amazing flavors presented in beautiful boxes all add to the chocolate’s appeal. biscuits. For the cacao manufacturers that supply the big chocolate manufacturers. Mexico and Brazil. I travel the world to work with small cacao co-operatives in Madagascar. I’ve always liked to eat chocolate – maybe a bit too much – so I decided I would be better off making chocolate for a living. Working with good beans. family atmosphere. How long have you been making chocolate? And how did you get started? A. There’s no doubt eating chocolate is a very social experience and can make you feel happy. I am one of a handful of chocolatiers who still create their own coating (blending the beans from different regions) to make the chocolate and it creates wonderful flavors. I know the people who grow the beans and they are like extended members of the Marcolini family. a less personal relationship than I have with my cacao farmers. Our shops also stock desserts like cheesecakes. And the cacao beans that are used for mass-produced chocolates tend to be blander than those used for quality hand-made chocolates. It’s about the cacao beans and the aromas they produce. ice cream and sorbets. Q. I think. I still make chocolates every day and I never have to ask myself why I am doing this when I wake up every morning. moved to one that was double that size and things grew from there. Beans from different countries produce different flavors – when the beans are fermented and dried by the farmers they start to give off flavors and this continues throughout the manufacturing process. Why does chocolate taste so good? A. When we have made the chocolates we send them the products so they can see what we have done with their cacao beans – having this personal relationship is an important part of the process. mainly based in the Ivory Coast and Ghana. Where do you source your cacao beans? A. It melts slowly in your mouth at a temperature just below your own and as it passes through your system chemicals are released in your brain that make you feel good. a quest for perfection and making innovative chocolates and smaller products Q. the US (New York). a quest for perfection and making innovative chocolates and smaller products. Later I worked in Paris and that experience really taught me a lot about chocolate as an international business. What’s the secret of making great chocolate? A. marshmallows. in 15 shops. Can you tell us about your business? A. France. the sheer quantity of cacao beans they are contracted to supply means it is a different type of working relationship. Q. I started in a garage that was 30 meters square. trying out new flavors and developing innovative new products. Kuwait and Japan. For me as a chocolatier. 20 . Q. in Belgium. We produce a winter and summer range of chocolates and these days we make a lot more than just chocolates. That’s a really interesting question. The big companies treat their suppliers fairly and give them a good price for their products but it is. Q. I’ve been called ‘the chocolate gringo’ by the cacao producers.For me it’s always been about creating new flavors. which is an exciting development. For me it’s always been about creating new flavors. it’s all about different flavors and how they are blended together. In 1995 I decided I wanted to open my own business and set up the Marcolini business when I was 30 – quite late for a chocolatier to set up his own business. We treat them as valued partners and work closely with them to produce the right beans with the right flavors and give them a fair price – that’s what fair trade is all about. For example we have just started working with a new cacao producer in Brazil: that will enable us to add new flavors to our cru. I started as an apprentice at the age of 17 and learned the trade at all the famous chocolate houses in Brussels.

Q. Q.com GENERATE MAGAZINE SPECIAL ISSUE 21 . making smaller chocolates that can be eaten at any time and not just with a meal. Why does mass-produced American chocolate taste so bad compared to its European equivalent? A. First published in Generate magazine issue 3. Denmark-based Niro A/S. Luxury chocolate represents five per cent of the global market but it’s the fastest growing segment. The powder is used to make hot chocolate for vending machines and homes across the world. businessmen used to have threecourse business lunches and chocolate desserts were a popular part of them. part of GEA's Process Engineering Division. we have adapted our products. Belgian people can be quite shy by nature and don’t shout about the things that we are good at. The Marcolini flagship store in Brussels is a chocolate dream. www. which supplies clarifying decanters and separators during cocoa butter's production process. displaying some of the world’s most innovative chocolate products. Pastry World Champion in 1995 and European Pastry Champion in 2000. At some point in the future we might well lose our title as Europe’s chocolate capital to Paris. including Premier Belgian Ice Cream Confectioner in 1991.Today's chocolatiers are producing more innovative products that are beautifully presented. customers’ eating habits have changed over the years. We have four stores in Japan where there is a real demand for quality products of any description. One day I would like to open a shop in London. more cosmopolitan US cities. I certainly don’t want to comment on the quality of chocolate produced by the big American companies but I would say that customers’ tastes are changing in the US. August 2007 GEA AND tHE CHOCOLAtE BUSINESS GEA's main connection to the chocolate industry is through GEA Westfalia Separator. As well as their tastes. He set up his own business in 1995 and now has 15 shops across the world. As chocolate makers we have learned to react quickly to such changes. In recent years people have realized that they can get better quality versions of basic goods like tea. Now that those long lunches are generally a thing of the past.marcolinichocolatier. which would represent something of a crisis in Belgium. Q. The Middle East also represents an opportunity for chocolatiers. supplying various agglomeration systems that make chocolate powder (cocoa/milk solids/sugar mixtures). For example. But for me it will always be about actually making the chocolate and the joy of producing new chocolate products. is also involved in the chocolate industry. Exports now account for 50 per cent of the company’s turnover. a company in the Mechanical Separation Division. Which country is the spiritual home of chocolate? A. All products are handmade in the company’s factory outside Brussels and shipped to the shops. Biographical details Pierre Marcolini is a world-class chocolatier who has won numerous awards. We have a shop in New York that does really well so there is probably a market for quality chocolate in the bigger. coffee and chocolate alongside the everyday kind. Belgium is the capital of Europe in many regards and we certainly produce some of Europe’s best chocolates. How is the market changing? A.

Julie Mitchell looks at a global phenomenon that shows no signs of slowing. it is arguably the most versatile food on the planet. Apart from being packed full of essential protein.Milk is widely regarded as nature’s miracle food – and it’s easy to see why. vitamins and minerals. photography: Will thom styling: sabrina jard .

GENERATE MAGAZINE SPECIAL ISSUE .

Boulevard Auguste Reyers. Pakistan and Turkey. which they call kumis. reindeer and horses. Whey. Today. According to the International Dairy Federation’s World Dairy Situation 2007¹ cow milk represents 84 per cent of world output – 551 million tonnes in 2007. As a drink flavored with fruit or chocolate or added to hot drinks. Skim the cream off the top for myriad culinary uses or churn it into butter. it could milk 50 cows at a time. dairy products were on the menu throughout Europe as well as parts of Asia and Africa. Advances in milking technology. Iran. during the Age of Discovery in the 15th-17th centuries. Then. 1/2 Bulletin of the IDF N°423/2007 – The World Dairy Situation 2007. immortalized it in his epic poem. 1030 Brussels – Belgium. But when electricity was discovered in the mid-19th century the race was on to transform milking from an art to a science. International Dairy Federation. while the French expression ‘en faire tout un fromage’ means to make a big deal of something. The Greeks.org 24 . Interestingly. But the real breakthrough came in 1929 when the first rotary milking parlor was installed on the Walker-Gordon dairy farm in Plainsboro. Milking had to be done by hand – the farmer or milkmaid sitting beside the animal with a bucket. Other animal milk sources include camels. Sheep and goat milk production is estimated at 21 million tonnes worldwide. too. People in Central Asia are partial to drinking fermented mare’s milk. After 50 years of trial and error the first pulsator was introduced in 1895. buffalo milk production is growing faster than cow milk production. There’s no doubt that dairy products regularly feature in the daily diet in most parts of the world. Called the ‘Rotolactor’. while in Sweden and Russia there are moose dairies. The Odyssey. Homer. is today a valuable raw ingredient for the food industry. Eventually. rothing cappuccino coffee. the report also reveals that. And even when milk turns sour you can still enjoy it as yogurt. You can process it into a variety of milk types. where he describes the Cyclops making cheese from sheep and goat’s milk. The uses of milk are legion. although it is generally accepted to date from when man learned to domesticate goats and sheep in the Middle East around 8000 BC. One of their most famous sons. Murals on some of their tombs show cheese being made. And the trend is spreading to new markets such as China. During the 20th century mechanization.The uses of milk are legion: Skim the cream off the top for myriad culinary uses or churn it into butter. yaks. paving the way for the modern pulsator machines. Curdle milk and you get cheese – the varieties run into thousands. a crusty bread roll crammed with delicious. the by-product of cheese-making. Europeans spread the word to the far-flung corners of the globe when they took domestic cows and dairy production to their colonies. which used to be discarded as waste. Because milking is a labor intensive process – between three and five minutes per cow – up until relatively recently dairy production could only be achieved on a small scale. were into cheese. www.fil-idf. more people drink milk from cows than from any other animal. They also introduced them to other parts of their Empire where cheesemaking had previously been unknown. But it was the Romans who are credited with establishing uniform cheese-making techniques in Europe. Similarly. People in the US refer to an important person as ‘a big cheese’. food processing technology and refrigeration have made a huge variety of dairy products readily available around the world. Such is the cultural impact of dairy products that they have inspired many well-known phrases. an indulgent cake oozing with cream. Diamant Building – 80. a cool glass of milkshake on a summer’s day. not least rotary parlors capable of milking more than 100 cows an hour. “he milked it for all it was worth”. Curdle milk and you get cheese – the varieties run into thousands. nuttyflavored Cheddar cheese. It’s also known that people were herding cattle in parts of Turkey as early as 7000 BC. New Jersey in the US. ‘to milk’ is associated with making the most of a situation. Another key development around this time was the milk pipeline. in India and Pakistan. The ancient Egyptians enjoyed dairy products. which replaced the cumbersome task of carrying pails of milk to collection tanks. How milking developed There’s no conclusive evidence to pinpoint when humans started to drink milk from animals. for example. It remained in use until the 1960s when it was superseded by more sophisticated rotary parlors. have enabled dairy farms throughout the Western world to become huge corporations with thousands of cows. And there was also a cosmetic value – Cleopatra famously bathed in ass’s milk to improve her skin. butter melting tantalizingly on hot toast.

Semi-skimmed milk has a lower fat content. 1. > SEMI-SKIMMED milk has a lower fat content. Sterilized milk. will last even longer but has a lower nutritional value and the taste is affected.” says the World Dairy Situation 2007 bulletin². Other durable liquid varieties are evaporated milk.” Milk is first pasteurized by heating it to 74°C for 15-20 seconds to kill potentially harmful bacteria.Estimated volume of cow milk delivered to processing facilities in 2007 PAStEURIZED by heating it to 74°C for 15-20 seconds to kill potentially harmful bacteria WHOLE MILK has a fat content of four per cent. “An estimated volume of 371 million tonnes of cow milk was delivered to processing facilities. As a result it can be stored for several months EVAPORAtED MILK is heated at temperatures between 60°– 65°C then sterilized in sealed cans for ten minutes Milk is heat-treated and preconcentrated. while skimmed milk is virtually fat free.7 per cent. which is 65 million tonnes more than ten years ago. particularly in cakes. on the positive side. then homogenized and fed into a spray dryer where the water is removed. which has a fat content of 3. then homogenized and fed into a spray dryer where the water is removed. 1. biscuits and sweets and also form the basis for baby milk formula. whole milk and skimmed milk powders retain the nutritional value of their liquid forms. which goes through a more severe heat treatment. reducing the fat content lowers the levels of vitamin A and D but. is usually homogenized to spread the fat evenly through the milk Safe to drink The milk collection revolution has gone hand-in-hand with advances in food production.7 per cent. reduced fat milks contain slightly more calcium by volume. heated at temperatures between 60°–65°C then sterilized in sealed cans for ten minutes. then rapidly cooled and refrigerated to preserve its shelf life. The longest-lasting format is milk powder. They are used extensively in food manufacturing. As a result it can be stored for several months and. MILK POWDER is the longest lasting format of milk GENERATE MAGAZINE SPECIAL ISSUE 25 . With the exception of some vitamins. is usually homogenized to spread the fat evenly through the milk and prevent cream forming on the top. Milk is heat treated and pre-concentrated. until it’s opened. doesn’t need to be kept in the refrigerator. Today “the share of milk production which is delivered to dairies for processing is growing faster than in previous years.5-4 per cent. without damaging the nutritional value or taste. Milk powders can be reconstituted with water and then treated the same way as fresh milk. Unfortunately. and condensed milk from which most of the water has been removed and sugar added. while skimmed milk is virtually fat free UHT (ultra heat treated) milk is heated to at least 135°C and packaged in sterile containers. Whole milk.5 – 1. Ultra heat treated (UHT) milk is heated to at least 135°C and packaged in sterile containers.

particularly in China. preferring to tuck in to fruit and grains rather than the Cheddar on the mousetrap. increasing demand for organic products. including more emphasis on value-added products. Asia Pacific will be the fastest growing regional market. This is attributed to changing dietary aspirations in line with new-found wealth.Estimated value of worldwide dairy products market by 2010. Pakistan is actually the world’s fourth largest milk producer but. CHEESE OFF tHE MENU FOR MICE In 2006 researchers at Manchester Metropolitan University in the UK made an amazing discovery that debunks the long-held belief that mice like cheese. changing eating habits. countries like Pakistan are being encouraged to develop their dairy industries for the export market. also argues that yogurt will be the most profitable sector. The biggest milk producer by far is the US. like Nestle’s at Kabirwala. while Western Europe will continue to lead the dairy consumption league table – it currently accounts for 42 per cent of the global market. Higher demand for dairy products is expected to come from Latin America and the Caribbean. followed by India and Russia. sugary foods. EUROPE. thanks to the latest processing technology. interestingly. As mentioned earlier. by 2010. have the capacity to process up to three million liters of milk per day to international standards. The report 26 . Their study showed that mice are attracted to sweet. according to a report published this year by Global Industry Analysts (GIA). USA USA WEStERN EUROPE PAKIStAN RUSSIA INDIA ASIA PACIFIC ASIA PACIFIC LAtIN AMERICA BIGGESt MILK PRODUCERS GREAtESt DEMAND FUtURE EXPANDING MARKEtS A growing market By 2010 the worldwide dairy products market is predicted to be worth more than USD 305 billion. the US and the Asia Pacific region now account for more than 70 per cent of the dairy market but that. New state-of-the-art processing plants. But. packaging innovations and marketing of niche brands. most farms in the developed world are run to industrial capacity. > MILKING SUCCESS Movie star Sir Sean Connery began his working life as a milkman at the Corstorphine Dairy in Scotland before turning to acting. THE US AND ASIA PACIFIC ACCOUNT FOR MORE THAN 70 PER CENT OF THE DAIRY MARKET BUT BY 2010 ASIA PACIFIC WILL BE THE FASTEST GROWING REGIONAL MARKET GIA found that Europe. Several factors are expected to fuel this growth. its livestock is widely distributed among rural households.

giving them a harder texture. butterfat content. for example Wensleydale with cranberries or the fiery Afuega ‘I Pitu with chilies. made by separating the milk solids and water from the butterfat through gentle heating. or acid such as vinegar. Pure fromage frais is fat free but there are versions with cream added. whatever the type. It is made by adding specific bacteria to milk and fermenting it under controlled temperatures. either in its natural sour state or sweetened and mixed with fruits. However. while others are made by washing the curd in warm water to create a milder flavor. the process is speeded up using centrifugal separators. are added to the milk to curdle it so that the solid curds are separated from the liquid whey. Before mechanization this cream would simply be skimmed from the surface. And for the brave there is Casu Marzu from Sardinia with live maggots. The unique texture and flavor of the different cheeses depends on the milk used – usually from cows. It can be enjoyed the same way as yogurt or added to desserts and savory dishes. There are literally thousands of cheeses from the familiar Cheddar. the curdling technique. the national dish. It was generally believed that yogurt helped to prolong life and cure gastrointestinal conditions. It can also be fermented with bacterial cultures to create sour cream and crème fraîche. There is also a range of cheeses. processing and length of aging. like cheese. Emmental and Gorgonzola to the less well-known Kadchgall from Afghanistan and Daralagjazsky from Russia. There are several grades of cream available – the higher the fat content. “milk’s great leap towards immortality”. Asia and the Middle East have sworn by the restorative powers of yogurt. The method of making cheese is basically the same. the thicker the cream. such as kefir and lassi. another worldwide dairy staple. processing and length of aging. Some cheeses are heated to between 35° and 55°C to remove more moisture. Moroccan smen is clarified butter mixed with spices. The curd is then pressed into a mold and the whey is usually transformed into a powder for use in the food. yogurt is probably the oldest method of preserving milk. Rennet. Turkey. Some types. the curdling technique. like cheese. CREAM AND BUttER Without homogenization the fat content of milk will. butterfat content. known as ghee. Today. known as double cream in the UK and heavy cream in the US. or the palate. are strained through a cloth or paper filter to give a thicker consistency. Central Asia and India yogurt is popular as the basis for drinks. nuts and syrup. such as cottage cheese or Romanian Cas. which is a regular ingredient in recipes. people living in the Balkans. Clarified butter. No other food has quite captured the imagination. goats or sheep – the animal’s diet. buffalo. YOGURt For centuries. which require little in the way of processing once the milk is curdled. Another favorite is tea with rancid yak butter and salt. reduced fat and non-fat varieties. Yogurt is available in whole. CURDS AND WHEY US television host Clifton Fadiman summed up the feeling of cheese-lovers everywhere when he described cheese as. animal feed and pharmaceutical industries. not least ice cream. India has its own version. Brie. Butter can be salted or unsalted and the color varies according to the breed of cow and its diet. Across the Middle East. Another dairy product which resembles yogurt is fromage frais. is favored for frying because it can be heated to higher temperatures than ordinary butter. as well as sauces both sweet and savory. goats or sheep – the animal’s diet. except that curds are stirred to prevent them from solidifying. Cream is a key ingredient for many cakes and desserts. Many cheeses are allowed to develop molds which create distinctive blue veins. The bacteria eat the lactose (milk sugar) and release lactic acid which thickens the milk protein while preventing harmful bacteria getting into the product. Tsampa. It is actually made from curdled milk. is favored for cooking as it is less likely to separate when heated than the lower fat type. a starter bacteria. Tibetan households have butter made from yak milk. rise to the surface and float on the top. Although yogurt is a Turkish word it’s not certain who actually invented it. Central and Eastern Europe have a similar product called smetana.The unique texture and flavor of the different cheeses depends on the milk used – usually from cows. Thick cream. such as Greek yogurt. when left to stand. consists of barley flour mixed with yak butter. Churning cream produces butter. buffalo. GENERATE MAGAZINE SPECIAL ISSUE 27 . or have colorings and flavorings added.

a less serious form of the human version. milkmaids. becoming lactose intolerant. It’s been suggested that drinking low fat milk reduces the risk of hypertension. mayonnaise or pickle.Dairy and health Are dairy products good for you? For milkmaids it would seem that the answer is yes. prompting farmers to increase herd sizes. On the plus side a glass of milk contains: vitamin B12 for red blood cells. which meant milkmaids did not have the pockmarked complexion common to smallpox survivors. Now. especially the full fat varieties. In the 19th century kumis. with the environmental lobby seeking to cut down on plastic. who milked the cows and prepared cream. Their skin was certainly in better condition: working with dairy cattle exposed them to cowpox. modern food distribution. In today’s health-conscious. potassium for nerve function. the world’s appetite for dairy products shows no signs of abating. colorectal cancer and obesity.cheddarometer. magnesium for muscle function. Contracting cowpox made them immune to smallpox. diet-obsessed world the jury is still out on how good or bad dairy products are for human health. carbohydrate for energy. In recent years there’s been an upsurge in demand for probiotic milk drinks and yogurts from health-conscious consumers. In Europe the market is increasing by ten per cent a year. riboflavin for healthy skin and zinc to protect the immune system. Even now the antioxidant content of mare’s milk makes it much sought after in the cosmetics industry for use in skin creams. The milkman and his daily round are still alive and well in the UK and in rural India it’s delivered in a metal container attached to a bicycle. fecund and in fine health. is a far bigger hit there than Coca-Cola. made from mare’s milk. strawberry and banana are the most popular. a coffee-milk-mix drink. Also some people lose the ability to digest lactose.com to find the recipe for the perfect cheese sandwich. Over the years the packaging has changed from the glass bottle to the wax-coated paper carton and the plastic container. But the long-term outlook is healthy: with the enhanced demand for new products such as milk-based drinks. butter and cheese. Probiotics contain bacteria that can counteract harmful bacteria in the intestines. Trends in the dairy industry Because fresh milk has a relatively short shelf life it used to be delivered directly to households. probiotics and niche cheeses. Goat’s milk is also experiencing a renaissance. Numerous studies have been carried out into the effects of regular milk consumption. First published in Generate magazine issue 7. plus the required amount of salad. protein for growth and repair. smallpox. 28 . Certainly dairy products. which are driving up prices. Farmers Union Iced Coffee. The site contains a mathematical formula devised by scientists at Bristol University in the UK. COKE NOt ‘tHE REAL tHING’ IN OZ More flavored milk is drunk in South Australia than anywhere else in the world. coronary heart disease. calcium for strong bones and teeth. Like other food producers dairy farmers are feeling the effects of increased animal feed and fuel costs. Historically. refrigeration and lifestyles have taken away the need for home delivery and now most people buy their milk from the shops. have been presented as fair. in many countries. was considered to be a panacea for all ills. so much so that kumis resorts sprang up in the south east of Russia. which calculates the ideal thickness of the bread and cheese. November 2008 WHAt’S GOOD ABOUt A GLASS? Vitamin B12 = red blood cells Calcium = strong bones and teeth Carbohydrates = energy Magnesium = muscle function Phosphorus = release energy Potassium = nerve function Protein = growth and repair Riboflavin = healthy skin Zinc = immune system PERFECt SNACK Log on to www. A major growth area for dairy is flavored milk as concerns about wellbeing and obesity prompt consumers to ditch carbonated sugary drinks in favor of healthier options. Perhaps easy access to dairy products meant they were getting enough to eat at a time when many working people were malnourished. the next stage of the packing evolution looks set to be recyclable bags. Chocolate. phosphorus to release energy. can be fattening and doctors recommend that people with high cholesterol or heart conditions should avoid them. But.

Compared to conventional homogenizing valves. fruit juice and food processing industries. yogurt. And now the company has now taken the milking revolution further again with the MIone milking robot. GEA Niro Soavi offers a full range of homogenizers and pumps covering all dairy industry requirements. cream. A high level of productivity. And its Test Center for Food and Chemical Products in Denmark offers a world-leading resource for food and chemical companies to try out a range of extraction. chose machines from GEA Westfalia Separator Process for its main plant in Athens as well as for a new dairy in the US. from the delivery of the fresh milk to the factory through all stages of production and storage. Another innovation from Westfalia’s Dairy Technology Business Unit is PROCOOL – which enables dairies to switch from cold to warm milk separation. with a comprehensive range of equipment for all stages of the milking process. Today. The companies of the GEA Process Equipment division support adherence to strict hygiene regulations for companies from the brewing. The division provides stateof-the-art refrigeration technology. cleaning devices. GEA’s Process Engineering Division supplies everything from stand-alone installations to complete plants for processing dairy products including milk and whey powders. High pressure homogenization is essential for improving the stability and shelf life of dairy products. the company’s patented NanoValve™ achieves optimal performance at low pressure and is ideal for processing milk. which has a long and impressive history of supplying innovation and engineering know-how throughout the dairy chain. cutting-edge processing technology and refrigeration. ice cream. cosmetics and health care industries with a range of homogenizers. GEA Refrigeration is one of the world’s leaders in industrial refrigeration.The FAGE dairy. Given that GEA technology is involved in approximately one quarter of all milk produced worldwide it’s highly likely that the dairy products in your refrigerator will have had some contact with the company’s milking or processing equipment. the market-leading WestfaliaSurge AutoRotor can milk more than 100 cows an hour. quark. GEA Ecoflex plate heat exchangers meet these demands with a wide range of plates for all applications. valve blocks. Finally. To counteract the effects of the salty air from the brine bath – central to the cheese-making process – GEA Happel Klimatechnik supplied equipment made from corrosion-resistant steel. CIP units and pumps manufactured by the company from Büchen. GEA Process Engineering company Ahlborn was founded in 1856 and GENERATE MAGAZINE SPECIAL ISSUE 29 . dairy and foodstuff industries. Since 1926 WestfaliaSurge – part of GEA Farm Technologies – has been setting the trends in milk collection technology. Westfalia also produces turnkey process lines for the variety of soft cheese products that have been developed in the trend towards more health-conscious diets (including cream cheese. whey and butter. providing more flexibility and cheaper running costs. which can be used during the whole process. One of the leaders in this field is the GEA Group. meet the demanding hygienic and sterile requirements of these industries. In particular. Applications range from single-stage/two-stage bacterial clarification to the special bacterial clarification used for drinking milk as well as the variable bacterial clarification of cheese milk. beverages. Germany. The diverse processes for handling liquid foodstuffs require many heating up and cooling steps. baby food. And new developments in all these areas will continue to play a critical role in helping farmers and dairy companies to meet the challenges of the future. Separation equipment is central to the processing system within modern dairies. valves and plate heat exchangers. from pilot to large scale fully automated units. as well as the pharmaceutical. clean air at the right temperature is essential to providing the hygienic conditions needed for processing and storing dairy products. tanks. The centrifugal separators remove bacteria and they are crucial to a wide variety of dairy processes. Like most fresh foods. Thermoquark and Baker’s Cheese). evaporation and drying technologies. based on the dehumidifiers normally used for indoor swimming pools. in-line measurement and control equipment. Leading air treatment experts of the GEA Air Treatment Division broke new ground by providing a climate control system at the MüritzMilch cheese dairy in Waren. using the same machine. biotechnology. which also includes Tuchenhagen Dairy Systems. it is part of the newly named GEA TDS GmbH company. including the buttermilking machine. cheese. treating concentrated whey and pre-treatment of milk powder. Germany. The company GEA Niro offers pilot plants for test processing and manufacturing product samples. In addition Westfalia supplies all elements of the process lines for the butter industry. This is also a field in which GEA – with its company GEA Westfalia Separator Process – excels. The division supplies turnkey plants for some of the world’s biggest dairy operations.became part of the GEA Group in 1979. There is a high level of automation in the process lines. MILKING AND PROCESSING EXCELLENCE The globalization of the dairy industry could not have been achieved without milking machines. dairy products need to be kept cold. a leader in the dairy. Westfalia is the market leader in centrifugal separators for fresh cheese. cost-efficient operations and reliable product consistency characterize process components from GEA Tuchenhagen. which enables cows to be milked when they choose and is suitable for farms of virtually all typical sizes. pasteurization unit and associated pipework. the largest operation of its kind in Greece. Process valves.

Then these spotless bottles are filled with fruit juices by one of GEA Procomac’s Spanish customers. but what’s actually happening to the PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) tops is an intrinsic part of the mechanical bottling process. November 2008 . First published in Generate magazine issue 7. These bottles are being sterilized. with penetrating nozzles spraying liquid 30 peroxide solution over them at high pressure. It may remind you of flowers. before they are rinsed in sterile water.This stunning shot was taken at GEA Procomac's bottling technology facility in Italy.

GENERATE MAGAZINE SPECIAL ISSUE 31 .

com 32 . allowing Hisun to expand its operations into formulated pharmaceutical products for oncology and infectious diseases.gearefrigeration.com FROZEN ASSEtS COMBINE GEA Refrigeration has brought together industryleading subsidiary companies Aerofreeze. A major advantage is that it can decant process products with absolutely minimized oxidation or intake of other gasses containing low levels of dissolved solids. supply.” said Jean-Michel Daviaud. the new decanter can be used for fruit juice and wine production. The new organization designs and manufactures in-line tunnel. installation and commissioning of all liquid processing parts. member of the Executive Board of GEA Group. As GEA Freezing they will provide a uniform product line and worldwide access to service and technological innovation. The baby food plant order was placed by Almarai.geapharmasystems. installation and commissioning of the factory in Riyadh and is due for completion in autumn 2010. combined with high clarifying efficiency and maximum dry matter in the solids. “Food processors around the world will benefit from the shared resources.com MILEStONE PHARMA WIN FROM CHINA Zhejiang Hisun Pharmaceutical Co has given Pharma Systems Division. www. Vice President of GEA Refrigeration. service and after-sales structure throughout the country.GEA SUPPLIES RESOURCE-SAVING COOLING SYStEMS GEA’s Energy and Farm Technology Segment has received orders from China worth EUR 46 million for efficient power plant cooling equipment. they offer an environmentally-friendly and resource-saving method of power plant cooling. This new order underlines this development in the market. which has an equal energy output. sanitary design. says GEA Group CEO Jürg Oleas.” www. evaporation system. www. They include an Alex Air Cooled Condenser for the 2 x 660 MW coal fired power plant in Chongxin and a Heller® cooling system for the coal fired power plant in Shuidonggou.” says Niels Graugaard. spiral. Nestlé has awarded a EUR 9 million contract to build the liquid processing section of a Growing-Up Milk plant near Osorno in Chile. “Due to the water scarcity in the power producing regions of the country. Eurotek and Intec under the banner of GEA Freezing. “This will be the fourth power plant in China to be equipped with this efficient GEA technology within the last 24 months”. The three companies specialize in chilling and freezing equipment and services for the frozen food processing industry.westfalia-separator. As both systems operate without using water in the cooling cycle or discharging heated cooling water. reputation for operational reliability and proven capability of running large engineering projects for the pharmaceutical industry. process automation. This is a major breakthrough in the region.com NEW GENERAtION DECANtER ON SHOW GEA Westfalia Separator presented its new F series decanter for the first time at drinktec 2009. “GEA Pharma Systems already holds an established position in China with a major manufacturing facility in Shanghai and an engineering. The plant will be equipped with the latest in process technology to ensure safe and efficient production. the multifunction machine has a bowl diameter of 400 millimeters and ensures maximum performance. www. In addition to breweries. “Our individual records of innovation and customer service are now coming together to address the food processor’s need for improved hygiene and more energy efficient operations. part of Pack Expo.geap. The equipment will be used at the new facilities in the Fuyang pharmaceutical valley where Hisun is planning to invest over EUR 100 million to make it the biggest pharmaceutical production site in China. the Middle East’s leading dairy foods company. the project includes engineering. The machine is termed a “hydro-hermetic” decanter with a pressurized separation chamber. combined with China’s need for energy-efficient power production. butter oil plant and the CIP (clean in place) unit. manufacturing. GEA TDS is responsible for project management. Designed specifically for the beverage industry. Worth more than EUR 24 million.com GEA tO BUILD DAIRY PLANtS IN CHILE AND SAUDI ARABIA Orders worth EUR 33 million have been won by GEA’s Process Technology Segment for a baby food (instant formula) factory in Saudi Arabia and Chile’s first fully automatic dairy plant. Apart from that the hydrohermetic feature enables the decanter to discharge separated soft and fluffy solids reliably which would not be possible without the support of the pressure. who is also responsible for GEA’s Energy and Farm Technology Segment.” www. and carton freezers/chillers for large food processors. For example beer can be recovered from yeast efficiently and to a high quality.gea-energy. technical expertise and service support our combined companies will provide. using the most advanced systems is a key issue to the Chinese power industry. in Las Vegas and at the World Wide Food Expo in Chicago. “We won this contract because of our technical excellence. a EUR 15 million order for pharmaceutical freeze dryers with automatic load and unload systems (ALUS). part of the GEA Process Technology Segment.” In October GEA Freezing showed its latest innovations at Process Expo.

co. In issue 10 of GENERATE we look at these and also the many technical advances over the centuries that have shaped the modern world.com copy desk Lang Communications www.uk Publication manager Leigh Littlebury design JohnstonWorks www.uk copyright © 2009 by GEA Group Aktiengesellschaft. it is distributed across the world.. GENERATE celebrates ideas that changed the world.co. From the rotary milking parlor to air cooling and centrifugal technology – GEA companies have a long and rich history of innovation. Reprinting only with the permission of the publisher. Germany. GENERATE is the external magazine of the GEA Group. contact Questions or suggestions on the contents of the magazine: generate@geagroup.merchant. The contents do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the publisher.COMING IN MARCH 2010. 44809.lang-communications. Published three times a year.com . Dorstener Straße 484. IMPRINT Publisher GEA Group Aktiengesellschaft Dorstener Straße 484 44809 Bochum editor in chief Nina Remmer (responsible for editorial content) editorial staff gea Katrin Lamprecht Gaby Fildhaut Produced by Merchant 16 Lincoln’s Inn Fields London WC2A 3ED www..johnstonworks. Bochum.