Works Cited Alto Saxophone. N.d. Colour Box. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <http://www.colourbox.

com/preview/1478928-592427-alto-sax-against-whitebackground.jpg>. The alto saxophone is one of the prime instruments used in Shostakovich's symphonies, and it is featured in Waltz No.2 as the lead voice. The alto's bright and melodious tone really puts a contrast to the dark tone of the cello and string bass. I purposely picked a YAS-62, which is an earlier sax that Shostakovich probably used to designate to his soloist. The picture also stands for our own interpretation as we purposely found a YAS- 62 to record our piece with the same selmer mouthpiece used in order to replicate the tone as close as possible. This is the main reason why we included the alto sax. Ashkenazy, Vladimir. Interview by John Stratford and John Riley. Oct. 1991. This interview is a personal account of Shostakovich's character and personality that only a close friend would be able to decipher. This interview may be our most valuable primary source because it allows us to decipher the facts about Shostakovich that were written in books and his actual character. History is often distorted and tampered with to suit the person in power, and by taking a non- objective personal account of him, we can truly decipher the parts of his character that played a part in his music. The interview also granted an insight into the music writing process, and how certain chords were inserted to counterbalance the minor dissonance and the hopeful chords. Overall, this source was extremely helpful. Belyakov, Vladmir, and Weider History Group. "COMPOSED UNDER ENEMY FIRE, DMITRI SHOSTAKOVICH'S `SEVENTH SYMPHONY' IS A MUSICAL PORTRAIT OF RUSSIA AT WAR." World War II Feb. 1998: n. pag. Academic Research Center.

Web. 1 Dec. 2013. <>. This source dictates the effect of the historical events of Leningrad and how that served as an impediment and sometimes as an inspiration for his musical works. The biggest theme of this source is that Shostakovich stuck to his craft, regardless of the amount of violence happening right outside of his door. He knew he had the responsibility to show his musical talent to the world, and he stuck to his craft even though he wanted to serve at the front line, with the rest of his comrades. He adapted his music so it could serve as an inspiration for soldiers at war, using instruments like the cello and violin which were easily transported. This article, overall, showed his inspirations for his pieces and how his musical efforts may have been as valuable as him actually fighting on the front line. Bettmann/Corbis. Shostakovich at Work. N.d. The Guardian. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <>. This source begins with an interview with the conductor of the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra of Amsterdam in Moscow. He conducted Shostakovich's 4th and 15th Symphony, at a venue which Shostakovich was able to come to. Shostakovich greatly praised him, saying he was moved by the conductor's innate interpretation of his symphony. This lead us to believe that Shostakovich had written his symphonies to be extremely versatile.It helped us develop the connection to history and how his music was meant to cheer up, mourn, and organize.The rest of the source is a detailed biography on his interactions with Soviet Union Leaders and his inspirations on his further symphonies in chronological order.

Boitz, Michael. E-mail interview. 1 Feb. 2014. This interview was conducted over email with our high school music director. This source may be the most valuable of our primary sources because a lot of the information and techniques he used to deal with Shostakovich are things we have noticed when he conducts us. Our director talked about the mood of the piece and how he reacted to it. On top of this, our director had to do a huge research project in college on Shostakovich's Symphony No.5. This incredibly helped us in our musical analysis because we were able to refine our own musical analysis and take an expert's opinion on it. Also, he related the tonality of the piece to common pieces and showed us some basic elements of music theory that once again contributed to our work. Overall, this interview is our most valuable primary source. "Classical Net - Basic Repertoire List - Shostakovich." N.d. Classical Net. Web. 1 Dec. 2013. <>. This source is an extremely comprehensive biography of Shostakovich's life, focuses mostly on his political leanings and interactions. It provides a pretty interesting early life summary of Shostakovich and his father and mother's effects on Shostakovich is evident. It then talks about how Shostakovich may not be the grand, avant-garde composer everyone takes him to be. Even though his music was embedded with chords and triads that went against Stalin, it was all buried under Communist approved music. It then goes on to discuss his most famous opera "The Lady of Macbeth". There was a lot of substantive analysis about the opera which could be used to relate to his symphonies. Overall, this source was extremely helpful. "Dmitri Shostakovich." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. 6th ed. N.p.: n.p., 2013. N. pag. Print. This source provided invaluable insight on the musical intentions of his complex

and intriguing works. The source heavily discusses the insinuation present in certain chords and reveals how Shostakovich was able to manipulate certain melodies and pitches in order to invoke a nationalistic feeling from the audience. We utilized this information in order to dissect Dmitri Shostakovich's numerous symphonies and truly understand the hidden insinuations hidden beneath them, aiding us in comprehending the purpose of his symphonies to as deep a level as possible. Dmitri Shostakovich. 20 July 1942. Times Magazine. Web. 11 Feb. 2014. <,16641,19420720,00.html>. This source is a picture of Shostakovich covering the July 20, 1942 edition of Time Music. The picture stood out to us ,firstly, because of his headwear. He is wearing Soviet Union headwear, which is extremely ironic considering that his music was considered to be antiCommunist. Through this picture, it was derived that he may have been the most clever composer out there. To the public and for a majority of his pieces, he composed highly communistic tunes. However, every 20 or 30 measures he put in a chord or a rhythm that Stalin heavily opposed. Also, the background is of Russia in flames, and I feel this contradicting image was doing him the best. He wasn't being condemned by the Communist Party nor by the public by appropriately mixing his compositions. Overall, this source really taught us a lot about the contradicting image of Shostakovich. "Dmitri Shostakovich | Explore the Arts." The Kennedy Center. The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2013. <>. This source is yet another biography of Shostakovich's life, but focusing more on the general overviews. It progressed through 5 -10 year jumps of Shostakovich's life. This source was extremely

helpful, in that it allowed us to almost zoom out from all the specific details and get an overall image. The biography was pretty objective, as it is focused on a cause and effect relationship between a Russian diplomatic leader and the influences on his music. The biographer also delves into his romantic life and some of the events of his life that added to emotional tonality of the piece. Overall, this source was a good overview of his life. [1/5] Shostakovich Symphony NO.5 (1st: Moderato). Youtube. N.p., 19 Aug. 2010. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <>. This source is a Youtube Clip of the first movement of Shostakovich's 5th Symphony performed by the KBS Symphony Orchestra. We sifted through many interpretations of the movement before we picked this interpretation. This interpretation was extremely clear and concise,and no rhythms were muddled or hard to hear. Also the conductor was extremely clear in his conducting pattern so it was easy to detail the count structures and relate it to specific rhythms in the piece. Also, the orchestra was much more cello and string bass powered which was more beneficial because Shostakovich focuses on low string melodies and counter-melodies in this particular symphony. Overall, this interpretation served as a strong tool for our musical interpretation and was extremely helpful, in general. "Great Performances: Dmitry Shostakovich." Great Performances. PBS. Fresno, California. Television. This source was essential in attaining reliable interpretation on the insinuations woven into Shostakovich's works. By making use of the analysis of experts and their opinions on the works of Shostakovich, we were able to supplement our own interpretations and ensure our ideas were as accurate as possible and truly reflected the intentions of Dmitri Shostakovich. In addition, the program discussed at length the political background surrounding the major symphonies that Shostakovich produced, and

we used this in order to be sure that our explications about the triggers of his works were as true as possible. It essentially provided first hand analysis surrounding Shostakovich's life and works and was imperative in creating accurate and deep insight on the topic. Gulag. Balkan Studies. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <>. The effective words of the bleek, dark, and mere images spoke through our report, especially in the historical emphasis of Stalin’s suppressive reign. Pictures capture ideas that can’t be expressed in words, and the prisons and imprisonment camps featured the imminent threats of Stalin’s wrath to anyone who opposed him. Not only did Stalin spread his wrath to Dmitri Shostakovich, but to any maverick who challenged his rule. Eastern Europe in the midtwentieth century explores and symbolizes the figure of the imprisonment camps and destruction of souls and rights of its prisoners. These camps destroyed Russian culture, tradition, and hope beyond measure. Gulag. Gulag History. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <>. This image of workers being subject to arduous labor in one of Stalin's gulag camps is representative of the overall oppression and totalitarian nature of the government he ran. We used this photograph to strengthen the notion that Stalin truly had complete control over the lives of every citizen in the Soviet Union, Shostakovich included. By supplementing this premise we were able to emphasize the hopelessness of Shostakovich's situation and highlight the incredible courage it took for this man to come out and openly defy Stalin's regime through his symphonies and defiantly stand his ground against all the opposition thrown against him.

Hammer and Sickle. N.d. Aquiziam. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <>. The image of a hammer and sickle is the symbol associated with communism, and as this is the kind of government that suppressed Shostakovich, it seemed fitting that it was included. They embody the oppressive regime that strove to suppress Shostakovich's right to musical expression, and also the suppression of every Russian citizen's natural rights. From the widespread purges to the restructuring of the nations economy that resulted in a disastrous famine, Stalin's communist regime held constant authority over every aspect of its citizens' lives, and is a symbol that could simply not be excluded in a portrayal of Dmitri Shostakovich's plight for expression in Soviet Russia. Hugo Chavez Arrives. Ushanka. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <>. This image contains the soul, the premise, and the living reign of Stalin’s propaganda. With Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez visiting the grand city Moscow, the president is greeted with fatherly portraits and godly images of Joseph Stalin. The image supplemental contributes the image sought out by Joseph Stalin for preventing foreign inclusion and intervention in his oppression of the arts and civil rights in Russia. The portraits, eminent in the welcoming of Chavez, demonstrate the extreme nature at which Stalin used to spread his hands and influence across Russia. The fatherly figures and Father Russia allusions dream and concoct the diaphanous and false illusion of Stalin’s regime. Jackson, Stephen. Classic FM Lifelines: Dmitri Shostakovich. London: Pavilion, 1997. Print. Classic FM lifelines. This book provided us with essential information regarding the specifics of Shostakovich's symphonies and the triggers and consequences associated

with them. There was imperative insight about what actions by the Soviet government resulted in Shostakovich deciding to begin developing his iconoclastic works, and what events in his personal life led him to create certain symphonies. Additionally, the source discusses at length the repercussions that Shostakovich faced for a great deal of his operas and symphonies, and the threats that the government threw at him as a result. The simple prose that Jackson utilizes allows us to determine the background to Shostakovich's symphonies to a very deep extent and consequently aided us in analyzing the complex background to Shostakovich's numerous symphonies. Keith, Mano D. "Testimony: The Memoirs of Dmitri Shostakovich." Editorial. National Review: 423-25. Print. Mano D. Keith’s review of Testimony: The Memoirs of Dmitri Shostakovich, describes the political bias that co-author and annotator by Solomon Volkov and its influence on the memoirs of the late Shostakovich. The conspiracy and influence of Volkov’s relations altered the presence of Shostakovich’s true memoirs, leaving Keith in a questionable state of mind, allowing him to clear and guide the readers of the memoirs for its intended meanings. The bestowed scrutiny of the memoirs is evident, and Keith allows an alternate form of scholarly interpretation of these memoirs through clearing and unmasking the alterations Volkov made, further developing our knowledge and thesis behind Shostakovich’s alienation of manifested rights. Labor camp. Latvia 50 Years of Tryanny. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <>. This labor camp is one of several that Stalin utilized in order to crush all opposition to his regime and keep the Soviet populous in check. By doing so, he maintained his ascendancy over the rest of the nation and maintained complete control

over every aspect of every citizen's life. We used this photograph in order to portray the manners Stalin ensured the absolutely nobody could check his power. in doing so, we were able to underscore the difficulty in achieving what Shostakovich did. In a nation under such tight control, he was able to find a way to shine through and stand his ground, and we used this photograph to embody how truly impressive such a feat was. Lang, Robert. " Dedicated to the Music of Dmitri Dmitrievich Shostakovich." Robert Lang, n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2013. <>. This is a collection of testimonials about things from Shostakovich's life to his music. It contains various quotes from different personal acquaintances of Shostakovich. This was extremely helpful in that it provided an insider's look into Shostakovich's actual behavior. It also includes a lot of references to preferable recordings. It also had a lot of related sites that really helped us narrow down our research to only prestigious sites. Finally, it had a catalogue of his works, which helped compile all his works into one easy page for us to read and analyze.Overall, this source served as a database, mostly to link us to other related sites and to reputable quotes and recordings of his most famous symphonies. Laue, Angela Von, and Theodore Von Laue, Dr. Faces of a Nation: The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union, 1917-1991. Illus. Dmitri Baltermants. Golden: Fulcrum, 1996. Print. This source is a book about the economic and social rising and falling of the Soviet Union. It mainly capitalizes on the plight of the poor and how they were being downsized, regardless of the economic prosperity in the nation. It really focuses on how Stalin affected this plight with such actions like the Reign of Terror and the 5 year Plan. It then goes on to briefly gloss over Shostakovich's musical impact on the poor's economic stability. Laue claims that his music inspired the poor to work hard to overcome their

poverty and reach out of their innate depths of despair. Overall, this book is extremely helpful on the historical background and analysis of Shostakovich's work. Lesser, Wendy. "Three Words for Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich." La Clé Des Langues. N.p., 14 Feb. 2012. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. <>. This source heavily emphasizes the negative consequences Dmitri Shostakovich's actions had on his life. We used this perspective in order to bring forth the notion that Shostakovich felt a burning responsibility to continue his bitter battle against Stalin and his regime. Despite the fact that his work to advance the rights of the people resulted in things such as the prospect of his own death, he tirelessly continued to go on with his work and he refused to let the Soviet government win. We used all of this perspective in order the clearly delineate how Dmitri Shostakovich and his life's works directly relate to theme of responsibilities in numerous, related aspects. Moore, David. "Shostakovich and the Jerusalem Quartet." Rev. of String Quartet. American Record Guide: n. pag. Academic Research Center. Web. 1 Dec. 2013. < t-live>. A thorough and variegated review of the Jerusalem String Quarter’s performance, Shostakovich and the Jerusalem Quartet articulate the performance of the quartets that played at the Alice Tully Hall in early 2013. The concise, contemporary music review allows generations of interpretations, passed on and synthesized by reviewer David Moore, to assimilate itself into the fine reporting and analysis that contemporary and modern music historians and scholars, like ourselves, would appreciate and use to develop more rigorous and complete understanding of Dmitri Shostakovich’s quartet

concertos. The image provided captures the string quartets in action, allowing David Moore’s words to come to a visual representation "Muddle Instead of Music." Rev. of Lady Macbeth, by Andrie Zhdanov, trans. Arnold Schalks. Pravda: n. pag. Print. The article serves as musical criticism towards Shostakovich's "Lady Macbeth". Zhdanov illustrates through his work the flaws within his workmanship, and how it serves as a vessel for anti-nationalistic beliefs. Pertaining to the majority of avid musicians, "Muddle instead of Music" served as an example to Soviet Union’s musical committee on how not to anger one of the most respected man within the Union. Stalin irritated by the garrulous echoes of the percussion would continue to degrade Shostakovich’s most popular piece through the commission of Andrie Zhdanov. Zhdanov conveys the message that rather than “Macbeth” being a piece of musical mastery is purely a culmination of conflicting sounds and melody’s that only serve to ruin the audience’s evening. Musical Notes. N.d. Evidence Based Living. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <>. These musical notes are extremely fitting as a large part of Shostakovich's life revolved around music, especially his own personal compositions. Since the dawn of music, compositions have been written in the form of musical notes, such as the ones present in the image. As a result, it is very fitting for such an image to be featured when discussing the musical genius that was Dmitri Shostakovich. Shostakovich utilized such notes in order to not only invoke a wide spectrum of feelings and pleasure for his audience, but also to rebel against the oppression of the regime that towered over him.

These notes were Shostakovich's weapons in a fierce war that strived to allow for the natural right of human expression. National Review. "Dmitri Shostakovich R.I.P." Academic Research Center. EBSCO Host, n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2013. < t-live>. The sensitive column that both celebrates and mourns the departure of Dmitri Shostakovich left the Russian population with a gaping hole in its arts, culture, and music. The obituary mourns the heeded advancements Dmitri Shostakovich could have made if he had not been under the iron fist of the Soviet Union. His genius sparked wonders with his first symphony at the age of 19. His contemporaries sought to perfect the world's arts and culture amidst the political fiasco that turbulated the path for peace. His faithful beginnings all began with the resistance he sought in every note of every symphony. An Older Shostakovich at Work. N.d. Dmitri Shostakovich. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <>. This photograph was essential in our interpretation of how Dmitri Shostakovich's efforts to oppose the Soviet government had a massive toll on his life, both physically and emotionally. He is very concentrated on his work, but he comes off as almost exasperated, which is a result of the constant belittling and criticism he faced every single day. We made use of this photograph to display the manner in which his works slowly deteriorated at his quality of life, yet he continued to fight regardless. This was a clear indication that Shostakovich's inclination that he had a responsibility to aid the people of the Soviet Union was so great, that he continued his work despite the deleterious aftermath it had on him personally.

"The Renee and Henry Segerstrom Concert Hall and Samueli Theater." South Coast Metro. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <>. Amidst the beauty and glory of the The Renee and Henry Segerstrom Concert Hall and Samueli Theater, Dmitri Shostakovich's symphonies were designed for the acoustic and harmonic balance of the often articulated orchestral strings, such as the violin and viola. Dmitri Shostakovich dreamed of the very concert hall now known as the Tchaikovsky Concert Hall. Designed to anger impetuous and unserene listeners, the The Renee and Henry Segerstrom Concert Hall and Samueli Theater is designed to amplify the loud clashes made by the percussion parts, which initially infuriated Joseph Stalin, leading him to begin suppressing music with his first viewing of Lady Macbeth. A Russian Composer. N.d. Bolshoi Moscow. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <>. This image is of none other than Dmitri Shostakovich himself. We used this image to capture the intense resilience of his personality. This photograph generally embodies the bright light of hope that Shostakovich was in a dark, oppressed Soviet society. Although a seemingly simple image, this photograph of him carries a great deal of weight, as his confident face stares right through the audience. He stared right through Stalin's policies in a similar fashion, regarding them as garbage and pursuing the improvement of the personal rights of the citizens of the nation. We used this striking picture to ultimately exemplify the courage and bold nature of the moves he made throughout his life. Shostakovich, Dmitri Dmitrievich. Testimony: The Memoirs of Dmitri Shostakovich. Ed. Solomon Volkov. Trans. Antonina W. Buois. New York: Harper, 1979. Print. This book

is full of personal rantings and insights by Dmitri Shostakovich during his time of persecution in Soviet Russia. We utilized this source in order to gain direct information from the mind of Shostakovich himself. This book verified all of our interpretations of his actions and proved to be an invaluable primary source that was undoubtedly accurate as the information present in it was written by Shostakovich himself. We used this veracious information in order to trace Shostakovich's motives for his actions throughout his complex life and extrapolate the triggers of his decisions throughout his battle against Stalin and his oppressive regime. Shostakovich against Stalin. N.d. Pantip. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. < ml>. The image of a poster which illustrates the fight it dubs the "War Symphonies" embodies the bitter battle that took place between the oppression communist regime of Stalin and Shostakovich. While Shostakovich desired only to be granted the right to create whatever music he pleased, the Soviet government continually shut him down. In protest, Shostakovich created a symphony that embodied a rebellion against such suppression; consequently, the government forced him to withdraw this now famous work, Symphony No. 4. Clearly, the most significant parts of Shostakovich's life resulted from the struggle between him and Stalin, and this makes such an image essential to portraying his life and accomplishments. Shostakovich Album Cover. N.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <>. This source is an album cover for the London Philharmonic Orchestra program for their concert of Shostakovich's Symphony No.5. This picture really interested us because it was a

modern, contemporary outlook on Shostakovich's Symphony No.5, and it was a cool one picture representation of a 20 minute long symphony. The designers put Shostakovich into a fragmented sun, but the sun is still shining brightly, indicating that even though nature was against the Communist party with its endless barrage of snow, the light of the Communist party still shone brightly. Overall, this album cover really helped us get a glance into a contemporary view of Shostakovich's life. Shostakovichiana. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2013. <>. This source provided a plethora of documents and photographs that we were able to utilize in order to clearly portray the intentions of Shostakovich's symphonies and operas. These excellent first hand sources gave us essential information that we were certain was reliable and this allowed us to be sure the information we interpreted was as veracious as possible. Using this source we were able to use items of historic evidence to back multiple aspects of our analysis and ensure that every component of our interpretation was spot on and in depth. Shostakovich in Thought. N.d. Kenneth Woods. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <>. This image displays Dmitri Shostakovich deep in thought, likely considering his next move against the Stalin regime to continue his battle for free musical expression. Shostakovich was forced into such situations quite often, and frequently had to consider his next move carefully. The Soviet government constantly bombarded Shostakovich with threats and demands, forcing the composer to often have to resort to disappearing for a short while to gather his thoughts. This image generally embodies the

fact that Shostakovich was forced to plan out his steps carefully in order to both reach his goals and stay relatively safe from Stalin and his regime. Shostakovich Peering into the Distance. N.d. Seventeen Moments in Soviet History. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <>. This inspiring picture is of the magnificent Dmitri Shostakovich staring out into the distance, contemplating his situation in life. This image is incredibly significant sue to the fact that it singlehandedly reflects the life of Shostakovich. His contemplative disposition is symbolic of the careful consideration he took in crafting his beautiful symphonies that aimed not only to please the public, but also to undermine the oppressive regime that followed his every move. His almost hopeless face can be seen to symbolize the nature of his stance; although he fought tirelessly, a victory seemed out of reach for Shostakovich. Yet, despite the obstacles he faced daily, Shostakovich continued to plow on forward with that contemplative glance of his, and continue the fight for expression. Shostakovich Symphony No.1 1st Mvt LSO Valery Gergiev 2006. Youtube. N.p., 28 Aug. 2008. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <>. This source is a recording of Shostakovich's Symphony No.1 by the LSO Valery Gargiev Orchestra in 2006. Throughout our constant listening of Shostakovich's Symphony No.5, we realized that we needed a holistic perspective of not only his most famous symphonies, but the offbeat ones as well. This was an extremely well done interpretation of the Symphony's movement I because this movement really focused on the dynamic contrast that this interpretation executes solidly. Also, the violin and viola section of this orchestra are outstandingly talented at moving their fingers to the time and it really helped us

evaluate the rhythms that Shostakovich aimed to portray. Overall, this recording was extremely helpful for our project "Shostakovich – Symphony No. 5, Op. 47." Horn Exceprts. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <>. This image is of the alto saxophone solo in one of Shostakovich's works and of the one we feature on an audio clip. We used this image in order to provide the audience with a piece of sheet music that supplements the audio recording. The audience can easily follow the rise and fall and emotion patterns of the piece given that they have both visual and auditive sources from which to interpret. We used this image to ensure that readers were given sufficient aid to comprehending Shostakovich's musical genius, as every individual is not very well read in musical analysis. As a result, it is necessary to supply readers with a plethora of different methods of understanding Shostakovich's complex music, such as this image of sheet music. Simon, John. "Shostakovich and the Politics of Survival." New Leader Nov.-Dec. 2004: 50-52. Print. This except discussed in length the struggles Shostakovich underwent to struggle against the political regime of Stalin so he could advance his right to musical expression. We used this information to highlight the fierce opposition that Shostakovich faced when he attempted to release symphonies that were so rebellious in nature. By emphasizing the strict bind the government had over citizens, we were able to discuss how much raw determination in took from Shostakovich to break through and continue his battle by releasing more works. This clearly demonstrates the massive responsibility he felt to fight for the rights of the people, as he continued to plow forward despite the heavy criticism he received as a result of his work.

- - -. "Shostakovich and the Politics of Survival." New Leader Nov. 2004: n. pag. Academic Research Center. Web. 1 Dec. 2013. < t-live>. This source provided excellent insight on the harsh nature of the opposition that Dmitri Shostakovich faced when releasing his iconoclastic musical works and the bitter grind he was forced to endure in order to continue to take on the oppressive Stalin regime. We utilized this to have addition information regarding the actions Shostakovich committed in order to safely continue his battle. Continuing such a struggle clearly was a complex ordeal; Shostakovich needed to find a manner in which he could both ensure his won safety and continue to produce works that would aid the struggle of advocating the right of expression. This source was essential in our portrayal of the responsibility Shostakovich felt to fight for these rights as well; this is due to the fact that despite the horrid situation he was placed in, he continued to grind on and keep fighting for the rights of the Soviet populous. Slonimsky, Nicolas. The Great Composers and Their Works. Ed. Electra Yourke. Vol. 2. N.p.: Schirmer, 2000. Print. The Great Composers and Their Works. This source provided essential insight on the works of other Russian composers who worked in the same era as Dmitri Shostakovich. We took advantage of this information because it let us understand how different Shostakovich's symphonies truly were compared to others of his time. A great deal of the composers of that time were very willing to follow Stalin's demands exactly in order to avoid any potential conflict; very differently, Shostakovich insisted on doing things his way, and kept battling for more rights, especially the right to expression. This source gave us insight on how Shostakovich's work was truly impressive, as most

others of his time did not even dare to step out of line, let alone openly defy the government as he did. Stalin Family Propaganda. N.d. Soviet History. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <>. Stalin often utilized such propaganda in order to tog at the heart strings of the Soviet populous and emotionally appeal to them. By taking advantage of the technique of pathos in posters and programs such as the one depicted, Stalin strengthened his causes and justified his actions. By doing so, he was able to suppress the rights of the people, which clearly included Dmitri Shostakovich as a victim. These kinds of campaigns are the ones that allowed for the stripping of rights that forced Shostakovich to take the drastic measures he did and rebel aainst the Soviet government and Stalin through his genius and breathtaking symphonies. Stalin Giving a Speech. 1937. Daily Mail. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <>. This image of the man of steel himself is representative of the overall oppression of the Stalin regime that ruled over Soviet Russia during the time of Shostakovich. In speeches such as the one featured in the photograph, Stalin would rally his fellow comrades and use effective rhetoric in order to sway them into believing that his rule over Soviet Russia was in fact beneficial. Stalin utilized such tactics to secure complete dominance and crush all opposition to his totalitarian rule. This accomplished many things for Stalin; one of these was the ability to completely suppress Shostakovich's right to musical expression. When considering the

robbery of a natural right, it is always imperative to consider the source which caused this atrocity, and in this case, Stalin and his power plays accomplished this. Stalin Propaganda with Children. N.d. Miss O'Keefe History. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <>. This image is an example of one of Stalin's many propaganda campaigns that served to essentially brainwash the common citizen in Soviet Russia to blindly followneach and every one of his policies. This greatly contributed to his totalitarian rule and ensured his absolute authority over the nation; this control directly resulted in Stalin's ability to strip Shostakovich of his right to free musical expression. The fact that Shostakovich could not compose his own music freely and under his own consent is what triggered his dramatic rise and fall that resulted from his attempts to challenge the power of Stalin himself. Stalin's ability to control everything is essentially the root of all of the major iconoclastic actions that Shostakovich committed. Therefore this poster is an essential element to be included in our detailing of the life and struggles of Dmitri Shostakovich. The St.Petersburg Symphony Orchestra. N.d. Ballet and Opera. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <>. This photograph is of an orchestra seated and ready to begin their performance. Shostakovich had similar setups for when his own symphonies were exhibited to the public, and utlilized the same sort of instrumentation present in order to have a wide range of different pitches and melodies present in his works. An orchestra such as the one pictured was Shostakovich's main tool of combatting the oppression of the Stalin regime, as he utlilized them in order to present his brilliant symphonies to the public. Consequently, it was necessary for us to include

such an image when discussing the musical genius of Shostakovich, as it is necessary to provide the audience with a visual aid in order to comprehend material to a deeper extent. "Symphony No. 5." Shostakovich at 100. NPR. 25 Sept. 2006. Radio. National Public Radio’s in-depth report and celebration of the premiere of Shostakovich’s first works one hundred years previously includes highly specialized and exhaustive accounts from his adversaries, contemporaries, and musical scholars dedicated to studying Dmitri Shostakovich’s works. The report is especially thorough and concise by including interviews with Dmitri Shostakovich’s son and composer, Maxim Shostakovich. The excerpts featured in the celebration include Dmitri’s final, nebulous symphony that capped his career in 1972. Along with exclusive interviews, correspondents part of National Public Radio also feature the modern-day executions of his most famous pieces, such as “Symphony No. 15”. Teachout, Terry. "The Problem of Shostakovich." A Second Chrestomathy Oct. 1994: n. pag. Academic Research Center. Web. 1 Dec. 2013. < host-live>. This source takes an interesting view on Shostakovich's music and life. It focuses more on his Western experience. Surprisingly enough, Shostakovich's popularity didn't expand all the way from coast to coast of the world. The West heavily rejected his music as Communistic , even though Shostakovich was persecuted by Soviet Russia for being just the opposite. This irony of what constitutes being Communistic reveals a big cultural divide between the Soviet Union and the United States, which could be one of the contributions to the outbreak of the Cold War. Overall, this is a big global view onto Shostakovich's contributions and music.

Trotter, Herman. "Ewazen Premiere and Shostakovich Anniversary." Rev. of Symphony No. 13. American Record Guide: n. pag. Academic Research Center. Web. 1 Dec. 2013. < t-live>. Herman Trotter’s Ewazen Premiere and Shostakovich Anniversary chronicles the two concerts executed and orchestrated by the Buffalo Philharmonic’s concert season during 2012-2013. The review includes Dmitri Shostakovich’s “Symphony No. 13”, which details and includes Trotter’s personal understanding and interpretation of Shostakovich’s message to Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union. Trotter’s review is pivotal to our research because of the concurring and parallel thoughts and connections made between a musical expert and our eclectic expertise in music. Equipped with the musings of Herman Trotter, we strengthened our musical analysis and the true depth behind Shostakovich’s “Symphony No. 13”. University of Texas at Austin. University of Texas, n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. <>. Nicole Angotti, the Curriculum Specialist for Russian and Soviet Studies at the University of Texas at Austin, details and unearths the beginning rumbles and genesis of the grand Soviet Union’s rise. The detailed introduction to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the rise of Stalin, accompanied with his oppressive despotism that came with the defeat of his adversaries, traces the evolution and beginnings of his antipathy for free musical reign. The biography of Dmitri Shostakovich includes the rise and emergence of the future of contemporary music and arts, soon to be squashed under the malice of Stalin’s fists and reign.

Wilson, Elizabeth. Shostakovich: A Life Remembered. 2nd ed. London: Faber, 2006. Print. Shostakovich: A Life Remembered embodies an illusory and detailed repertoire that Shostakovich mastered, composed, and executed from his early beginnings. Elizabeth Wilson provides important details of Shostakovich’s peers and colleagues that he worked with over his novel operas and ballads. The recognition as a premier and revolutionary composer began to arise after his death, shortly after the Stalin regime that terrorized and imprisoned his works and the living spirit inside him. Within the full-length report and novel, Shostakovich’s memoirs and letters reveal his light personality towards the events of the times and the discerning events that afflicted him. Overall, the novel details and examines his role as a major figure in the cultural life of twentieth-century Russia. A Young Shostakovich. 1925. Cyber USSR. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <>. This photo graph is of Dmitri Shostakovich as a child and marks the beginning of his inspiring life. His musical talents were first discovered when he was a small child, and thisbultimatelynled to his illustrious musical career. In our discussion of his early life, it seemed only fitting to include such an image; excluding it would deprive our audience of a glimpse into what Shostakovich was like as a younder child. It is always extremely relevant to consider the past of one's life when examining the major events that embody their life. For Shostakovich especially, his childhood was a major factor in his life, and consequently it seemed necessary for us to include a photograph of him as a child.