CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.0 HISTORY OF ASHOK LEYLAND Ashok Leyland is an Indian automobile manufacturing company based in Chennai, India. Founded in 194 , the company is one of India!s leading manufacturers of commercial "ehicles, such as trucks and buses, as #ell as emergency and military "ehicles. $perating si% plants, Ashok Leyland also makes spare parts and engines for industrial and marine applications. It sells about &',''' "ehicles and about (,''' engines annually. It is the second largest commercial "ehicle company in India in the medium and hea"y commercial "ehicle )*+,C-. segment #ith a market share of / 0 )/''(1' .. 2ith passenger transportation options ranging from 19 seaters to ' seaters, Ashok Leyland is a market leader in the bus segment.3he company claims to carry o"er &' million passengers a day, more people than the entire Indian rail net#ork. In the trucks segment Ashok Leyland primarily concentrates on the 1& ton to /4 ton range of trucks. ,o#e"er Ashok Leyland has presence in the entire truck range starting from (.4 tons to 49 tons. 3he 5oint "enture announced #ith 6issan *otors of 7apan #ould impro"e its presence in the Light Commercial -ehicle )LC-. segment )8(.4 tons.. Ashok Leyland!s 9: subsidiary $ptare has shut do#n its bus factory in ;lackburn, Lancashire. 3his subsidiary!s traditional home in Leeds has also been "acated in fa"our of a purpose built plant at <herburn in =lmet. =arly products included the Leyland Comet bus #hich #as a passenger body built on a truck chassis, sold in large numbers to many operators, including ,yderabad >oad 3ransport, Ahmedabad *unicipality, 3ra"ancore <tate 3ransport, *aharashtra <tate 3ransport and ?elhi >oad 3ransport Authority.
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;y 19&@, the Comet #as operated by e"ery <tate 3ransport 9ndertaking in India, and o"er ,''' #ere in ser"ice. 3he Comet #as soon 5oined in production by a "ersion of the Leyland 3iger. In 19& , production of the Leyland 3itan ceased in ;ritain, but #as restarted by Ashok Leyland in India. 3he 3itan A?@ chassis #as modified, and a fi"e speed hea"y duty constantBmesh gearbo% utiliCed, together #ith the Ashok Leyland "ersion of the $.& ' engine. 3he Ashok Leyland 3itan #as "ery successful, and continued in production for many years. $"er the years, Ashok Leyland "ehicles ha"e built a reputation for reliability and ruggedness. 3his #as mainly due to the product design legacy carried o"er from ;ritish Leyland. Ashok Leyland had a collaboration #ith the 7apanese company ,ino *otors from #hom the technology for the ,Bseries engines #as bought. *any indigenous "ersions of ,Bseries engine #ere de"eloped #ith 4 and & cylinder and also conforming to ;</ and ;<@ emission norms in India. 3hese engines pro"ed to be e%tremely popular #ith the customers primarily for their e%cellent fuel efficiency. *ost current models of Ashok Leyland come #ith ,Bseries engines. In the 5ourney to#ards global standards of Duality, Ashok Leyland reached a ma5or milestone in 199@ #hen it became the first in India!s automobile history to #in the I<$ 9''/ certification. 3he more comprehensi"e I<$ 9''1 certification came in 1994, E< 9''' in 199 and I<$ 14''1 certification for all "ehicle manufacturing units in /''/. In /''&, Ashok Leyland became the first automobile company in India to recei"e the 3<1&949 Corporate Certification. =ditorFs noteG 3his is part of a series of articles peeking into clean car industries and car manufacturers of China, India, <outh :orea and Hermany. Among many other goals, Ashok Leyland aims to e%pand its operations to penetrate into o"erseas markets. Included in the companyFs plans is to acDuire
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smaller car manufacturers in China and in other de"eloping countries. In $ctober /''&, Ashok Leyland bought a ma5ority stake in the CCech basedB A"ia. Called A"ia Ashok Leyland *otors s.r.o., this #ill gi"e Ashok Leyland a channel into the competiti"e =uropean market. According to the company, in /'' the 5oint "enture sold 41 LC-s in =urope despite tough economic conditions. Furthermore, the company #ill e%pand its product offers into construction eDuipment, follo#ing a 5oint "enture #ith 7ohn ?eere. 6e#ly formed in 7une /''9, the 7ohn ?eere partnership is a 4'I4' split bet#een the companies. 3he company says negotiation is progressing on land acDuisition, and the production plans are in place. 3he "enture is scheduled to start rolling out #heel loaders and backhoe loaders in $ctober /'1'. Aside from the full e%pansion planned for the company, Ashok Leyland is also paying close attention to the en"ironment. In fact, they are one of the companies sho#ing the strongest commitment to en"ironmental protection, utiliCing ecoBfriendly processes in their "arious plants. ="en as they thrust into different directions, Ashok Leyland maintains an >+? group that aims to unco"er #ays to make their "ehicles more fuel efficient and reduce emissions. 2hen it comes to the de"elopment of en"ironmentally friendly technologies, Ashok Leyland has de"eloped ,ythane engines. In association #ith the Australian company =den =nergy, Ashok Leyland successfully de"eloped a &Bcylinder, &Bliter 9/ k2 ;<B4 engine #hich uses ,ythane ),BC6H,. #hich is a blend of natural gas and around /'0 of hydrogen. ,ydrogen helps impro"e the efficiency of the engine but the C6H aspect makes sure that emissions are at a controlled le"el. A 4B cylinder 4Blitre &@ :2 engine is also being de"eloped for ,BC6H blend in a 5oint 1.1.1 iBUS Ashok Leyland announced i;9< in the beginning of /'' , as part of the future for the country!s increasingly trafficBclogged ma5or cities. Its >s &'Blakh,
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i;us, a featureBfilled, lo#Bfloor concept bus for the metros re"ealed during the Auto =%po /'' in India, a "ehicle for a first production run of pilot models should be ready by the end of this year. 3he start of full production is scheduled for /''9. ?e"eloped by a team of young engineers, the lo#Bfloored i;us #ill ha"e the first of its kind features, including antiBlock braking system, electronic engine management and passenger infotainment. 3he e%ecuti"e class has an airline like ambience #ith #ide LC? screens, reading lights, audio speakers and, for the first time, Internet on the mo"e. A HA< system enables "ehicle tracking and display of dynamic route information on LC? screens, #hich can also support infotainment packages including li"e data and ne#s. 3he bus #ill probably be eDuipped #ith an engine from the ne# 6eptune family, #hich Ashok Leyland also introduced at this e%hibition, #hich are ready for the ;<4I=uro 4 emission regulations and can be upgraded to =uro 4. 1.1.2 DOST ?$<3 is a 1./4 ton light commercial "ehicle )LC-. that is the first product to be launched by the IndianB7apanese commercial "ehicle 5oint "enture Ashok Leyland 6issan -ehicles. ?ost is po#ered by a 44 hp highBtorDue, @Bcylinder, turboBcharged Common >ail ?iesel engine and has a payload capacity of 1./4 3onnes. It is a"ailable in both ;<@ and ;<4 "ersions. 3he LC- is being produced in Ashok Leyland!s plant in 3amil 6adu!s ,osur.

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1.1.3 ASHOK LEYLAND DEFENCE SYSTEMS Ashok Leyland ?efence <ystems )AL?<. is a ne#ly floated company by the ,indu5a Hroup. Ashok Leyland, the flagship company of ,indu5a group, holds /& percent in the ne#ly formed Ashok Leyland ?efence <ystems )AL?<.. 3he ne#ly floated company has a mandate to design and de"elop defence logistics and tactical "ehicles, defence communication and other systems. Ashok Leyland is the largest supplier of logistics "ehicles to the Indian Army. It has supplied o"er &',''' of its <tallion "ehicles #hich form the Army!s logistics backbone. 1.1.4 SHOPS IN ASHOK LEYLAND 1.1.4.1 ENGINE ASSEMBLY <3AH= 1G CA* ;=A>I6H • Cam bearings are attached to the crankcase of the engine. <3AH= /G CA* <,AF3 • Cam shaft is attached in the crankcase. <3AH= @G C>A6: <,AF3 • It is fi%ed at the base end of crankcase. <3AH= 4G <39?< • *14 studs are fi%ed to the holes of crankcase. <3AH= 4G 3I*I6H ;>A:= ALA3= • It is fi%ed to the side of the engine.

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<3AH= &G CA* H=A> • It is placed on the crankcase to operate cam shafts and to operate "al"es. <3AH= (G FLJ2,==L • 3he fly#heel is placed on housingK it also consists of seal housing and flange. <3AH= G $IL A9*A • It is fi%ed at top of crankcase. It is used to circulate oil to "arious parts of engine. <3AH= 9G AI<3$6 • 3he piston is attached inside the bore of crankcase + it is connected to crankshaft. 3he oil ring and compression rings are also attached on the piston. <3AH= 1'G C$6>$? ;$L3 • It is used to connect piston #ith crankshaft. <3AH= 11G I?LI6H H=A> • It is used to control the rotations of cam gear, crank gear and compression gear. <3AH= 1/G CJLI6?=> ,=A? • It is attached at the top of crankcase. <3AH= 1@G $IL <9*A • It is placed at the bottom of crankcase.

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<3AH= 14G >$C:=> • >ocker is fi%ed #ith cylinder head. <3AH= 14G AI> C$*A>=<<$> • It is fi%ed #ith crankcase. <3AH= 1&G F9=L I67=C3I$6 A9*A <3AH= 1(G -AL-= C$-=> <3AH= 1 G $IL C$$L=> <3AH= 19G I67=C3$> AIA= <3AH= /'G I6L=3 *A6IF$L? <3AH= /'G <I?= C$-=> <3AH= /1G 2A3=> A9*A <3AH= //G <3A>3=> *$3$> <3AH= /@G =L,A9<3 *A6IF$L? <3AH= /4G 39>;$ C,A>H=> <3AH= /4G =II FI3*=63< <3AH= /(G F9LLJ A<<<=*;L=? • Finally, the assemble is taken to the testing section for checking the performance.

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1.1.4.2 SHOP III FRAME ASSEMBLY 3here are se"eral steps in"ol"ed in frame assembly. 3hey are as follo#sG  3he side members and engine mounting are lifted using con"eyor.  Assemble all cross members, steering mounting bracket, air cooler mounting bracket and rear spring brackets.  $n rear end of the frame, both sides are aligned #ith taper pin.  Cross members are tightened #ell. Fit and tight F< and ;:3< on both sides #ith dummy bolts.  >eaming process is done in the ne%t step and the dummy bolts are remo"ed.  3orDue tightening in the rear brackets using *14 bolts on both sides.  Front and rear ends are fi%ed #ith four cab mountings.  3ighten the C; cross members using brake elbo# adaptors.  3ilt the frame by 1 'o using tilting C9* lifting eDuipment.  Aunch frame <l. 6o. and spec on rear end of >, F<*.  Air blo# the reamed burrs in assembled frame.  Lift and unload the assembled frame from con"eyor on to trolley using tilting C9* lifting eDuipment.  Finally, the #hole frame is carried to chassis assembly centre.

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1.1.4.3 SHOP IV 3he shop I- is classified into t#o departments. 3hey are gi"en belo#G o >ear a%le assembly. o Front a%le assembly. REAR AXLE ASSEMBLY 3he rear a%le assembly consists of se"eral stages. 3hey are sho#n belo#G  Load rear a%le casing on pedestals and remo"e #ire strip, a%le shafts.  Assemble dust co"ers on brake shoes and tighten #ith bolts and nuts.  Apply torDue on mounting nuts.  Assemble inner ring for oil seal.  ?istance piece is fi%ed to align the outer and inner #heel bearings in the same a%is.  Fi% the #heel drum.  Aunch the <l. 6o. on the rear a%le.  9nload rear a%le from con"eyor and it is taken to the chassis assembly centre. FRONT AXLE ASSEMBLY 3he front a%le assembly consists of se"eral stages. 3hey are discussed belo#G  First, the a%le beam is loaded at con"eyor belt.  3he number is punched in the a%le beam.  6e%t, the a%le arm is fi%ed to beam of steering #ith pin fin and cotter pin using dummy bolts.
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 3he tracking rod is fi%ed for the alignment of #heel. 3his #ill helps the left side of the tyre to turn along #ith the right side #heel.  Fi% the air chamber and brake shoe.  Fi% the hub and lock set using a%le arm.  Fi% the #heel drum to the both ends of a%le arm.  9nload front a%le from the con"eyor and it is taken to the chassis assembly. 1.1.4.4 CHASSIS ASSEMBLY 3he chassis assembly consists of 14 stages. 3hey are discussed belo#G  In stageB 1, the front and rear a%le is fi%ed on the main frame #hich is already fabricated from shop @.  In stageB /, the fr4ame assembly is placed on the con"eyor belt, and then brake chamber is fitted into it.  In stageB @, the steering gear bo% is fitted to the main frame.  In stageB 4, the propeller shaft is connected into the gear bo% flange. 3his propeller shaft is also coupled #ith uni"ersal 5oint.  In stageB4, the -ehicle Identification 6umber )-I6. is punched into the frame.  In stageB &, the silencer tank is fi%ed into the main frame.  In stageB (, the air tank and fuel tank is fi%ed at the rear end.  In stageB , the engine is mounted on the frame.  In stageB 9, the radiator is fi%ed at the front end of engine.  In stageB 1', the le"er, fuel filter and accelerator assembly is linked #ith the engine.  In stageB 11, the tyres for the #heels are fitted to the #heel drum.
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 In stageB 1/, the battery bo% and cross bumpers are fitted.  In stageB1@, the diesel is filled into the fuel tank.  Finally, the "ehicle is taken to another unit for checking its performance.

1.1.4.5 SHOP II In this shop, the components used for engine assembly may be manufactured from this department. 3he facing and centering of the "al"es are also done in this shop. 3he parts that are manufactured from this shop are as follo#sG • Cylinder head • Camshaft • Connecting rod • Aiston • Con rod bolt • Crankcase • <piral gear • Compound gear For the preparation of con rod bolt, the #orkpiece is fitted in the multi spindle lathe and the follo#ing processes #ill be done. • ,ead forming • <tep turning • Chamfering
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In the camshaft, the processes like taping, drilling, milling, grinding, tempering, checking hardness are done in this shop II. 3he gear hobbing is also done #ith the help of gear hobbing machine, after that the oil hole drilling may proceeds. 3he 5ournal bearing grindings and the cam grindings are done here. 3he fly#heel housing is tested and fitted at engine case. Finally, the parts are taken to another department for assemble. 1.2 LIFTING TACKLE Lifting 3ackle is a lifting eDuipment dri"en by mechanical po#er or electrical po#er. It is used to raise, lo#er, suspend or transport load of different ob5ects like Aassenger co#l + hub of "ehicles. In the lifting tackle, t#o motors are used to raise and lo#er the tackle frame. *otor shaftsB coupled #ith chain slings. =ach chain slings are connected #ith grab hook to carry the frame. 3he frame consists of t#o horiContal cross bars arranged to fi% the block of #eight. 3here are t#o sprockets linked together #ith roller chain. In order to balance eDual #eight #hile carrying "ehicle hub or hea"y ob5ectsK a #eight is kept horiContally #ith cross bar. A pulley and rope arrangement is pro"ided at one end of the cross bar. 3he pulley line is coupled #ith sprocket for ad5usting the #eights, so the hub #eight may be balanced and the hub may be placed perfectly on the chassis. An electroBmechanical appliance #hose principal function is lifting or lo#ering, or both, of loads #ith a calibrated short link or roller chain bet#een the shea"e and the lifting block. After the trolley has been installed on the tra"el rail, al#ays install a stopper on the end of the tra"el rail to pre"ent the trolley from dropping off. 3he stopper is made up of rubber to absorb the shock #hen the trolley strikes the stopper. 3he ma%imum safe #orking load in :gsI tonnes that the

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hoist is designed to carry in ser"ice. 3his shall be specified by the manufacturer of

the hoist and marked boldly and clearly on the hoist and hook block. i!.1.1 "i #i$! #%&'"( ELECTRIC BRAKE ASSEMBLY 3he correct air gap bet#een armature and field, #hen brake is not energiCed, is '.'/4 inch )'.&@4 mm. and need not be ad5usted until the gap reaches '.'44 inches )1.14 mm.. 2hen checking brake gap, al#ays reset to '.'/4 inch ).'&@4 mm.. 3o ad5ust the brake, proceed as follo#sG 1. ?isconnect hoist from po#er supply. /. >emo"e back frame co"er. @. ;efore ad5usting the gapG 4. 3urn ad5usting nuts clock#ise gaging the air gap at both ends. 4. >eplace co"er, reconnect the po#er and check operation.
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1.2.1 CHAIN HOIST A chain hoist is a mechanical de"ice used for lifting hea"y loads of ob5ects and eDuipment. It is made #ith a pulley, #hich is held together by a closed chain. 3he closed chain in the chain hoist forms a loop, #hich makes it easy to be pulled by hand. 3here are se"eral large and small pulleys located throughout a chain hoist. $ne large and one small pulley are situated on the same a%le of the chain hoist. 3here is also a mobile pulley on the chain hoist that holds the load in place. For the load to be raised #ith the chain hoist, the closed chain has to be pulled. 2hen it is pulled, the large pulley dra#s in more chain than #hat is released by the smaller side. From here, the lifting process begins. Although the history of pulleys is unclear, it is kno#n that primiti"e methods #ere employed to mo"e hea"y ob5ects around. $ne of the early attempts at a pulley system #as the single fi%ed pulley, #hich failed because friction pre"ented the #heel from being turned. >ope pulleys, #hich #ere commonly used for pulling #ater out of #ells and are still in use today, are thought to ha"e been in"ented ne%t.

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1.3 TERMINOLOGY OF LIFTING TACKLE) For the purpose of this standard, the follo#ing definitions shall apply. 1.3.1 ELECTRIC CHAIN HOIST An electroBmechanical appliance #hose principal function is lifting or lo#ering, or both, of loads #ith a calibrated short link or roller chain bet#een the shea"e and the lifting block. 1.3.2 CAPACITY OR SAFE *ORKING LOAD 3he ma%imum safe #orking load in :gsI tonnes that the hoist is designed to carry in ser"ice. Applied loads shall include all handling de"ices used, such as buckets, magnets and grabs. 1.3.3 BASIC AND PERMISSIBLE STRESS All permissible stresses specified in I< '', I< 1& and I< 1'/4 are basic stresses for the purpose of this standard, and the permissible stresses in this standard are basic stresses applied #ith the applicable duty factor. 1.3.4 HEIGHT OF LIFT 3he distance bet#een the upper most and lo#est limits of tra"el of the hook block. 1.3.5 HOISTING SPEED 3he "elocity in metres per minute at #hich the hoist #ill lift the rated load.

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1.3.+ HEAD ROOM *easured #ith the hook block in the highest position #ith full load, and it is the distance bet#een the saddle of the hook block and the follo#ing pointsG a. 3he top of the lug or centre line of suspension holes on lug suspended hoists, b. 3he saddle of the top hook on hook suspended hoists. c. 3he bottom of the beam or rail on trolley suspended hoists. 1.3., LUG SUSPENDED HOIST A hoist #hose upper suspension members are lugs. 1.3.- HOOK SUSPENDED HOIST A hoist #hose upper suspension member is a hook. 1.3.. TROLLEY A #heeled carriage from #hich the hoist is suspended. 3he trolley may be push type, handgeared or motorBdri"en type. 1.3.10 TROLLEY SUSPENDED HOIST A hoist #hose upper suspension member is a trolley for the purpose of tra"el on a suitable run#ay. 1.3.11 ELECTRIC DYNAMIC BRAKE An electric motor acting as a brake by regenerati"e counter torDue or dynamic means.

1.3.12 ELECTRICALLY OPERATED BRAKE
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A frictionBbrake actuated or controlled by electric I electromagnetic means. 1.3.13 LIMIT S*ITCH A de"ice to cut off the po#er to motor automatically at both ends of hook path or at any desired limit of tra"el. 1.4 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Clearly specified electrical characteristics consisting of "oltage, phases, cycles if ac po#er is used, and "oltage only if dc po#er is used. 1.4.1 LOAD SPROCKET A hoist component that transmits motion to the load chain. 3his component is also called load chain #heel. 1.4.2 IDLER SPROCKET A freely rotating de"ice that changes the direction of the load chain. 3his de"ice is sometimes called idler #heel, idler shea"e, pocket #heel or chain #heel. 1.4.3 HOOK BLOCK OR LOAD BLOCK 3he assembly of lo#er load hook or shackle, s#i"el, bearing, pins, sprocket and frame suspended by the load chain. 1.4.4 LOAD CHAIN 3he load lifting chain in the hoist. It shall be a calibrated short link chain as per I< &/1& or a calibrated roller chain #hen in agreement #ith the user. A small amount of lubricant #ill greatly increase the life of load chain. ?o not allo# the chain to run dry. :eep it clean and lubricate at regular inter"als #ith Lubriplate, ;ar and Chain $il 1'B> )Fiske ;ros. >efining Co.. or eDual lubricant.
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6ormally, #eekly lubrication and cleaning is satisfactory, but under hot and dirty conditions, it may be necessary to clean the chain at least once a day and lubricate it se"eral 3imes bet#een cleanings. 2hen lubricating the chain, apply sufficient lubricant to obtain natural runBoff and full co"erage. 1.4.5 REEVING A system in #hich a chain tra"els around sprockets. 1.5 PENDANT STATION =lectrical controls station #ith push button suspended from the hoist for operating the unit. 9sage of electric chain hoists shall be generally limited to a ma%imum lift height of /' metres for safety reasons. *anufacturers may offer higher lifts according to their e%perience and design in special cases of application in mutual agreement #ith buyer. In such cases, based on the time of duration of use, Duality of chain and the class of duty of the chain hoist, lifting chain shall be specially selected to suit the application. 1.+ BEARINGS A bearing is a de"ice to allo# constrained relati"e motion bet#een t#o or more parts to only the desired type of motion. 3his is typically to allo# and promote free rotation around a fi%ed a%is or free linear mo"ementK it may also be to pre"ent any motion, such as by controlling the "ectors of normal forces. ;earings may be classified broadly according to the motions they allo# and according to their principle of operation, as #ell as by the directions of applied loads they can handle.
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All bearings and bushings e%cept the lo#er hook thrust bearing are prelubricated and reDuire no lubrication. Lubricate the lo#er hook thrust bearing at least once a month, using hea"y cup grease. 1.+.1 MOTIONS Common motions permitted by bearings areG  A%ial rotation e.g. shaft rotation.  Linear motion e.g. dra#er.  <pherical rotation e.g. ball and socket 5oint.  ,inge motion e.g. door, elbo#, and knee. 1.+.2 TYPES OF BEARING 1.+.2.1 PLAIN BEARING A plain bearing, also kno#n as a plane bearing or a friction bearing is the simplest type of bearing, comprising 5ust a bearing surface and no rolling elements. 3herefore the 5ournal slides o"er the bearing surface. 3he simplest e%ample of a plain bearing is a shaft rotating in a hole. A simple linear bearing can be a pair of flat surfaces designed to allo# motionK e.g., a dra#er and the slides it rests on or the #ays on the bed of a lathe. Alain bearings, in general, are the least e%pensi"e type of bearing. 3hey are also compact and light#eight, and they ha"e a high loadBcarrying capacity.

1.+.2.2 ROLLING ELEMENT BEARING

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A rollingBelement bearing, also kno#n as a rolling bearing, is a bearing #hich carries a load by placing round elements bet#een the t#o pieces. 3he relati"e motion of the pieces causes the round elements to roll #ith "ery little rolling resistance and #ith little sliding. $ne of the earliest and bestBkno#n rollingBelement bearings are sets of logs lay on the ground #ith a large stone block on top. As the stone is pulled, the logs roll along the ground #ith little sliding friction. As each log comes out the back, it is mo"ed to the front #here the block then rolls on to it. It is possible to imitate such a bearing by placing se"eral pens or pencils on a table and placing an item on top of them. 1.+.2.3 /E*EL BEARING

Fi! 1.2 01(2(" 3(%4i$!5 A 5e#el bearing is a plain bearing in #hich a metal spindle turns in a 5e#elB lined pi"ot hole. 3he hole is typically shaped like a torus and is slightly larger than the shaft diameter. 3he 5e#el material is usually some form of synthetic sapphire, such as ruby. 7e#el bearings are used in precision instruments, but their largest use is in mechanical #atches. ,istorically, 5e#el pi"ots #ere made by grinding using diamond abrasi"e. *odern 5e#el pi"ots are often made using highBpo#ered lasers, chemical etching, and ultrasonic milling. 1.+.2.4 FLUID BEARING
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Fi! 1.3 0 "6i7 3(%4i$!5 Fluid bearings are bearings #hich support the bearing!s loads solely on a thin layer of liDuid or gas. ,ydrostatic bearings are e%ternally pressuriCed fluid bearings, #here the fluid is usually oil, #ater or air, and the pressuriCation is done by a pump. ,ydrodynamic bearings rely on the high speed of the 5ournal selfB pressuriCing the fluid in a #edge bet#een the faces. Fluid bearings are freDuently used in high load, high speed or high precision applications #here ordinary ball bearings ha"e short life or high noise and "ibration. 3hey are also used increasingly to reduce cost. For e%ample, hard disk dri"e motor fluid bearings are both Duieter and cheaper than the ball bearings they replace. ,ydrodynamic bearings rely on bearing motion to suck fluid into the bearing and may ha"e high friction and short life at speeds lo#er than design or during starts and stops. An e%ternal pump or secondary bearing may be used for startup and shutdo#n to pre"ent damage to the hydrodynamic bearing. 1.+.2.5 MAGNETIC BEARINGS

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Fi! 1.408%!$(#i& 3(%4i$!95 A magnetic bearing is a bearing #hich supports a load using magnetic le"itation. *agnetic bearings support mo"ing machinery #ithout physical contactK for e%ample, they can le"itate a rotating shaft and permit relati"e motion #ith "ery lo# friction and no mechanical #ear. *agnetic bearings are in ser"ice in such industrial applications as electric po#er generation, petroleum refining, machine tool operation, and natural gas pipelines. 3hey are also used in the MippeBtype centrifuge used for uranium enrichment. *agnetic bearings are used in turbo molecular pumps, #here oilBlubricated bearings #ould be a source of contamination. *agnetic bearings support the highest speeds of any kind of bearingK they ha"e no kno#n ma%imum relati"e speed.

1.+.2.+ PLUMMER BLOCK BEARING HOUSING
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Fi! 1.5 0P"688(4 3":&' 3(%4i$! ;:69i$!5

<olid Alummer block housings are housing that hold rolling element )ball.bearings.3heirdesignelementsincludeG Cast iron, cast steel, machined steel or rolled steel housing. Aermits moderate initial misalignment. <imple, "ersatile and economic housingIbearing combination. 3ypical applications includeG con"eyor rolls, press rolls, con"eyor deck etc.

• • • •

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIE*
2.0 MECHANICAL RE<UIREMENTS) 2.1 DESIGN) 3he materials used in the construction of hoists shall be properly selected for the stresses encountered #hen the eDuipment is used in accordance #ith the manufacturer!s recommendations. 3he design of the component parts of the hoist shall include due allo#ance for the effects of the duty #hich the mechanism #ill perform in ser"ice. 2.1.1 DESIGN ON STRENGTH BASIS In the design of a component on the basis of ultimate strength, the "alue of the stress factor used shall be the basic stress factor multiplied by the duty factor for the appropriate hoist classK #here basic stress factor shall be not less than 4 and the duty factor shall be as gi"en in 3able I for the respecti"e mechanism. 6ormally the lifting tackles are designed to offer */ to *&. 2.1.2 DESIGN ON DYNAMIC LOAD BASIS Ao#er transmission parts shall be designed so that the dynamic stresses calculated for the rated load shall not e%ceed the fatigue and endurance limit of the material used.
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2.1.3 DESIGN ON LIFE BASIS Components designed on the basis of life shall ha"e a rated life of not less than 1' years of /4' days per year for Class, *@ @'' days per year for Class *4, and @@@ days per year for Class *& 3he running hours per day or the life in hours used for the purpose of the design of the components shall be the "alue specified in 3able 1 for the appropriate class. 2.1.4 *ELDING <teel parts may be 5oined by any fusionB#elding process. 3he design shall be such that the ma%imum permissible stresses in the #elds. 2.2 LOAD CHAIN AND ACCESSARIES 2.2.1 LOAD CHAIN AND CHAIN ANCHORAGES Load chain shall be grade H or higher made of alloy steel, machine calibrated, heat treated and proof tested short link, so that the finished hoist chain complies #ith mechanical properties.

TABLE I
25

DUTY FACTOR = LIFE OF MECHANISM) MECHANISM CLASS S". N: i ii iii A9 >(4 IS 13-34 M2@ M3 M5 M+ 1.0 1.2 1.4 0.4 0.5 0.+ S#4($!#; *(%4 R6$$i$! H:649 T:#%" Li ( P(4 D%? 0.5 1.5 3.0 H:649 OA(41250 OA(44500 OA(4 10000 DUTY FACTOR AVERAGE LIFE

2.3 CHAIN *HEELS 2.3.1 MATERIAL 3he load chain dri"e #heel shall be of alloy steel material and heat treated to adeDuate strength suitable for use #ith the load chain employed. Iron castings of spheroidal or nodular graphite conforming to I< 1 &4 may also be used #hich is of adeDuate strength and hardened or chilled to match the load chain employed.

2.3.2 DESIGN
26

3he design of the load chain #heel dri"e shall be such as to ensure effecti"e operation #ith the load chain. 3he load chain #heel shall ha"e pockets accurately machined to fit the links, load chain #hich shall operate freely and smoothly o"er the load #heel and #ithout damage to the chain. *inimum number of pockets on the load #heel shall be four. <procket type #heels for roller chain shall be machined I shaped from alloy steel heat treated material. 2.3.3 CHAIN GUIDE =nclosed chain guides shall be pro"ided to ensure that the hoist load chain enters the sprocket in the proper position to pre"ent misalignment or 5amming of the hoist load chain and chain #heel. 3hese guides, if bolted on, shall ha"e means to pre"ent loosening under "ibration. 2here roller guides are used, the edges of their centre groo"e shall be chamfered to pre"ent damage to the load chain. 2.3.4 CHAIN STRIPPER A chain stripper may be pro"ided for binding of the chain from the sprocket #hile un#inding or entering. 2.3.5 CHAIN COLLECTOR Chain shall be freely suspended and #here necessary a chain collector shall be fitted. 3he chain collector shall be so designed as to permit the chain to enter the chain block in a manner that #ill not damage the chain or chain block and allo# smooth flo# out of the container. 2.4 HOOKS AND HOOK FITTINGS
27

2.4.1 HOOKS ,ooks shall closed die and alloy steel forged, all hooks shall be eDuipped #ith latches. 2.4.2 CROSSHEADS 9nless other#ise appro"ed, hook crosshead shall be of a singleBpiece steel construction. 2.4.3 TRUNNIONS 3runnions shall pro5ect through the cheek plates of the blocks by not less than @ mm and shall incorporate means for pre"enting the spreading of cheek plates. 2here a trunnion is of the oscillating type adeDuate bearing surfaces shall be pro"ided. 2.5 TROLLEYS 3rolleys shall motor operated type. 3he electric dri"en trolley shall be pro"ided #ith a stopper. After the trolley has been installed on the tra"el rail, al#ays install a stopper on the end of the tra"el rail to pre"ent the trolley from dropping off.

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Fi!. 2.1 08:#:4iB(7 #4:""(?5

2.5.1 DAMPER 3he stopper should be used #ith rubber or other shock absorbing material to absorb the shock #hen the trolley strikes the stopper.

Fi!. 2.2 7%8>(4

T(&;$i&%" S>(&i i&%#i:$9 : ("(&#4i& 8:#:4)
Capacity N 1 '' kg ,oisting speed N 1mImin ,.A of motor N 1.4 2.+ CHAIN SLING Chain slings are made up of alloy <teel. Chain has the ad"antage of being better suited for lifting rough loads and #ithstanding high temperatures. Lifting chains are ideal for en"ironments #here you need e%tra strength and durability for lifting hea"y loads. Lifting chain offers superior fle%ibility and can #ithstand en"ironmental haCards like e%cessi"e heat that can undermine the integrity of other
29

sling materials. Chain slings suppliers can customiCe the configuration of your chain sling for an e%act match to your lifting needs. $nly alloy chain slings should be used for o"erhead lifting chain applications. Hrade ' Chain and Hrade 1'' Chain are the preferred grade used for all of our chain lifting slings. Alloy grade ' chain slings offer the strength and durability reDuired of a lifting chain that #ill be used for the toughest of 5obs. 3his grade of lifting chain also offers the best performance under high temperatures or under other harsh conditions that #ould destroy other types of lifting slings. Hrade 1'' chain is increasing in popularity as many chain sling suppliers are con"erting to this stronger, yet lighter grade.

2.+.1 SLING HOOKS 2.+.1.1 SLIP SLING HOOK A large throat hook used primarily at the ends of #ire rope and chain slings. 9sually selfBlocking to a"oid disconnect. 2.+.1.2 GRAB SLING HOOK A small throat hook that attached to the chain by sliding o"er the chain in bet#een links. 3his hook locks into place by !grabbing! the chain and #ill not slide along the chain.

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Fi! 2.3 C;%i$ 9"i$! 2.,SPROCKET MATERIALS 3he sprocket materials are classified as follo#sG  ,eat resisting steels  ,eat resisting alloys  6ickel based alloys  <pecial alloysG 1. Alacrite )cobalt based alloys. /. Adnick )6ickel based alloys. 2.-CHARACTERISTICS OF SPROCKET MATERIALS  It should resist inter crystalline corrosion.  It should #ork abo"e (4''C.  It should ha"e high temperature characteristics.  >esistance to hot turbine gases.  <aline corrosion resistance.  It should #ithstand o%idation upto 11''' C.  Hood mechanical properties at ele"ated temperature.
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CHAPTER 3 DESIGN
3.1 MANUAL BALANCING METHOD In the lifting tackle, t#o motors are used to raise and lo#er the tackle frame. *otor shaftsB coupled #ith chain slings. =ach chain slings are connected #ith grab hook to carry the frame. 3he frame consists of t#o horiContal cross bars arranged to fi% the block of #eight. 3here are t#o sprockets linked together #ith roller chain. In order to balance eDual #eight #hile carrying "ehicle hub or hea"y ob5ectsK a disc plate is kept horiContally #ith cross bar. A pulley and rope arrangement is pro"ided at one end of the cross bar. 3he pulley line is coupled #ith sprocket for ad5usting the #eights )disc plate., so the hub #eight may be balanced and the hub may be placed perfectly on the chassis. 3.2 SELF BALANCING METHOD In this techniDue, t#o sprockets )spr c and spr d. are additionally coupled #ith the sprocket )a. and sprocket )b.. 3he sprockets are coupled using shafts. 3he sprockets )c. and )d. are linked #ith a chain dri"e )duple% chain.. 3he ends of the chain are attached #ith hooks, #hich is used to lift the hub. ?ue to hea"y #eight at one side of hub, the lifting process becomes unbalance. 2hen hub slides at the right side of the tackling frame, the sprocket )c. and )d. #ill rotates at clock#ise direction. ?uring this rotation, the po#er #ill be transmitted from sprocket )c. and )d. to sprocket )a. and )b. respecti"ely. ,o#e"er, the rotation of sprocket )a. and )b. leads to mo"e the disc plates located at the cross bar of frame. 2hen the disc plate mo"es through a certain distance, the hub #eight #ould be balanced.
32

3.3 DESIGN OF CHAIN DRIVE

For a gi"en speed, the po#er capacity increases #ith the number of teeth on the chain sprocket. $f course, the larger the number of teeth, the larger the diameter of the sprocket. 6ote that the use of a chain #ith a small pitch on a large sprocket produces the Duieter dri"e.

3he manufacturersF ratings are for a single strand of chain. Although multiple strands do increase the po#er capacity, they do not pro"ide a direct multiple of the singleBstrand capacity. 3he capacity for /, @, and 4 strand systems are 1.(, /.4 and @.@ respecti"ely.

3he manufacturersF ratings are for a ser"ice factor of 1.'. 3he designer must specify a ser"ice factor for a gi"en application based on the type of dri"er and load for that system. 3he follo#ing are general recommendations for designing chain dri"esG • 3he minimum number of teeth in a sprocket should be 1( unless the dri"e is operating at a "ery lo# speed, under 1'' rpm. • 3he ma%imum speed ratio should be (.', although higher ratios are feasible. 3#o or more stages of reduction can be used to achie"e higher ratios. • 3he center distance bet#een the sprocket a%es should be appro%imately @' to 4' pitches. • 3he arc of contact of the chain on the smaller sprocket should be no smaller than 1/'O.
33

• 3he larger sprocket should normally ha"e no more than 1/' teeth. • 3he preferred arrangement for a chain dri"e is #ith the centerline of the sprockets horiContal and #ith the tight side on top. • 3he chain length must be an integral multiple of the pitch, and an e"en number of pitches is recommended.

3he center distance should be made ad5ustable to accommodate the chain length and to take up for tolerances and #ear. =%cessi"e sag on the slack side should be a"oided, especially on dri"es that are not horiContal. A con"enient relation bet#een center distance )C., chain length )L., number of teeth in the small sprocket )61., and number of teeth in the large sprocket )6/., e%pressed in pitches, is

3he e%act theoretical center distance for a gi"en chain length, again in pitches, is

3he theoretical center distance assumes no sag in either the tight or the slack side of the chain, and thus it is a ma%imum. 6egati"e tolerances or ad5ustment must be pro"ided.

3.4 ALIGNMENT OF CHAIN DRIVE

34

3o obtain ma%imum ser"iceBlife and efficiency from a chain dri"e, it is necessary that certain precautions in installation be taken. Chain dri"e installation is relati"ely simple and good results may be obtained #hen the follo#ing conditions are metG

1. 3he roller chain, sprockets, and other components are in good condition. /. 3he sprockets are properly aligned. @. Aro"ision is made for adeDuate lubrication. 4. 3he chain is correctly tensioned.

%5 C:$7i#i:$ : C:8>:$($#9 <hafting, bearings, and foundations should be supported rigidly to maintain the initial alignment. >oller chain should be free of grit and dirt. 2ash chain in kerosene #hen reDuired.

35 D4iA( A"i!$8($# *isalignment results in une"en loading across the #idth of the chain and may cause roller link plate and sprocket tooth #ear. ?ri"e alignment in"ol"es t#o thingsG parallel shaft alignment and a%ial sprocket alignment. • <hafts should be parallel and le"el. 3his condition may be readily checked by the use of a feeler bar, and a machinist!s le"el. It there is a%ial mo"ement of the shaft, lock the shaft in the normal running position before aligning the sprockets.
35

0 i!. 3.1 %"i!$i$! 9;% #955 • 6ormally, it is good practice to align the sprockets as close to the shaft bearing as possible. • $n dri"es #ith long spans, it may be necessary to support the chain #ith a plank or bar as the connection is made. • <procket a%ial alignment can be checked #ith a straight edge #hich #ill e%tend across the finished sides of the t#o sprockets. 6ormally, it is good practice to align the sprockets as close to the shaft bearing as possible. For long center distances, use a taut cord, or #ire long enough to e%tend beyond each of the sprockets.

i! 3.2 %"i!$i$! 9>4:&'(#9
36

&5 I$9#%""i$! #;( C;%i$

>echeck all preceding ad5ustments for alignment and make certain all setscre#s, bolts and nuts are tight. Fit chain around both sprockets and bring the free ends together on one sprocket for connection, the sprocket teeth #ill locate the chain end links. Install the connecting link, and connecting link co"er plate, and the spring clip or coffer pins. $n larger pitch chains or hea"y multiple strand, it may be necessary to lock the sprockets for this operation. After more research #as done the perception of using more than three blades #as no longer a factor. Currently, the most recent #indmills are eDuipped #ith t#o or three blades. 2hen press fit co"er plates are used, be careful not to dri"e the plate on so far as to grip the roller links. <tiff 5oints can result if this is done. $n dri"es #ith long spans, it may be necessary to support the chain #ith a plank or bar as the connection is made. 75 C;%i$ T($9i:$ Check chain tension to be certain the slack span has 4B&0 midBspan mo"ement in horiContal dri"es and /B@0 in "ertical dri"es.

37

Fi! 3.3 #(48i$:":!? : 9>4:&'(# 3.5 ROLLER CHAIN)

Fi! 3.4 4:""(4 &;%i$

38

Fi! 3.5 D6>"(C S>4:&'(#

3.5 SELECTION OF ROLLER CHAIN DRIVES
39

3he follo#ing data should be taken into consideration #hile selecting roller chain dri"es a. ,orsepo#er to be transmitted b. >A* of the dri"ing and dri"en sprocket )speed ratio. c. Load classification d. <pace limitations if any e. ?ri"en machine f. <ource of po#er If the pitch centre distance and number of teeth on both dri"ing and dri"en sprockets are kno#n, you can use the follo#ing formula, tables and charts to calculate chain lengths. 3.5.1 SELECTION PROCEDURE For ma%imum ser"ice life, smooth operation and optimum performance, the follo#ing points should be considered, #hile determining the number of teeth in the pinion. a. As most dri"es ha"e an e"en number of pitches in the chain, the use of a pinion #ith an odd number of teeth ensures e"en distribution of chain and #heel tooth #ear. b. Ainions for normal, stead dri"es should generally not ha"e less than 1( teeth, the reason being that a chain forms a polygon around the pinion. 2hen the pinion speed is constant, the chain speed is sub5ect to regular cyclic "ariation. 3he percentage of cyclic "ariation becomes less marked as the number of teeth increases 1 and in fact becomes insignificant for the ma5ority of applications #hen the number of teeth in the pinion e%ceeds 1(.
40

c. A minimum of /@ teeth is recommended on moderate shock dri"es #here the speed of the pinion e%ceeds 4' 0 of the ma%imum rated speed, and for hea"y shock dri"es #here the speed of the pinion e%ceeds /40 of the ma%imum rated speed. d. 3he pinion should be heated to ,- 1'B 44' for smooth dri"es #here the pinion speeds e%ceeds ('0 of the ma%imum speed and operates under full horsepo#er rating. For hea"y shock dri"es, the pinion be treated in all cases.

3.5.2 DETERMINE CHAIN LENGTH) Compute the length of chain reDuired using the formula gi"en belo#. I possible, ad5ust the centre distance , so that the length of chin reDuired is al#ays in an e"en number of pitches. For optimum life of the chain and sprockets the centre distance bet#een the t#o sprockets should be @' to 4' times the chain pitch.

#here, LB Chain length in pitches AB Chain pitch CB Contemplated centre distance 6B 6umber of teeth on large sprocket n B 6umber of teeth on small sprocket

41

i!. 3.+ "i #i$! #%&'"(D 4%8( 015

i!. 3., "i #i$! #%&'"(D 4%8( 025

42

3.5.3 MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS) T?>( <procket Chain ,ook ?uple% <procket >oller chain • <lip hook • Hrab hook M%#(4i%" Alloy <teel)C4@. <tainless steel <tainless steel

Chain <ling Ain ;ush >ollers Link Alates

B B B B B

Alloy <teel *ild steel <tainless steel <tainless steel Alloy <teel)C/'.

CHAPTER 4
43

CALCULATION
4.1 SELECTION OF NUMBER OF TEETH ON SPROCKET 3ransmission ratioK iN 1 ?ri"er sprocket, C1N @' ?ri"en sprocket, C/N @' 4.2 SELECTION OF STANDARD PITCH <tandard pitch, pN 14. (4 mm 4.3 SELECTION OF CHAIN Chain typeG ?uple% chain ?>4' )from table 1.'. 4.4 CALCULATION OF SERVICE FACTOR <er"ice factor, ksN k1.k/.k@.k4.k4.k& From tables 1.1, 1./, 1.@, 1.4, 1.4, 1.&, 1.( k1N 1./4 k/N 1./4 k@N '. k4N 1 k4N '. k&N 1./4 <er"ice factor, ksN 1./4 % 1./4 % '. % 1 % '. % 1./4 <er"ice factor, ksN 1./4 4.5 DETERMINATION OF LOAD Load, A3 N 44' kg N 44' % 9. 1
44

Load, A3 N 4414.4 6 ?esign Load N Load % ser"ice factor ?esign Load N A3 % ks ?esign Load N 4414.4 % 1./4 ?esign Load N 441 .1/ 6 4.+ CALCULATION OF *ORKING FACTOR OF SAFETY Factor of safety N ;reaking LoadI ?esign Load ;reaking Load N 444' kgfN 444''6 Factor of safety N 444''I441 .1/ Factor of safety N .4

4., CHECK FACTOR OF SAFETY *inimum "alue of factor of safety N ( )from table /.'. 2orking factor of safety N .4 2orking Factor of safetyP *inimum Factor of safety ,ence design is safe. 4.- CHECK BEARING STRESS -elocity, " N C1p6I& " N @' % 14. (4 % 4'I&' "N @9&. ( mmIs " N '.@9 mIs ;earing Area N 14'mm/ 2eight per metre N 1.( kgf
45

Ao#er transmitted basis of breaking load, 6N E % "I )1'/.n.ks. 2here, EB ;reaking LoadN 444' kgf Ao#er, 6N 444' % '.@9 I )1'/ % ( % 1./4. Ao#er, 6N 1.94 k2

;earing stress, Q N1'/.ks.6IA.Q N 1'/ % 1./4 % 1.94I 14' % '.@9 Q N /9.& 6Imm/ Allo#able bearing stress N @4 6Imm/ )from table /.1. Allo#able bearing stress P Induced <tress 4.. CALCULATION OF LENGTH OF CHAIN 6umber of links, lpN /ap R )C1RC/.I/ R S)C/ 1 C1I/T./ I apU ap N aoIp ap N @'''I14. (4 ap N 1 .9(mm #here, aoB centre distance apB appro%imate centre distance in multiple of pitches 6umber of links, lp N / % 1 .9( R S)@'R@'.I/U
46

lp N 4'(.94mm V 41'mm

lp N 41'mm Actual length N lp % p Actual length N 41' % 14. (4 Actual length N &4' .(4mm V &41'mm 4.10 CALCULATION OF ACTUAL CENTRE DISTANCE Actual centre distance, a N S)e W p. R X)e/ 1 m.U I 4 )C1 N C/ N @'. <o, m N ' e N lp 1 S)C1 R C/I/.U e N 41' 1 S)@' R @'.I/U eN@ ' Actual centre distance, a N )@ ' % 14. (4. R X)@ '/ 1 Actual centre distance, a N @'1&./4mm V @'/' mm 4.11 CALCULATION OF SPROCKET DIAMETER Inner diameter of sprocket, d N pIsin)1 'IC. d N 14. (4I)sin 1 'I@'. d N 141. (mm V 14/mm d N 14/mm >oller diameter, ?r N 1'.1&mm $uter diameter of sprocket, ? N dR '. ?r ? N 14/ R )'. % '.1&. ? N 1&'mm Aitch angle,
47

% '.

Y N @&'IC Y N @&'I@' Y N 1/o Centrifugal tension, Ac N m"/ Ac N 1.(4 % '.@9/ Ac N './ k6 Ac N / 6 4.12 CHAIN SLING CALCULATION <afe 2orking load N 1 ''kg <afe 2orking Load, <2L N ?/ % H % '.@ #here, HB grade &' chain sling )alloy steel. ?B diameter ?/ % &' % '.@ N 1 '' ?/ N 1 ''I)&' % '.@. ?/ N 44.4& ? N X44.4& ? N (.(&mm V mm ?iameter of chain sling, ? N mm 4.13 TABULATION) T%3"( 1.0 0S>(&i i&%#i:$9 : &;%i$5

48

T%3"( 1.1 0L:%7 %&#:4@ '15

T%3"( 1.2 0F%&#:4 :4 7i9#%$&( 4(!6"%#i:$@ '25

49

T%3"( 1.3 0F%&#:4 :4 &($#4( 7i9#%$&( : 9>4:&'(#9@ '35

T%3"( 1.4 0F%&#:4 :4 >:9i#i:$ : 9>4:&'(#9@ '45

T%3"( 1.+ 0L634i&%#i:$ %&#:4@ '55

50

T%3"( 1., 0R%#i$! %&#:4@ '+5

T%3"( 2.0 0F%&#:4 : 9% (#?5

Pi#&; P@ 88

S>((7 : 4:#%#i:$ : 98%"" 9>4:&'(#@ 4>8 84' (.' /'' (. 4'' .44 &'' 9.@4 '' 1'./ 1''' 1/'' 1&'' /''' /4'' / '' 11.' 11.( 1@./ 14. 1&.@ 1 .'

9.4/4 1/.( 14. ( 4

51

T%3"( 2.1 0A"":2%3"( B(%4i$! S#4(995

Pi#&; >@ 88 84' 9.4/4 1/.( 14. ( 4 @4 /'' @1.4

S>((7 : 4:#%#i:$ : 98%"" 9>4:&'(#@ 4>8 4'' / .( &'' /&./ '' /4./ 1''' 1/'' 1&'' /''' /4'' / '' //.4 /1.' 1 .4 1&.4 14 1@.(

52

CHAPTER 5 *ORKING
5.1 *ORKING In this techniDue, t#o sprockets )spr c and spr d. are additionally coupled #ith the sprocket )a. and sprocket )b.. 3he sprockets are coupled using shafts. 3he sprockets )c. and )d. are linked #ith a chain dri"e )duple% chain.. 3he ends of the chain are attached #ith hooks, #hich is used to lift the hub. ?ue to hea"y #eight at one side of hub, the lifting process becomes unbalance. 2hen hub slides at the right side of the tackling frame, the sprocket )c. and )d. #ill rotates at clock#ise direction. ?uring this rotation, the po#er #ill be transmitted from sprocket )c. and )d. to sprocket )a. and )b. respecti"ely. ,o#e"er, the rotation of sprocket )a. and )b. leads to mo"e the disc plates located at the cross bar of frame. 2hen the disc plate mo"es through a certain distance, the hub #eight #ould be balanced. 5.2 ADVANTAGES • It #ill reduce the time consumption of #ork. • It impro"es #ork efficiency. • Less maintenance. • <elfBbalancing method performs the operation much faster than #ith manual labour, this impro"es o"erall producti"ity. • *echanical load brake assures braking e"en under o"erload conditions.
53

• 3he design assures lo# headroom and this makes close trolley approaches possible. • ,oist motor features aluminum alloy cast housing for optimal motor heat dissipation and to reduce o"erall hoist #eight. • Aushbutton pendant #ith emergency stop is durable, light #eight and #ater proof. 5.3FUTURE MODIFICATIONS • In future, the motoriCed trolley may be replaced into electromagnetic trolley for better performance. • 3he electric motor lifting method may be replaced #ith hydraulic system to sa"e electrical energy. • =lectromagnetic brakes may be installed in the tra"elling rail of trolley instead of rubber stopper.

54

CHAPTER + CONCLUSION
<ometimes in our dayBtoBday life some#here and sometime #e #ill ha"e the need to carry a hea"y load from one place to another. 3his happens more often in "arious industries, particularly manufacturing industries. In rare instances #e use manpo#er or manual chain hoist, but #hen there is a constant need to do such operations freDuently and regularly then #e need to think about an another option, and that is self balancing lifting tackle. $n designing the self balanced lifting tackle #hich is dri"en by electrical po#er, the reduction of time consumption of #ork, utiliCation of labour as #ell as labour cost and increase in the production rate is achie"ed. 3hus the #orking efficiency as #ell as safety are ensured by this self balanced lifting tackle and is successfully designed. It is easier and simple compared to the e%isting design. At the same time the output is increased and the accuracy is maintained as the same. 3he ne# design is fle%ible in design and can easily replace the con"entional design.

55

CHAPTER , REFERENCE
In the process of designing #e #ent through se"eral books and #ebsites. 3hese are mentioned belo#G ,.1 BOOKS • *aitra H.*., Arasad L.-., Z,and book of *echanical ?esign[, II =dition, 3ata *cHra#B,ill, /''1. • ;handari -.;., Z?esign of *achine =lements[, 3ata *cHra#B,ill Aublishing Company Ltd., /''4. • ,amrock ;.7., 7acobson ;., <chmid <.>., ZFundamentals of *achine =lements[, *cHra#B,ill ;ook Co., /''9 • 9gural A.C., Z*echanical ?esign, An Integrated Approach[, *cHra#B,ill, /''@ ,.2 *EBSITES • ###.firstgear.com • ###.efunda.com • ###.adamsmachinery.com • ###.ansi.org • en.#ikipedia.org

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